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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457868/exploring-acceptability-of-oral-prep-prior-to-implementation-among-female-sex-workers-in-south-africa
#1
Robyn Eakle, Adam Bourne, Judie Mbogua, Nyaradzo Mutanha, Helen Rees
INTRODUCTION: Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high-risk for HIV acquisition in South Africa, where the advent of new HIV prevention and treatment interventions represent the potential to significantly impact the epidemic. This paper focuses on aspects of PrEP acceptability as a new intervention within the context of a larger service delivery programme including the simultaneous rollout of early ART. This paper explores PrEP acceptability among the FGD participants as future potential users...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457001/control-of-infectious-diseases-in-the-era-of-european-clinical-microbiology-laboratory-consolidation-new-challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-patient-and-for-public-health-surveillance
#2
Olivier Vandenberg, Zisis Kozlakidis, Jacques Schrenzel, Marc Jean Struelens, Judith Breuer
Many new innovative diagnostic approaches have been made available during the last 10 years with major impact on patient care and public health surveillance. In parallel, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of the clinical microbiology laboratories (CMLs), European laboratory professionals have streamlined their organization leading to amalgamation of activities and restructuring of their professional relationships with clinicians and public health specialists. Through this consolidation process, an operational model has emerged that combines large centralized clinical laboratories performing most tests on one high-throughput analytical platform connected to several distal laboratories dealing locally with urgent analyses at near point of care...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456928/behavioural-and-emotional-disorders-in-childhood-a-brief-overview-for-paediatricians
#3
REVIEW
Michael O Ogundele
Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental (autism) disorders, characterized as either internalizing or externalizing problems. Disruptive behavioural problems such as temper tantrums, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional, defiant or conduct disorders are the commonest behavioural problems in preschool and school age children. The routine Paediatric clinic or Family Medicine/General Practitioner surgery presents with several desirable characteristics that make them ideal for providing effective mental health services to children and adolescents...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456037/evaluation-of-an-intervention-to-improve-the-management-of-allergens-in-school-food-services-in-the-city-of-barcelona
#4
M Fontcuberta-Famadas, G Serral, M J López, P Balfagón, E García-Cid, L Caballé-Gavaldà
BACKGROUND: An intervention to promote the development of an allergen control plan (ACP) and preventive measures for the management of allergens in school food services was implemented in all schools of Barcelona city over a three-year period (2013-2015) by the public health services. The present study aimed to assess changes regarding the management of food allergens in school food services in Barcelona after an intervention conducted by the public health services of the city. METHODS: School meal operators of a random sample of 117 schools were assessed before and after the intervention using a structured questionnaire...
February 15, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455724/adolescent-and-young-adult-male-mental-health-transforming-system-failures-into-proactive-models-of-engagement
#5
REVIEW
Simon M Rice, Rosemary Purcell, Patrick D McGorry
Adolescent and young adult men do poorly on indicators of mental health evidenced by elevated rates of suicide, conduct disorder, substance use, and interpersonal violence relative to their female peers. Data on global health burden clearly demonstrate that young men have a markedly distinct health risk profile from young women, underscoring different prevention and intervention needs. Evidence indicates that boys disconnect from health-care services during adolescence, marking the beginning of a progression of health-care disengagement and associated barriers to care, including presenting to services differently, experiencing an inadequate or poorly attuned clinical response, and needing to overcome pervasive societal attitudes and self-stigma to access available services...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454784/coronary-artery-calcium-scores-and-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-risk-stratification-in-smokers-mesa
#6
Adam Leigh, John W McEvoy, Parveen Garg, J Jeffrey Carr, Veit Sandfort, Elizabeth C Oelsner, Matthew Budoff, David Herrington, Joseph Yeboah
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the utility of the pooled cohort equation (PCE) and/or coronary artery calcium (CAC) for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk assessment in smokers, especially those who were lung cancer screening eligible (LCSE). BACKGROUND: The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services currently pays for annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography scans in a specified group of cigarette smokers...
February 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454383/multidimensional-needs-of-patients-living-and-dying-with-heart-failure-in-kenya-a-serial-interview-study
#7
Kellen N Kimani, Scott A Murray, Liz Grant
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is an emerging challenge for Sub Saharan Africa. However, research on patients' needs and experiences of care is scarce with little evidence available to support and develop services. We aimed to explore the experiences of patients living and dying with heart failure in Kenya. METHODS: We purposively recruited 18 patients admitted with advanced heart failure at a rural district hospital in Kenya. We conducted serial in depth interviews with patients at 0, 3 and 6 months after recruitment, and conducted bereavement interviews with carers...
