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Cortical differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932266/eanm-ean-recommendations-for-the-use-of-brain-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-fdg-pet-in-neurodegenerative-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-delphi-consensus
#1
Flavio Nobili, Javier Arbizu, Femke Bouwman, Alexander Drzezga, Federica Agosta, Peter Nestor, Zuzana Walker, Marina Boccardi
BACKGROUND: Recommendations for using FDG-PET to support the diagnosis of dementing neurodegenerative disorders are sparse and poorly structured. METHODS: We defined 21 questions on diagnostic issues and on semi-automated analysis to assist visual reading. Literature was reviewed to assess study design, risk of bias, inconsistency, imprecision, indirectness and effect size. Critical outcomes were sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive/negative predictive value, area under the receiving operating characteristic curve, and positive/negative likelihood ratio of FDG-PET in detecting the target conditions...
June 22, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926355/identification-of-proteins-differentially-expressed-by-quercetin-treatment-in-a-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-model-a-proteomics-approach
#2
Fawad-Ali Shah, Dong-Ju Park, Phil-Ok Koh
Cerebral ischemia is a major cause of death and neurological disability. It also leads to severe brain tissue damage by excessive generation of oxidative stress. Quercetin is a bioflavonoid substance that acts an antioxidant agent and exerts a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia. The aim of this study was to detect specific proteins that are differentially expressed in response to quercetin treatment in focal cerebral ischemia. Adult male rats were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or quercetin (10 mg/kg) 30 min prior to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
June 20, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924488/transcription-factor-mediated-differentiation-of-human-ipscs-into-neurons
#3
Michael S Fernandopulle, Ryan Prestil, Christopher Grunseich, Chao Wang, Li Gan, Michael E Ward
Accurate modeling of human neuronal cell biology has been a long-standing challenge. However, methods to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to neurons have recently provided experimentally tractable cell models. Numerous methods that use small molecules to direct iPSCs into neuronal lineages have arisen in recent years. Unfortunately, these methods entail numerous challenges, including poor efficiency, variable cell type heterogeneity, and lengthy, expensive differentiation procedures...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923832/photoacoustic-imaging-of-a-human-vertebra-implications-for-guiding-spinal-fusion-surgeries
#4
Joshua Shubert, Muyinatu A Lediju Bell
It is well known that there are structural differences between cortical and cancellous bone. However, spinal surgeons currently have no reliable method to non-invasively determine these differences in real-time when choosing the optimal starting point and trajectory to insert pedicle screws and avoid surgical complications associated with breached or weakened bone. This paper explores 3D photoacoustic imaging of a human vertebra to noninvasively differentiate cortical from cancellous bone for this surgical task...
June 20, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922981/requirement-of-the-mowat-wilson-syndrome-gene-zeb2-in-the-differentiation-and-maintenance-of-non-photoreceptor-cell-types-during-retinal-development
#5
Wen Wei, Bin Liu, Haisong Jiang, Kangxin Jin, Mengqing Xiang
Mutations in the human transcription factor gene ZEB2 cause Mowat-Wilson syndrome, a congenital disorder characterized by multiple and variable anomalies including microcephaly, Hirschsprung disease, intellectual disability, epilepsy, microphthalmia, retinal coloboma, and/or optic nerve hypoplasia. Zeb2 in mice is involved in patterning neural and lens epithelia, neural tube closure, as well as in the specification, differentiation and migration of neural crest cells and cortical neurons. At present, it is still unclear how Zeb2 mutations cause retinal coloboma, whether Zeb2 inactivation results in retinal degeneration, and whether Zeb2 is sufficient to promote the differentiation of different retinal cell types...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921875/a-faroese-founder-variant-in-tbcd-causes-early-onset-progressive-encephalopathy-with-a-homogenous-clinical-course
#6
Sabine Grønborg, Lotte Risom, Jakob Ek, Karen Bonde Larsen, David Scheie, Yanko Petkov, Vibeke André Larsen, Morten Dunø, Fróði Joensen, Elsebet Østergaard
An intact and dynamic microtubule cytoskeleton is crucial for the development, differentiation, and maintenance of the mammalian cortex. Variants in a host of structural microtubulin-associated proteins have been identified to cause a wide spectrum of malformations of cortical development and alterations of microtubule dynamics have been recognized to cause or contribute to progressive neurodegenerative disorders. TBCD is one of the five tubulin-specific chaperones and is required for reversible assembly of the α-/β-tubulin heterodimer...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921662/laminating-the-mammalian-cortex-during-development-cell-polarity-protein-function-and-hippo-signaling
#7
REVIEW
Khadar Abdi, Chay T Kuo
During mammalian brain development, radial glial progenitors balance between proliferation and differentiation to generate the laminated cortical layers in a temporally precise fashion. Defects in the individual steps going into this complex organogenesis can result in cortical malformations and human nervous system disorders. In this issue of Genes & Development , Liu and colleagues (pp. 763-780) present experimental evidence that an evolutionarily conserved cellular polarity gene, Pard3 ( partitioning-defective 3 ), controls the balance of radial glial proliferation and differentiation through interaction with the Hippo signal transduction pathway...
