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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665606/-organic-anxiety-disorder-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#1
Denise Linsmayer, Christoph Kindler, Wiebke Anheier, Julia Reiff, Per Suppa, Dieter F Braus
We report on a 54-year-old patient who described a progressive anxiety disorder additionally recurrent sight disorders associated with room-tilt illusions and subjective visual field defects. She also reported disturbances of concentration and attention and of a modified typeface accompanied by difficulty in writing with an increase of grammatical errors. Based on the case, the relevant anamnestic and clinical data, the neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings and also differential diagnosis of the posterior cortical atrophy, a rare neurodegenerative disease, will be discussed...
April 17, 2018: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665230/spindle-cell-rhabdomyosarcoma-of-the-anterior-mandible-manifesting-as-a-periapical-lesion-of-pulpal-origin-case-report
#2
Vanitha Sadhasivam, I Anand Sherwood, James L Gutmann, N Gururaj, V Mahalakshmi, Daffney M Doss
A 25-year-old male patient presented with swelling and pain in the mandibular anterior region for the previous 6 months. He had a history of repeated traumatic episodes associated with his lower incisors. A periapical radiograph revealed a radiolucent lesion involving the apices of the lower incisors, whereas cone beam computed tomography revealed a large osteolytic lesion involving all mandibular incisors and loss of labial and lingual cortical plates. Histological, immunohistochemical and bone scan examination of the curetted tissue established a differential diagnosis of spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma of the anterior mandible...
April 17, 2018: Australian Endodontic Journal: the Journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663692/profiles-of-gene-expression-in-the-hippocampal-formation-of-rats-with-experimentally-induced-brain-dysplasia
#3
Michal Kielbinski, Zuzanna Setkowicz, Kinga Gzielo, Krzysztof Janeczko
Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are a common cause of intractable seizures in humans. Among these, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) poses an outstanding challenge. There are several subtypes of FCD that show significant variation in pathology and clinical presentation. All types exhibit disturbed cortical cytoarchitecture and increased propensity for seizures. The etiology is likely heterogenous, with mutations, specifically in genes related to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), identified in only a subset of cases...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662947/cortical-measures-of-phoneme-level-speech-encoding-correlate-with-the-perceived-clarity-of-natural-speech
#4
Giovanni M Di Liberto, Michael J Crosse, Edmund C Lalor
In real-world environments, humans comprehend speech by actively integrating prior knowledge (P) and expectations with sensory input. Recent studies have revealed effects of prior information in temporal and frontal cortical areas and have suggested that these effects are underpinned by enhanced encoding of speech-specific features, rather than a broad enhancement or suppression of cortical activity. However, in terms of the specific hierarchical stages of processing involved in speech comprehension, the effects of integrating bottom-up sensory responses and top-down predictions are still unclear...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660939/aberrant-cortical-event-related-potentials-during-associative-learning-in-rat-models-for-presymptomatic-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Bardia Nouriziabari, Susmita Sarkar, Stephanie E Tanninen, Robert D Dayton, Ronald L Klein, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
Trace eyeblink conditioning is a hippocampus-dependent associative learning paradigm which is impaired in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and animal AD models. Learning in this paradigm accompanies changes in oscillatory activity in forebrain regions, some of which are loci of pathogenic changes in prodromal AD stages. These observations motivated us to examine how cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) during this paradigm are affected by two features of the asymptomatic, AD-related brain abnormality, entorhinal tau accumulation and mild cholinergic deficit...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657752/graphene-foam-as-a-biocompatible-scaffold-for-culturing-human-neurons
