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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450763/effects-of-915-nm-laser-irradiation-on-human-osteoblasts-a-preliminary-in-vitro-study
#1
Giovanni Mergoni, Paolo Vescovi, Silvana Belletti, Jacopo Uggeri, Samir Nammour, Rita Gatti
Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a non-invasive treatment that uses laser or led devices making its effects a response to light and not to heat. The possibility of accelerating dental implant osteointegration and orthodontic movements and the need to treat refractory bone lesions, such as bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws, has led researchers to consider the effects of PBM on bone for dentistry purposes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of 915 nm light supplied with a GaAs diode laser on human osteoblasts in vitro...
February 15, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449961/cadherin-26-cdh26-regulates-airway-epithelial-cell-cytoskeletal-structure-and-polarity
#2
Marrah E Lachowicz-Scroggins, Erin D Gordon, Agata Wesolowska-Andersen, Nathan D Jackson, Hannah J MacLeod, Louis Z Sharp, Matthew Sun, Max A Seibold, John V Fahy
Polarization of the airway epithelial cells (AECs) in the airway lumen is critical to the proper function of the mucociliary escalator and maintenance of lung health, but the cellular requirements for polarization of AECs are poorly understood. Using human AECs and cell lines, we demonstrate that cadherin-26 (CDH26) is abundantly expressed in differentiated AECs, localizes to the cell apices near ciliary membranes, and has functional cadherin domains with homotypic binding. We find a unique and non-redundant role for CDH26, previously uncharacterized in AECs, in regulation of cell-cell contact and cell integrity through maintaining cytoskeletal structures...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449528/als-related-human-cortical-and-motor-neurons-survival-is-differentially-affected-by-sema3a
#3
Anastasya Birger, Miri Ottolenghi, Liat Perez, Benjamin Reubinoff, Oded Behar
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cell death of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs). The cause of MN cell loss is not completely understood but involves both cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Numerous molecules have been implicated to be involved in the death of MNs. One such candidate is semaphorin 3A (Sema3A). In ALS patients, Sema3A was shown to be significantly upregulated in the motor cortex and downregulated in the spinal cord. In the mouse, Sema3A was shown to be an axon repellent molecule for MNs...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449449/conserved-and-divergent-features-of-mesenchymal-progenitor-cell-types-within-the-cortical-nephrogenic-niche-of-the-human-and-mouse-kidney
#4
Nils O Lindström, Jinjin Guo, Albert D Kim, Tracy Tran, Qiuyu Guo, Guilherme De Sena Brandine, Andrew Ransick, Riana K Parvez, Matthew E Thornton, Laurence Basking, Brendan Grubbs, Jill A McMahon, Andrew D Smith, Andrew P McMahon
Cellular interactions among nephron, interstitial, and collecting duct progenitors drive mammalian kidney development. In mice, Six2 + nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) and Foxd1 + interstitial progenitor cells (IPCs) form largely distinct lineage compartments at the onset of metanephric kidney development. Here, we used the method for analyzing RNA following intracellular sorting (MARIS) approach, single-cell transcriptional profiling, in situ hybridization, and immunolabeling to characterize the presumptive NPC and IPC compartments of the developing human kidney...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445767/serotonin-differentially-regulates-l5-pyramidal-cell-classes-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-rats-and-mice
#5
Mary C Elliott, Peter M Tanaka, Ryan W Schwark, Rodrigo Andrade
The prefrontal cortex receives a dense serotonergic innervation that plays an important role in its regulation. However, how serotonin regulates different pyramidal and interneuron cell classes in this area is incompletely understood. Previous work in rats has shown that serotonin differentially regulates two classes of pyramidal cells in layer 5. It excites one class by activating 5-HT 2A receptors, whereas it more subtly modulates the integrative properties of the other by co-activating 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 2A receptors...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444424/activity-regulates-cell-death-within-cortical-interneurons-through-a-calcineurin-dependent-mechanism
#6
Rashi Priya, Mercedes Francisca Paredes, Theofanis Karayannis, Nusrath Yusuf, Xingchen Liu, Xavier Jaglin, Isabella Graef, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, Gord Fishell
We demonstrate that cortical interneurons derived from ventral eminences, including the caudal ganglionic eminence, undergo programmed cell death. Moreover, with the exception of VIP interneurons, this occurs in a manner that is activity-dependent. In addition, we demonstrate that, within interneurons, Calcineurin, a calcium-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a critical role in sequentially linking activity to maturation (E15-P5) and survival (P5-P20). Specifically, embryonic inactivation of Calcineurin results in a failure of interneurons to morphologically mature and prevents them from undergoing apoptosis...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444341/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-promotes-expansion-of-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue-and-impairs-skeletal-stem-cell-functions-in-mice
#7
Michaela Tencerova, Florence Figeac, Nicholas Ditzel, Hanna Taipaleenmäki, Tina Kamilla Nielsen, Moustapha Kassem
Obesity represents a risk factor for development of insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. In addition, it has been associated with increased adipocyte formation in the bone marrow (BM) along with increased risk for bone fragility fractures. However, little is known on the cellular mechanisms that link obesity, BM adiposity and bone fragility. Thus, in an obesity intervention study in C57BL/6J mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, we investigated the molecular and cellular phenotype of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), BM progenitor cells and BM microenvironment in comparison to peripheral adipose tissue (AT)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443048/generation-of-standardized-and-reproducible-forebrain-type-cerebral-organoids-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Olivia Krefft, Ammar Jabali, Vira Iefremova, Philipp Koch, Julia Ladewig