June 1, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920856/neural-signatures-of-co-occurring-reading-and-mathematical-difficulties
#8
Michael A Skeide, Tanya M Evans, Edward Z Mei, Daniel A Abrams, Vinod Menon
Impaired abilities in multiple domains is common in children with learning difficulties. Co-occurrence of low reading and mathematical abilities (LRLM) appears in almost every second child with learning difficulties. However, little is known regarding the neural bases of this combination. Leveraging a unique and tightly controlled sample including children with LRLM, isolated low reading ability (LR), and isolated low mathematical ability (LM), we uncover a distinct neural signature in children with co-occurring low reading and mathematical abilities differentiable from LR and LM...
June 19, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916785/cortical-tracking-of-global-and-local-variations-of-speech-rhythm-during-connected-natural-speech-perception
#9
Anna Maria Alexandrou, Timo Saarinen, Jan Kujala, Riitta Salmelin
During natural speech perception, listeners must track the global speaking rate, that is, the overall rate of incoming linguistic information, as well as transient, local speaking rate variations occurring within the global speaking rate. Here, we address the hypothesis that this tracking mechanism is achieved through coupling of cortical signals to the amplitude envelope of the perceived acoustic speech signals. Cortical signals were recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) while participants perceived spontaneously produced speech stimuli at three global speaking rates (slow, normal/habitual, and fast)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915555/working-memory-related-effective-connectivity-in-huntington-s-disease-patients
#10
Jacob Lahr, Lora Minkova, Sarah J Tabrizi, Julie C Stout, Stefan Klöppel, Elisa Scheller
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetically caused neurodegenerative disorder characterized by heterogeneous motor, psychiatric, and cognitive symptoms. Although motor symptoms may be the most prominent presentation, cognitive symptoms such as memory deficits and executive dysfunction typically co-occur. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and task fMRI-based dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to evaluate HD-related changes in the neural network underlying working memory (WM). Sixty-four pre-symptomatic HD mutation carriers (preHD), 20 patients with early manifest HD symptoms (earlyHD), and 83 healthy control subjects performed an n -back fMRI task with two levels of WM load...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915260/differential-antiviral-immunity-to-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-developing-cortical-organoids
#11
Boya Zhang, Yangzhige He, Yanpeng Xu, Fan Mo, Tingwei Mi, Qing Sunny Shen, Chunfeng Li, Yali Li, Jing Liu, Yihui Wu, Guilai Chen, Wenliang Zhu, Chengfeng Qin, Baoyang Hu, Guomin Zhou
Japanese encephalitis (JE) caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) poses a serious threat to the world's public health yet without a cure. Certain JEV-infected neural cells express a subset of previously identified intrinsic antiviral interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), indicating brain cells retain autonomous antiviral immunity. However, whether this happens in composited brain remains unclear. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived organoids can model disorders caused by human endemic pathogens such as Zika virus, which may potentially address this question and facilitate the discovery of a cure for JE...
June 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915004/concrete-versus-abstract-forms-of-social-concept-an-fmri-comparison-of-knowledge-about-people-versus-social-terms
#12
Grace E Rice, Paul Hoffman, Richard J Binney, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) play a key role in conceptual knowledge representation. The hub-and-spoke theory suggests that the contribution of the ATLs to semantic representation is (a) transmodal, i.e. integrating information from multiple sensorimotor and verbal modalities, and (b) pan-categorical, representing concepts from all categories. Another literature, however, suggests that this region's responses are modality- and category-selective; prominent examples include category selectivity for socially relevant concepts and face recognition...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914314/dynamic-redistribution-of-plasticity-in-a-cerebellar-spiking-neural-network-reproducing-an-associative-learning-task-perturbed-by-tms
#13
Alberto Antonietti, Jessica Monaco, Egidio D'Angelo, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Claudia Casellato
During natural learning, synaptic plasticity is thought to evolve dynamically and redistribute within and among subcircuits. This process should emerge in plastic neural networks evolving under behavioral feedback and should involve changes distributed across multiple synaptic sites. In eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), the cerebellum learns to predict the precise timing between two stimuli, hence EBCC represents an elementary yet meaningful paradigm to investigate the cerebellar network functioning. We have simulated EBCC mechanisms by reconstructing a realistic cerebellar microcircuit model and embedding multiple plasticity rules imitating those revealed experimentally...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912324/foxg1-regulates-the-postnatal-development-of-cortical-interneurons
#14
Wei Shen, Ru Ba, Yan Su, Yang Ni, Dongsheng Chen, Wei Xie, Samuel J Pleasure, Chunjie Zhao
Abnormalities in cortical interneurons are closely associated with neurological diseases. Most patients with Foxg1 syndrome experience seizures, suggesting a possible role of Foxg1 in the cortical interneuron development. Here, by conditional deletion of Foxg1, which was achieved by crossing Foxg1fl/fl with the Gad2-CreER line, we found the postnatal distributions of somatostatin-, calretinin-, and neuropeptide Y-positive interneurons in the cortex were impaired. Further investigations revealed an enhanced dendritic complexity and decreased migration capacity of Foxg1-deficient interneurons, accompanied by remarkable downregulation of Dlx1 and CXCR4...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911873/differential-5-year-brain-atrophy-rates-in-cognitively-declining-and-stable-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-elders
#15
Dana A Kelly, Michael Seidenberg, Katherine Reiter, Kristy A Nielson, John L Woodard, J Carson Smith, Sally Durgerian, Stephen M Rao
OBJECTIVE: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the most important genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Many ε4 carriers, however, never develop Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this study is to characterize the variability in phenotypic expression of the ε4 allele, as measured by the longitudinal trajectory of cognitive test scores and MRI brain volumes, in cognitively intact elders. METHOD: Healthy older adults, ages 65-85, participated in a 5-year longitudinal study that included structural MRI and cognitive testing administered at baseline and at 1...