#6
Giovanna M D'Abaco, Cristiana Mattei, Babak Nasr, Emma J Hudson, Abdullah J Alshawaf, Gursharan Chana, Ian P Everall, Bryony Nayagam, Mirella Dottori, Efstratios Skafidas
In this study, we explore the use of electrically active graphene foam as a scaffold for the culture of human-derived neurons. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cortical neurons fated as either glutamatergic or GABAergic neuronal phenotypes were cultured on graphene foam. We show that graphene foam is biocompatible for the culture of human neurons, capable of supporting cell viability and differentiation of hESC-derived cortical neurons. Based on the findings, we propose that graphene foam represents a suitable scaffold for engineering neuronal tissue and warrants further investigation as a model for understanding neuronal maturation, function and circuit formation...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656311/consensus-paper-neurophysiological-assessments-of-ataxias-in-daily-practice
#7
REVIEW
W Ilg, M Branscheidt, A Butala, P Celnik, L de Paola, F B Horak, L Schöls, H A G Teive, A P Vogel, D S Zee, D Timmann
The purpose of this consensus paper is to review electrophysiological abnormalities and to provide a guideline of neurophysiological assessments in cerebellar ataxias. All authors agree that standard electrophysiological methods should be systematically applied in all cases of ataxia to reveal accompanying peripheral neuropathy, the involvement of the dorsal columns, pyramidal tracts and the brainstem. Electroencephalography should also be considered, although findings are frequently non-specific. Electrophysiology helps define the neuronal systems affected by the disease in an individual patient and to understand the phenotypes of the different types of ataxia on a more general level...
April 14, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656189/quantitative-electroencephalography-as-a-marker-of-cognitive-fluctuations-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-an-aid-to-differential-diagnosis
#8
Myrto Stylianou, Nicholas Murphy, Luis R Peraza, Sara Graziadio, Ruth Cromarty, Alison Killen, John T O' Brien, Alan J Thomas, Fiona E N LeBeau, John-Paul Taylor
OBJECTIVE: We investigated for quantitative EEG (QEEG) differences between Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) patients and healthy controls, and for QEEG signatures of cognitive fluctuations (CFs) in DLB. METHODS: We analysed eyes-closed, resting state EEGs from 18 AD, 17 DLB and 17 PDD patients with mild dementia, and 21 age-matched controls. Measures included spectral power, dominant frequency (DF), frequency prevalence (FP), and temporal DF variability (DFV), within defined EEG frequency bands and cortical regions...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653260/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-fluoride-treated-rat-bone-provides-new-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-fluoride-toxicity
#9
Yan Wei, Beibei Zeng, Hua Zhang, Cheng Chen, Yanli Wu, Nanlan Wang, Yanqiu Wu, Danqing Zhao, Yuxi Zhao, Javed Iqbal, Liming Shen
Long-term excessive intake of fluoride (F) could lead to chronic fluorosis. To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, present study is designed to elucidate the effect of fluoride on proteome expression of bone in sodium fluoride (NaF)-treated SD rats. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to determine the severity of osteofluorosis, and bone samples were submitted for iTRAQ analysis. The results showed that the cortical thickness and trabecular area of femur bone in medium- and high-dose groups were higher than in control group...
April 10, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649797/a-multimodal-approach-to-the-treatment-of-intraparenchymal-meningioma-in-a-7-year-old-boy-a-case-report
#10
Maria Caterina Vescovi, Daniele Bagatto, Gabriele Capo, Marta Maieron, Dario Marin, Enrico Pegolo, Barbara Tomasino
Intraparenchymal meningiomas are very rare: only 26 cases have been diagnosed in patients younger than 20 years since 1954. They can lead to preoperative differential diagnosis mistakes due to their atypical neuroimaging appearance. A multimodal approach is thus necessary to plan a surgical procedure aiming to receive the best extent of resection while preserving the patient's functional integrity. The authors report the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of blurred vision, left eye deviation, and weakness on the left side of his body...
