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Collective migration

Ying-Hua Pan, Mei Yang, Li-Ping Liu, Dan-Chun Wu, Ming-Yue Li, Shu-Guang Su
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2S (UBE2S) plays pivotal roles in the progression of human cancers. However, its clinical significance and role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. Here, we show that UBE2S is upregulated in HCC and exhibits oncogenic activities via enhancing the ubiquitination of p53. Increased expression of UBE2S was significantly correlated with higher serum AFP level, higher pathological grade, advanced TNM stage, larger tumor size, vascular invasion and unfavorable patient survivals in two independent cohorts containing a total of 845 patients with HCC...
June 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Robin Martin, Marie Rose Moro, Laelia Benoit
AIM: A background of migration is an established risk factor for psychosis. At the same time, over the last 25 years, many countries have developed specialized services for the assessment and care of people with early psychosis. Evaluation of these services often focuses on the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with an electronic search of key words in 3 databases to determine the extent to which studies measuring DUP consider transcultural variables, including migration status, national origin, ethnicity and language...
June 21, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Laura J Dällenbach, Alexandra Glauser, Ka S Lim, Jason W Chapman, Myles H M Menz
Migration has evolved among many animal taxa and migratory species are found across all major lineages. Insects are the most abundant and diverse terrestrial migrants, with trillions of animals migrating annually. Partial migration, where populations consist of resident and migratory individuals, is ubiquitous among many taxa. However, the underlying mechanisms are relatively poorly understood and may be driven by physiological, behavioural or genetic variation within populations. We investigated the differences in migratory tendency between migratory and resident phenotypes of the hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus , using tethered flight mills...
June 27, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Sharon Wu, Yang Du, John Beckford, Houda Alachkar
BACKGROUND: Vimentin (VIM) is a type III intermediate filament that maintains cell integrity, and is involved in cell migration, motility and adhesion. When overexpressed in solid cancers, vimentin drives epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and ultimately, metastasis. The effects of its overexpression in AML are unclear. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the TCGA data of 173 AML patients for which complete clinical and expression data were available. In this analysis, we assessed the association between VIM mRNA expression and patient's clinical and molecular characteristics including clinical outcome...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Gilbert C Gee, A B de Castro, Catherine M Crespi, May C Wang, Karen Llave, Eleanor Brindle, Nanette R Lee, Maria Midea M Kabamalan, Anna K Hing
BACKGROUND: Immigrants to the United States are usually healthier than their U.S.-born counterparts, yet the health of immigrants declines with duration of stay in the U.S. This pattern is often seen for numerous health problems such as obesity, and is usually attributed to acculturation (the adoption of "American" behaviors and norms). However, an alternative explanation is secular trends, given that rates of obesity have been rising globally. Few studies of immigrants are designed to distinguish the effects of acculturation versus secular trends, in part because most studies of immigrants are cross-sectional, lack baseline data prior to migration, and do not have a comparison group of non-migrants in the country of origin...