The human cortex is highly expanded and exhibits a complex structure with specific functional areas, providing higher brain function, such as cognition. Efforts to study human cerebral cortex development have been limited by the availability of model systems. Translating results from rodent studies to the human system is restricted by species differences and studies on human primary tissues are hampered by a lack of tissue availability as well as ethical concerns. Recent development in human pluripotent stem cell (PSC) technology include the generation of three-dimensional (3D) self-organizing organotypic culture systems, which mimic to a certain extent human-specific brain development in vitro...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441004/reverse-engineering-tone-deafness-disrupting-pitch-matching-by-creating-temporary-dysfunctions-in-the-auditory-motor-network
#9
Anja Hohmann, Psyche Loui, Charles H Li, Gottfried Schlaug
Perceiving and producing vocal sounds are important functions of the auditory-motor system and are fundamental to communication. Prior studies have identified a network of brain regions involved in pitch production, specifically pitch matching. Here we reverse engineer the function of the auditory perception-production network by targeting specific cortical regions (e.g., right and left posterior superior temporal (pSTG) and posterior inferior frontal gyri (pIFG)) with cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-commonly found to decrease excitability in the underlying cortical region-allowing us to causally test the role of particular nodes in this network...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437957/normal-aging-induces-a1-like-astrocyte-reactivity
#10
Laura E Clarke, Shane A Liddelow, Chandrani Chakraborty, Alexandra E Münch, Myriam Heiman, Ben A Barres
The decline of cognitive function occurs with aging, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. Astrocytes instruct the formation, maturation, and elimination of synapses, and impairment of these functions has been implicated in many diseases. These findings raise the question of whether astrocyte dysfunction could contribute to cognitive decline in aging. We used the Bac-Trap method to perform RNA sequencing of astrocytes from different brain regions across the lifespan of the mouse. We found that astrocytes have region-specific transcriptional identities that change with age in a region-dependent manner...
February 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437173/human-brain-organoid-on-a-chip-to-model-prenatal-nicotine-exposure
#11
Yaqing Wang, Li Wang, Yujuan Zhu, Jianhua Qin
Nicotine has been recognized to trigger various neuronal disabilities in the fetal brain and long-lasting behavioral deficits in offspring. However, further understanding of fetal brain development under nicotine exposure is challenging due to the limitations of existing animal models. Here, we create a new brain organoid-on-a-chip system derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that allows us to model neurodevelopmental disorders under prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) at early stages. The brain organoid-on-a-chip system facilitates 3D culture, in situ neural differentiation, and self-organization of brain organoids under continuous perfused cultures in a controlled manner...
February 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435596/ripk4-activity-in-keratinocytes-is-controlled-by-the-scf%C3%AE-trcp-ubiquitin-ligase-to-maintain-cortical-actin-organization
#12
Giel Tanghe, Corinne Urwyler-Rösselet, Philippe De Groote, Emmanuel Dejardin, Pieter-Jan De Bock, Kris Gevaert, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim Declercq
RIPK4 is a key player in epidermal differentiation and barrier formation. RIPK4 signaling pathways controlling keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation depend on its kinase activity leading to Dvl2, Pkp1 and IRF6 phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. However, the mechanism regulating RIPK4 activity levels remains elusive. We show that cultured keratinocytes display constitutive active phosphorylated RIPK4 while PKC signaling can trigger RIPK4 activation in various non-keratinocyte cell lines, in which RIPK4 is present in a non-phosphorylated state...
February 12, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435520/chronic-non-suppurative-mandibular-osteomyelitis-with-proliferative-periostitis-a-review
#13
Ihsène Taihi, Loredana Radoi
Chronic non-suppurative osteomyelitis (CNSO) is a chronic bone disease and may be associated with a reparative periosteum entity called proliferative periostitis (PP). This condition rarely affects the maxillofacial region. Mandibular cases were already described for an infectious dental cause, often with an "onion skin" radiographic aspect, but some rare reported cases showed no obvious etiology. They represent a challenge for diagnosis because of possible misdiagnosis leading to unsuccessful or inappropriate treatment attempts...
February 12, 2018: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432724/guanabenz-promotes-neuronal-survival-via-enhancement-of-atf4-and-parkin-expression-in-models-of-parkinson-disease
#14
Xiaotian Sun, Pascaline Aimé, David Dai, Nagendran Ramalingam, John F Crary, Robert E Burke, Lloyd A Greene, Oren A Levy
Reduced function of parkin appears to be a central pathogenic event in Parkinson disease (PD). Increasing parkin levels enhances survival in models of PD-related neuronal death and is a promising therapeutic objective. Previously, we demonstrated that the transcription factor ATF4 promotes survival in response to PD-mimetic stressors by maintaining parkin levels. ATF4 translation is up-regulated by phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α. The small molecule guanabenz enhances eIF2α phosphorylation by blocking the function of GADD34, a regulatory protein that promotes eIF2α dephosphorylation...