April 12, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648973/male-and-female-mice-exhibit-divergent-responses-of-the-cortical-vasculature-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Amandine Jullienne, Arjang Salehi, Bethann Affeldt, Mohsen Baghchechi, Elizabeth Haddad, Angela Avitua, Mark Walsworth, Isabelle Enjalric, Mary Hamer, Sonali Bhakta, Jiping Tang, John Zhang, William J Pearce, Andre Obenaus
We previously reported that traumatic brain injuries (TBI) alter cerebrovasculature near the injury site in rats, followed by revascularization over a 2-week period. Here, we tested our hypothesis that male and female adult mice have differential cerebrovascular responses following a moderate controlled cortical impact (CCI). Using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a new technique called vessel painting, and immunohistochemistry, we found no differences between males and females in lesion volume, neurodegeneration, blood-brain barrier (BBB) alteration and microglia activation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643508/aspm-knockout-ferret-reveals-an-evolutionary-mechanism-governing-cerebral-cortical-size
#12
Matthew B Johnson, Xingshen Sun, Andrew Kodani, Rebeca Borges-Monroy, Kelly M Girskis, Steven C Ryu, Peter P Wang, Komal Patel, Dilenny M Gonzalez, Yu Mi Woo, Ziying Yan, Bo Liang, Richard S Smith, Manavi Chatterjee, Daniel Coman, Xenophon Papademetris, Lawrence H Staib, Fahmeed Hyder, Joseph B Mandeville, P Ellen Grant, Kiho Im, Hojoong Kwak, John F Engelhardt, Christopher A Walsh, Byoung-Il Bae
The human cerebral cortex is distinguished by its large size and abundant gyrification, or folding. However, the evolutionary mechanisms that drive cortical size and structure are unknown. Although genes that are essential for cortical developmental expansion have been identified from the genetics of human primary microcephaly (a disorder associated with reduced brain size and intellectual disability) 1 , studies of these genes in mice, which have a smooth cortex that is one thousand times smaller than the cortex of humans, have provided limited insight...
April 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643331/electroencephalographic-delta-alpha-frequency-activity-differentiates-psychotic-disorders-a-study-of-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-methamphetamine-induced-psychotic-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Fleur M Howells, Hendrik S Temmingh, Jennifer H Hsieh, Andrea V van Dijen, David S Baldwin, Dan J Stein
Electroencephalography (EEG) has been proposed as a neurophysiological biomarker to delineate psychotic disorders. It is known that increased delta and decreased alpha, which are apparent in psychosis, are indicative of inappropriate arousal state, which leads to reduced ability to attend to relevant information. On this premise, we investigated delta/alpha frequency activity, as this ratio of frequency activity may serve as an effective neurophysiological biomarker. The current study investigated differences in delta/alpha frequency activity, in schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar I disorder with psychotic features and methamphetamine-induced psychosis...
April 12, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629646/fibroblastic-osteosarcoma-with-epithelioid-and-squamous-differentiation-in-a-dog
#14
Tiffany L Jenkins, Dalen Agnew, Daniel R Rissi
A fibroblastic osteosarcoma with epithelioid and squamous differentiation in the distal femur of a 9-y-old spayed female Greyhound dog is described. Grossly, the tumor consisted of a pale-white, firm-to-hard mass that replaced the medullary and cortical areas of the distal end of the right femur. Histologically, the mass was composed predominantly of spindle cells admixed with areas of mineralized and non-mineralized osteoid matrix that were surrounded by stellate osteoblasts and scattered multinucleate giant cells, consistent with the diagnosis of a fibroblastic osteosarcoma...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628909/interhemispheric-cortical-inhibition-is-reduced-in-young-adults-with-developmental-coordination-disorder
#15
Jason L He, Ian Fuelscher, Peter G Enticott, Wei-Peng Teo, Pamela Barhoun, Christian Hyde
Introduction: While the etiology of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is yet to be established, brain-behavior modeling provides a cogent argument that neuropathology may subserve the motor difficulties typical of DCD. We argue that a number of the core behavioral features of the DCD profile (such as poor surround inhibition, compromised motor inhibition, and the presence of mirror movements) are consistent with difficulties regulating inhibition within the primary motor cortex (M1)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628445/the-telomerase-inhibitor-azt-enhances-differentiation-and-prevents-overgrowth-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitors
#16
Yao Hu, Kai-Heng Fang, Lu-Ping Shen, Shi-Ying Cao, Fang Yuan, Yuwen Su, Min Xu, Yaoyu Chen, Yan Liu
Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based cell-replacement therapy has emerged as a promising approach for addressing numerous neurological diseases. However, hPSC transplantation has the potential to cause human cell overgrowth and cancer, which represents a major obstacle to implementing hPSC-based therapies. Inhibition of the overgrowth of transplanted cells could help reduce the risk for hPSC transplantation-induced tumorigenesis. In this study, we report that the telomerase inhibitor azidothymidine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, AZT) enhances the differentiation of cortical neurons and significantly suppresses the proliferation of hPSC-derived cortical progenitors...