June 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Haicen Yue, Brian A Camley, Wouter-Jan Rappel
Cell-cell communication plays an important role in collective cell migration. However, it remains unclear how cells in a group cooperatively process external signals to determine the group's direction of motion. Although the topology of signaling pathways is vitally important in single-cell chemotaxis, the signaling topology for collective chemotaxis has not been systematically studied. Here, we combine mathematical analysis and simulations to find minimal network topologies for multicellular signal processing in collective chemotaxis...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Kenji Matsuzawa, Takuya Himoto, Yuki Mochizuki, Junichi Ikenouchi
Adherens junctions (AJs) control epithelial cell behavior, such as collective movement and morphological changes, during development and in disease. However, the molecular mechanism of AJ remodeling remains incompletely understood. Here, we report that the conformational activation of α-catenin is the key event in the dynamic regulation of AJ remodeling. α-catenin activates RhoA to increase actomyosin contractility at cell-cell junctions. This leads to the stabilization of activated α-catenin, in part through the recruitment of the actin-binding proteins, vinculin and afadin...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Hanzhen Xiong, Ruichao Chen, Shaoyan Liu, Qiongyan Lin, Hui Chen, Qingping Jiang
The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of microRNA-183 (miR-183) to influence epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis in endometrial cancer (EC) by targeting cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1(CPEB1). EC tissues with matched nonmalignant tissues were collected from 208 EC patients. Ishikawa and RL95-2 cells were selected for cell experiments in vitro and each kind of cells were grouped into blank, negative control (NC), miR-183 mimic, miR-183 inhibitor, CPEB1 overexpression, and miR-183 mimic + CPEB1 overexpression groups...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Grace M Niemiro, Jacob M Allen, Lucy J Mailing, Naiman A Khan, Hannah D Holscher, Jeffrey A Woods, Michael De Lisio
KEY POINTS: Chronic inflammation underlies many of the health decrements associated with obesity. Circulating progenitor cells can sense and respond to inflammatory stimuli, increasing the local inflammatory response within tissues. Here we show that 6 weeks of endurance exercise training significantly decreases inflammatory circulating progenitor cells in obese adults. These findings provide novel cellular mechanisms for the beneficial effects of exercise in obese adults. ABSTRACT: Circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) and subpopulations are normally found in the bone marrow, but can migrate to peripheral tissues to participate in local inflammation and/or remodelling...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
April C Cockcroft, Alexey M Markelov
Background: Trapeziectomy with interpositional arthroplasty using Repriza acellular dermal matrix is a novel technique to treat primary and secondary carpometacarpal joint arthritis. Early studies with nonautograft interposition indicate promising post-trapeziectomy space maintenance with results similar to ligament reconstruction with tendon interposition, without the potential risks and increased operating time of harvesting a tendon autograft. Methods: Eleven patients in a retrospective cohort were followed for a minimum of 6 weeks (mean, 12)...
May 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Nicole M Aiello, Ravikanth Maddipati, Robert J Norgard, David Balli, Jinyang Li, Salina Yuan, Taiji Yamazoe, Taylor Black, Amine Sahmoud, Emma E Furth, Dafna Bar-Sagi, Ben Z Stanger
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is strongly implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. EMT is thought to be regulated primarily at the transcriptional level through the repressive activity of EMT transcription factors. However, these classical mechanisms have been parsed out almost exclusively in vitro, leaving questions about the programs driving EMT in physiological contexts. Here, using a lineage-labeled mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma to study EMT in vivo, we found that most tumors lose their epithelial phenotype through an alternative program involving protein internalization rather than transcriptional repression, resulting in a "partial EMT" phenotype...
June 18, 2018: Developmental Cell
Yi Tang, GaoMing Xiao, YueJun Chen, Yu Deng
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) functions as a crucial regulator of metastasis in lung cancer. The aim of this study is to unravel the underlying mechanisms of lncRNA MALAT1 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A cohort of 36 NSCLC tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues was collected postoperatively from patients with NSCLC. qRT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of MALAT1 in both NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Cell migration and invasion were monitored by wound healing assay and transwell invasion assay...