June 18, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907235/rapid-valproic-acid-induced-modulation-of-the-traumatic-proteome-in-a-porcine-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#16
Michael Weykamp, Vahagn C Nikolian, Isabel S Dennahy, Gerald A Higgins, Patrick E Georgoff, Henriette Remmer, Mohamed H Ghandour, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase inhibitors such as valproic acid (VPA) improve survival in lethal models of hemorrhagic shock and polytrauma. Although VPA is known to modulate transcription, its ability to reduce mortality within minutes of administration suggests involvement of a rapid, posttranslational mechanism. We hypothesized that VPA treatment would cause proteomic changes within minutes of treatment including quantitative and/or posttranslational differences in structural and/or effector proteins...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904828/estrogen-migraine-and-vascular-risk
#17
Gianni Allais, Giulia Chiarle, Silvia Sinigaglia, Gisella Airola, Paola Schiapparelli, Chiara Benedetto
Migraine has a predilection for female sex and the course of symptoms is influenced by life stage (presence of menstrual cycle, pregnancy, puerperium, menopause) and use of hormone therapy, such as hormonal contraception and hormone replacement therapy. Hormonal changes figure among common migraine triggers, especially sudden estrogen drop. Moreover, estrogens can modulate neuronal excitability, through serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and endorphin regulation, and they interact with the vascular endothelium of the brain...
June 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904155/moringin-induces-neural-differentiation-in-the-stem-cell-of-the-human-periodontal-ligament
#18
Letizia Romeo, Francesca Diomede, Agnese Gugliandolo, Domenico Scionti, Fabrizio Lo Giudice, Veronica Lanza Cariccio, Renato Iori, Placido Bramanti, Oriana Trubiani, Emanuela Mazzon
The therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases still represent a vast research field because of the lack of targeted, effective and resolutive treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. The use of stem cell-based therapy is an alternative approach that could lead to the replacement of damaged neuronal tissue. For this purpose, adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), including periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), could be very useful for their differentiation capacity, easy isolation and the ability to perform an autologous implant...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903452/functional-topography-of-the-human-cerebellum
#19
Catherine J Stoodley, Jeremy D Schmahmann
Accumulating evidence points to a critical role for the human cerebellum in both motor and nonmotor behaviors. A core tenet of this new understanding of cerebellar function is the existence of functional subregions within the cerebellum that differentially support motor, cognitive, and affective behaviors. This cerebellar functional topography - based on converging evidence from neuroanatomic, neuroimaging, and clinical studies - is evident in both adult and pediatric populations. The sensorimotor homunculi in the anterior lobe and lobule VIII established in early tract tracing and electrophysiologic studies are evident in both task-based and resting-state human functional imaging studies...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902955/differential-cortical-control-of-chest-wall-muscles-during-pressure-and-volume-related-expiratory-tasks-and-the-effects-of-acute-expiratory-threshold-loading
#20
Carol A Boliek, Reyhaneh Bakhtiari, Lauren Pedersen, Julia R Esch, Jacqueline Cummine
We examined whether or not coherence between chest wall intercostal and oblique muscles changed as a function of lung volume excursion, alveolar pressure, and muscular demand. We also assessed the effects of acute expiratory threshold loading (ETL) on chest wall muscular control. A total of 15 healthy adults (7 males; average age = 28 years) completed maximum performance and ETL tasks. Chest wall surface electromyographic and kinematic recordings were made. Participants also performed a session of acute ETL...
June 15, 2018: Motor Control
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