April 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627682/electrically-polarized-plla-nanofibers-as-neural-tissue-engineering-scaffolds-with-improved-neuritogenesis
#17
Nathalie Barroca, Ana Marote, Sandra I Vieira, Abílio Almeida, Maria H V Fernandes, Paula M Vilarinho, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva
Tissue engineering is evolving towards the production of smart platforms exhibiting stimulatory cues to guide tissue regeneration. This work explores the benefits of electrical polarization to produce more efficient neural tissue engineering platforms. Poly (l-lactic) acid (PLLA)-based scaffolds were prepared as solvent cast films and electrospun aligned nanofibers, and electrically polarized by an in-lab built corona poling device. The characterization of the platforms by thermally stimulated depolarization currents reveals a polarization of 60 × 10-10 C cm-2 that is stable on poled electrospun nanofibers for up to 6 months...
March 30, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627379/the-antipsychotic-drug-quetiapine-stimulates-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-by-modulating-the-cell-cycle
#18
Guiyun Mi, Yituo Wang, Enmao Ye, Yunyun Gao, Qiaowei Liu, Pinhong Chen, Yuyang Zhu, Hongju Yang, Zheng Yang
Recent studies have revealed that oligodendrocyte differentiation deficits and de-myelination occur in the brains of schizophrenic patients. Cell cycle proteins play a critical role in modulating oligodendrocyte proliferation and differentiation. In our previous studies, we found that cuprizone, a copper chelant, induces oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination, and this effect can be alleviated by using the atypical antipsychotic drug quetiapine. To explore the mechanisms of quetiapine in oligodendrocyte development, we examined the effects of quetiapine on cell cycle progression...
April 5, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625236/statistical-learning-of-multisensory-regularities-is-enhanced-in-musicians-an-meg-study
#19
Evangelos Paraskevopoulos, Nikolas Chalas, Panagiotis Kartsidis, Andreas Wollbrink, Panagiotis Bamidis
The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify the neural correlates of audiovisual statistical learning, while disentangling the differential contributions of uni- and multi-modal statistical mismatch responses in humans. The applied paradigm was based on a combination of a statistical learning paradigm and a multisensory oddball one, combining an audiovisual, an auditory and a visual stimulation stream, along with the corresponding deviances. Plasticity effects due to musical expertise were investigated by comparing the behavioral and MEG responses of musicians to non-musicians...
April 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624516/neural-pathways-in-medial-septal-cholinergic-modulation-of-chronic-pain-distinct-contribution-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-ventral-hippocampus
#20
Ying-Ying Jiang, Shan Shao, Yu Zhang, Jie Zheng, Xi Chen, Shuang Cui, Feng-Yu Liu, You Wan, Ming Yi
One specific behavior can be synergistically modulated by different neural pathways. Medial septal (MS) cholinergic system innervates widespread cortical and subcortical regions and participates in pain modulation, but the underlying neural pathways are not fully understood. The present study examined the contribution of MS cholinergic neurons and two neural pathways: MS-rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and MS-ventral hippocampal CA1 (vCA1), in modulating perceptual and affective pain behaviors in a mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain...
April 5, 2018: Pain
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