June 18, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Areumnuri Kim, Sehwan Shim, Min-Jung Kim, Jae Kyung Myung, Sunhoo Park
Radiation exposure severely damages the hematopoietic system. Although several radio-protectors have been proposed to prevent radiation-induced damage, most agents have limited efficacy. In the present study, we investigated whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could contribute to the expansion of hematopoietic cells and mitigate radiation-induced hematopoietic injury in vitro and in vivo. We found that co-culture with MSCs promoted hematopoietic progenitor/stem cell (HPSCs) maintenance by providing a bone marrow-like microenvironment...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chun Yao, Yaxian Wang, Honghong Zhang, Wei Feng, Qihui Wang, Dingding Shen, Tianmei Qian, Fang Liu, Susu Mao, Xiaosong Gu, Bin Yu
As a major glia in peripheral nerve system, Schwann cells play a critical role in peripheral nerve injury repair. Searching efficient approach to promote Schwann cell activation might facilitate peripheral nerve repair. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to regulate gene expression and take part in many biological processes. However, the role of lncRNAs in peripheral nerve regeneration is not fully understood. In this study, we obtained a global lncRNA portrayal following sciatic nerve injury in male rats using microarray and further investigated one of these dys-regulated lncRNAs, TNXA-PS1, confirming its vital role in regulating Schwann cells...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yiyun Wu, Xican Xi, Xin Tang, Deming Luo, Baojing Gu, Shu Kee Lam, Peter M Vitousek, Deli Chen
Understanding the reasons for overuse of agricultural chemicals is critical to the sustainable development of Chinese agriculture. Using a nationally representative rural household survey from China, we found that farm size is a strong factor that affects the use intensity of agricultural chemicals across farms in China. Statistically, a 1% increase in farm size is associated with a 0.3% and 0.5% decrease in fertilizer and pesticide use per hectare ( P < 0.001), respectively, and an almost 1% increase in agricultural labor productivity, while it only leads to a statistically insignificant 0...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
E Barth-Naftilan, J Sohng, J E Saiers
Concern persists over the potential for unconventional oil and gas development to contaminate groundwater with methane and other chemicals. These concerns motivated our 2-year prospective study of groundwater quality within the Marcellus Shale. We installed eight multilevel monitoring wells within bedrock aquifers of a 25-km2 area targeted for shale gas development (SGD). Twenty-four isolated intervals within these wells were sampled monthly over 2 years and groundwater pressures were recorded before, during, and after seven shale gas wells were drilled, hydraulically fractured, and placed into production...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rui-Ming Guo, Cheng-Bin Zhao, Peng Li, Liang Zhang, Su-Hua Zang, Bo Yang
C-type lectin domain family 18 member B (CLEC18B), encoding a superfamily of CLEC, has been found to be expressed in some of cancer cells, which possibly indicates it associated with cancer. However, the defined functional characterizations of CLEC18B in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) progression still remain unclear. To this end, clinical relevance of CLEC18B expression with GBM patients' prognosis was analyzed both in The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset of 174 tissues and 40 GBM tumor tissues collected from our hospital by using the Kaplan-Meier survival and the Cox proportional hazard model...
January 2018: ASN Neuro
Kyle Crassini, Tahni Pyke, Yandong Shen, William S Stevenson, Richard I Christopherson, Stephen P Mulligan, Oliver Giles Best
The Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is an important regulatory element in multiple signaling pathways, including MAPK-ERK1/2. We investigated whether targeted disruption of RKIP is a therapeutic option for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The RKIP inhibitor locostatin-induced apoptosis of CLL cells, irrespective of poor prognostic indications or treatment history. Locostatin down-regulated MAPK-ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation, decreased expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 (p = .04) and reduced the migratory capacity of CLL cells toward stroma-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α, p = ...
June 18, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Deborah I Lutterschmidt, Ashley R Lucas, Ritta A Karam, Vicky T Nguyen, Meghann R Rasmussen
Seasonal rhythms in physiology and behavior are widespread across diverse taxonomic groups and may be mediated by seasonal changes in neurogenesis, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. We examined if cell proliferation in the brain is associated with the seasonal life-history transition from spring breeding to migration and summer foraging in a free-ranging population of red-sided garter snakes ( Thamnophis sirtalis ) in Manitoba, Canada. We used the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly proliferated cells within the brain of adult snakes collected from the den during the mating season or from a road located along their migratory route...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
M Bourdon, L Torres-Rovira, D Monniaux, C Faure, R Levy, A Tarrade, D Rousseau-Ralliard, P Chavatte-Palmer, G Jolivet
The aim of the present work was to address experimentally the possible impact of exposure to air pollution during gestation on the differentiation and function of the gonads of the offspring using a rabbit model. Rabbits were exposed daily to diluted diesel exhaust gas or filtered air from the 3rd until the 27th day of gestation, during which time germ cells migrate in genital ridges and divide, and fetal sex is determined. Offspring gonads were collected shortly before birth (28th day of gestation) or after puberty (7...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
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