February 17, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454078/looking-for-capacities-rather-than-vulnerabilities-the-moderating-effect-of-health-assets-on-the-associations-between-adverse-social-position-and-health
#8
Mathieu Roy, Mélanie Levasseur, Isabelle Doré, France St-Hilaire, Bernard Michallet, Yves Couturier, Danielle Maltais, Bengt Lindström, Mélissa Généreux
To increase capacities and control over health, it is necessary to foster assets (i.e. factors enhancing abilities of individuals or communities). Acting as a buffer, assets build foundations for overcoming adverse conditions and improving health. However, little is known about the distribution of assets and their associations with social position and health. In this study, we documented the distribution of health assets and examined whether these assets moderate associations between adverse social position and self-reported health...
February 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453520/evaluation-of-a-comprehensive-oral-health-services-program-in-school-based-health-centers
#9
Tara Trudnak Fowler, Gregory Matthews, Cydny Black, Hendi Crosby Kowal, Pamella Vodicka, Elizabeth Edgerton
Objectives In 2011, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, within the Health Resources and Services Administration, awarded a 4-year grant to increase access to and assure the delivery of quality oral health preventive and restorative services to children. The grant was awarded to organizations serving high-need communities through school-based health centers (SBHCs). This article describes an independent evaluation investigating program efficacy, integration, and sustainability. Methods Program process and outcomes data were gathered from interim and final reports...
February 16, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453235/a-workforce-survey-on-developmental-behavioral-pediatrics
#10
Carolyn Bridgemohan, Nerissa S Bauer, Britt A Nielsen, Anne DeBattista, Holly S Ruch-Ross, Linda B Paul, Nancy Roizen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Developmental-behavioral conditions are common, affecting ∼15% of US children. The prevalence and complexity of these conditions are increasing despite long wait times and a limited pipeline of new providers. We surveyed a convenience sample of the developmental-behavioral pediatric (DBP) workforce to determine current practices, workforce trends, and future needs. METHODS: An electronic survey was e-mailed to 1568 members of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics and Council on Children with Disabilities, the Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, and the National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners Developmental and Behavioral Mental Health Special Interest Group...
February 16, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453014/predictors-of-illegal-dumping-at-charitable-collection-points
#11
Breanna Wright, Liam Smith, Fraser Tull
Cleaning and disposal of illegal dumping at charitable collection points costs charities and diverts funds from their charitable programs. However, there is no published literature that attempts to better understand this problem. The current study assesses site-specific characteristics, community level indicators and sociodemographic factors as predictors of both charity stores and collection bin dumping in the metropolitan area of Perth, Australia. Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher levels of dumping at stores were predicted by being open on Sundays, the presence of gates/fencing, bringing bins in at night, greater 5-year mobility and lower levels of education and occupation in the area...
February 13, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452722/traumatic-lingual-hematoma-resulting-in-bilateral-temporal-mandibular-joint-dislocations
#12
Dhara P Amin, Michael N Cooper, Kim I Newton
BACKGROUND: Lingual hematoma (LH) is a relatively uncommon entity seen after both medical and traumatic etiologies. Regardless of the cause, the feared complication is acute airway obstruction. CASE REPORT: Our case involves a 39-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Department via emergency medical services with an enlarging LH after an unwitnessed fall, suspected to be an alcohol withdrawal seizure. The bleeding was likely exacerbated by previously undiagnosed thrombocytopenia...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452560/health-care-efficiencies-consolidation-and-alternative-models-vs-health-care-and-antitrust-regulation-irreconcilable-differences
#13
Michael W King
Despite the U.S. substantially outspending peer high income nations with almost 18% of GDP dedicated to health care, on any number of statistical measurements from life expectancy to birth rates to chronic disease, 1 the U.S. achieves inferior health outcomes. In short, Americans receive a very disappointing return on investment on their health care dollars, causing economic and social strain. 2 Accordingly, the debates rage on: what is the top driver of health care spending? Among the culprits: poor communication and coordination among disparate providers, paperwork required by payors and regulations, well-intentioned physicians overprescribing treatments, drugs and devices, outright fraud and abuse, and medical malpractice litigation...