February 9, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432490/differential-microstructural-alterations-in-rat-cerebral-cortex-in-a-model-of-chronic-mild-stress-depression
#15
Ahmad Raza Khan, Christopher D Kroenke, Ove Wiborg, Andrey Chuhutin, Jens R Nyengaard, Brian Hansen, Sune Nørhøj Jespersen
Chronic mild stress leads to depression in many cases and is linked to several debilitating diseases including mental disorders. Recently, neuronal tracing techniques, stereology, and immunohistochemistry have revealed persistent and significant microstructural alterations in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala, which form an interconnected system known as the stress circuit. Most studies have focused only on this circuit, however, some studies indicate that manipulation of sensory and motor systems may impact genesis and therapy of mood disorders and therefore these areas should not be neglected in the study of brain microstructure alterations in response to stress and depression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430121/locked-in-syndrome-and-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-observations-from-a-case-of-basilar-artery-thrombosis
#16
Angelina Cistaro, Giuliano Lo Bianco, Piercarlo Fania, Simone Margotti, Simone Vigneri, Cristina Geraci, Natale Quartuccio
We report the case of a 59-year-old male patient suffering from locked-in syndrome (LIS) following basilar artery thrombosis despite an attempt of thrombolysis. Neurological examination showed quadriplegia and aphonia and a state of coma requiring mechanical ventilation was diagnosed. The use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) allowed to detect a normal 18F-FDG uptake in the main cerebral cortical areas and a significant reduction of 18F-FDG uptake in both cerebellar hemispheres, compatible with a functional deafferentation, helping confirming the clinical suspicion of LIS...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428937/high-throughput-data-of-circular-rna-profiles-in-human-temporal-cortex-tissue-reveals-novel-insights-into-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Jiaxin Li, Haijun Lin, Zhenrong Sun, Guanyi Kong, Xu Yan, Yujiao Wang, Xiaoxuan Wang, Yanhua Wen, Xiang Liu, Hongkun Zheng, Mei Jia, Zhongfang Shi, Rong Xu, Shaohua Yang, Fang Yuan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of long noncoding RNAs with a closed loop structure that regulate gene expression as microRNA sponges. CircRNAs are more enriched in brain tissue, but knowledge of the role of circRNAs in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has remained limited. This study is the first to identify the global expression profiles and characteristics of circRNAs in human temporal cortex tissue from TLE patients. METHODS: Temporal cortices were collected from 17 TLE patients and 17 non-TLE patients...
January 31, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427541/asymmetric-nano-textured-surfaces-influence-neuron-viability-and-polarity
#18
Andreea Belu, Mehmet Yilmaz, Elmar Neumann, Andreas Offenhäusser, Gokhan Demirel, Dirk Mayer
Three dimensional, nanostructured surfaces have attracted considerable attention in biomedical research since they have proven to represent a powerful platform to influence cell fate. In particular, nanorods and nanopillars possess great potential for the control of cell adhesion and differentiation, gene and biomolecule delivery, optical and electrical stimulation and recording, as well as cell patterning. Here, we investigate the influence of asymmetric poly(dichloro-p-xylene) (PPX) columnar films on the adhesion and maturation of cortical neurons...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426958/epiphyseal-hyperplasia-caused-by-an-ectopic-ossification-center-of-the-distal-tibia-presentation-of-a-pediatric-case-with-13-years-of-radiological-surveillance
#19
Susanne Scheipl, Stefan Tauber, Marko Bergovec, Andreas Leithner, Gerhard Ranner
Herein, we report the case of a 4-year-old boy, who presented with a cortical lytic lesion of his distal tibia. It was located eccentrically, measured 2 cm in its craniocaudal diameter, and was associated with a lamella-like soft-tissue mineralization that resembled a periosteal reaction. Thus, the lesion's radiographic features were initially suggestive of an aggressive disease. However, further imaging revealed the lesion to be of cartilaginous origin and to extend into the metaphysis, thus creating the aspect of hyperplastic epiphyseal cartilage...
February 9, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426806/neonatal-epilepsies-clinical-management
#20
REVIEW
Marie-Coralie Cornet, Tristan T Sands, Maria Roberta Cilio
Whereas the majority of seizures in neonates are related to acute brain injury, a substantial minority are the first symptom of a neonatal-onset epilepsy, often linked to a pathogenic genetic variant. This defect may disrupt cortical development (e.g., lissencephaly, focal cortical dysplasia), lead to metabolic changes (e.g., pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, sulfite oxidase deficiency) or lead to cortical dysfunction without metabolic or macroscopic structural changes (e.g., channelopathies, STXBP1). Historically, studies on treatment response and long-term consequences of neonatal seizures have lumped all etiologies together...
January 31, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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