November 2017: American Journal of Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452549/characterizing-potentially-preventable-cancer-and-chronic-disease-related-emergency-department-use-in-the-year-after-treatment-initiation-a-regional-study
#14
Laura Panattoni, Catherine Fedorenko, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, Karma Kreizenbeck, Julia R Walker, Renato Martins, Keith D Eaton, John W Rieke, Ted Conklin, Bruce Smith, Gary Lyman, Scott D Ramsey
PURPOSE: As new quality metrics and interventions for potentially preventable emergency department (ED) visits are implemented, we sought to compare methods for evaluating the prevalence and costs of potentially preventable ED visits that were related to cancer and chronic disease among a commercially insured oncology population in the year after treatment initiation. METHODS: We linked SEER records in western Washington from 2011 to 2016 with claims from two commercial insurers...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452060/u-s-adolescent-alcohol-use-by-race-ethnicity-consumption-and-perceived-need-to-reduce-stop-use
#15
Yvonne M Terry-McElrath, Megan E Patrick
Understanding racial/ethnic drinking patterns and service provision preferences is critical for deciding how best to use limited alcohol prevention, intervention, and treatment resources. We used nationally representative data from 150,727 U.S. high school seniors from 2005 to 2016 to examine differences in a range of alcohol use behaviors and the felt need to reduce or stop alcohol use based on detailed racial/ethnic categories, both before and after controlling for key risk/protective factors. Native students reported particularly high use but corresponding high felt need to reduce/stop use...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451985/a-comparison-of-barriers-to-accessing-services-for-mental-and-physical-health-conditions-in-a-sample-of-rural-australian-adults
#16
Kate Fennell, Melissa Hull, Martin Jones, James Dollman
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of chronic disease, mortality and suicide rates is higher in rural Australia than in urban centres. Understanding rural Australians' barriers to accessing health services requires urgent attention. The purpose of this study was to compare barriers to help-seeking for physical and mental health issues among rural South Australian adults. METHODS: A total of 409 people from three rural and remote regions in South Australia completed a computer-assisted telephone interview...
February 2018: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451903/stability-lies-in-flowers-plant-diversification-mediating-shifts-in-arthropod-food-webs
#17
Marcelo Mendes Haro, Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira, Andrew Wilby
Arthropod community composition in agricultural landscapes is dependent on habitat characteristics, such as plant composition, landscape homogeneity and the presence of key resources, which are usually absent in monocultures. Manipulating agroecosystems through the insertion of in-field floral resources is a useful technique to reduce the deleterious effects of habitat simplification. Food web analysis can clarify how the community reacts to the presence of floral resources which favour ecosystem services such as biological control of pest species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451411/an-evaluation-of-a-peer-support-intervention-for-student-mental-health
#18
Nicola Byrom
BACKGROUND: Peer support is support provided by and for people with similar experiences. As students turn to peers for support with their mental health, peer support may provide an opportunity to engage students at an informal level and avoid some barriers to help-seeking. AIMS: The study aimed to identify students likely to attend peer support and evaluate the acceptability and impact of the intervention. METHODS: A six-part peer-led course for mild depression, based on behavioural activation and implementation intentions, was evaluated across eight UK universities with 65 students participating in the evaluation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450681/factors-related-to-the-probable-ptsd-after-the-9-11-world-trade-center-attack-among-asian-americans
#19
Winnie W Kung, Xinhua Liu, Debbie Huang, Patricia Kim, Xiaoran Wang, Lawrence H Yang
Despite the fact that Asians constituted a sizeable proportion of those exposed to the World Trade Center attack on September 11, 2001 due to its proximity to Chinatown and many South Asians working in the nearby buildings, no study had focused on examining the mental health impact of the attack in this group. Based on data collected by the World Trade Center Health Registry from a sample of 4721 Asians 2-3 years after the disaster, this study provides a baseline investigation for the prevalence and the risk and protective factors for PTSD among Asian Americans directly exposed to the attack and compared this population against 42,862 non-Hispanic Whites...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450531/screening-for-ovarian-cancer-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#20
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: With approximately 14 000 deaths per year, ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death among US women and the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer. More than 95% of ovarian cancer deaths occur among women 45 years and older. Objective: To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for ovarian cancer. Evidence Review: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women not known to be at high risk for ovarian cancer (ie, high risk includes women with certain hereditary cancer syndromes that increase their risk for ovarian cancer)...
February 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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