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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046048/bone-morphogenetic-protein-4-and-bone-morphogenetic-protein-receptors-expressions-in-the-adult-rat-eye
#1
Yuka Maruyama-Koide, Sumiko Mikawa, Takeshi Sasaki, Kohji Sato
We investigated the expressions of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its receptors, bone morphogenetic protein receptor IA (BMPRIA), bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB (BMPRIB) and bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPRII) in the adult rat eye. Interesting differences in expression profile were observed between BMPRIA and BMPRIB in the retina. BMPRIA-like immunoreactivity (IR) was very intensely seen in the photoreceptor layer, while BMPRIB-IR was mainly observed in the other layers. In the cornea, BMP4, BMPRIA, BMPRIB and BMPRII-IRs were abundantly seen in the cell body of basal cells in the corneal epithelium, and endothelium...
September 6, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045593/a-teleost-androgen-promotes-development-of-primary-ovarian-follicles-in-coho-salmon-and-rapidly-alters-the-ovarian-transcriptome
#2
Christopher Monson, Kristy Forsgren, Giles Goetz, Louisa Harding, Penny Swanson, Graham Young
Recent studies using several teleost models have revealed that androgens increase the size of previtellogenic (primary and/or early secondary) ovarian follicles. To explore our hypothesis that androgens drive the development of primary follicles into early secondary follicles, and to determine the mechanisms underlying these androgenic effects, we exposed juvenile coho salmon to near-physiological and relatively sustained levels of the non-aromatizable androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). This resulted in significant growth of primary ovarian follicles after 10 and 20 days, with follicles after 20 days displaying a morphological phenotype characteristic of early secondary follicles (presence of cortical alveoli)...
October 13, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044892/mouse-parthenogenetic-embryonic-stem-cells-with-biparental-like-expression-of-imprinted-genes-generate-cortical-like-neurons-that-integrate-into-the-injured-adult-cerebral-cortex
#3
Annie Varrault, Sigrid Eckardt, Benoît Girard, Anne Le Digarcher, Isabelle Sassetti, Céline Meusnier, Chantal Ripoll, Armen Badalyan, Federica Bertaso, K John McLaughlin, Laurent Journot, Tristan Bouschet
One strategy for stem cell-based therapy of the cerebral cortex involves the generation and transplantation of functional, histocompatible cortical-like neurons from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Diploid parthenogenetic Pg-ESCs have recently emerged as a promising source of histocompatible ESC derivatives for organ regeneration but their utility for cerebral cortex therapy is unknown. A major concern with Pg-ESCs is genomic imprinting. In contrast with biparental Bp-ESCs derived from fertilized oocytes, Pg-ESCs harbor two maternal genomes but no sperm-derived genome...
October 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043391/analysis-of-the-evolution-of-cortical-and-trabecular-bone-compartments-in-the-proximal-femur-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-3d-dxa
#4
L Gifre, L Humbert, A Muxi, L Del Rio, J Vidal, E Portell, A Monegal, N Guañabens, P Peris
Marked trabecular and cortical bone loss was observed at the proximal femur short-term after spinal cord injury (SCI). 3D-DXA provided measurement of vBMD evolution at both femoral compartments and cortical thinning, thereby suggesting that this technique could be useful for bone analysis in these patients. INTRODUCTION: SCI is associated with a marked increase in bone loss and risk of osteoporosis development short-term after injury. 3D-DXA is a new imaging analysis technique providing 3D analysis of the cortical and trabecular bone from DXA scans...
October 17, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042314/differential-distribution-and-function-of-gababrs-in-somato-dendritic-and-axonal-compartments-of-principal-cells-and-interneurons-in-cortical-circuits
#5
REVIEW
Ákos Kulik, Sam A Booker, Imre Vida
GABABRs are highly expressed in cortical circuits, controlling neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in both principal cells and inhibitory interneurons. Light and electron microscopic studies confirmed the wide distribution of receptors and revealed cell type-specific quantitative differences in their cellular and subcellular distributions. At the subcellular level, GABABRs are abundant at the peri- and extrasynaptic membrane of somato-dendritic compartments and to lower levels in the axon terminals of both cortical excitatory principal cells and inhibitory interneurons...
October 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039597/whole%C3%A2-genome-scale-identification-of-methylation-markers-specific-for-cerebral-palsy-in-monozygotic-discordant-twins
#6
Zhe Jiao, Zhimei Jiang, Jingtao Wang, Hui Xu, Qiang Zhang, Shuang Liu, Ning Du, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongbin Qiu
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a severe type of brain disease affecting movement and posture. Although CP has strong genetic and environmental components, considerable differences in the methylome between monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for CP implicates epigenetic contributors as well. In order to determine the differences in methylation in patients with CP without interference of the interindividual genomic variation, four pairs of MZ twins discordant for CP were profiled for DNA methylation changes using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing on the genomic‑scale...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039576/effects-of-ginsenoside%C3%A2-rg1-on-the-proliferation-and-glial%C3%A2-like-directed-differentiation-of-embryonic-rat-cortical-neural-stem-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#7
Jian Gao, Feng Wan, Mo Tian, Yuanyuan Li, Yuxuan Li, Qiang Li, Jianping Zhang, Yongxue Wang, Xiang Huang, Lijuan Zhang, Yinchu Si
Ginsenoside‑Rg1, the main active component of Panax notoginseng, exhibits a number of pharmacological functions, including promoting protein synthesis in the brain, increasing the number of synapses, improving memory and promoting recovery of brain function following injury. The effect of ginsenoside‑Rg1 on proliferation and glial‑like‑directed differentiation in the cortical neural stem cells (NSCs) of embryonic rat brain was investigated. The present study used MTS assays to identify the optimum dose and window time of ginsenoside‑Rg1 administration to stimulate the proliferation of cortical NSCs in the rat embryonic tissue...
October 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039467/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-6-released-from-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-confers-neuronal-protection-through-igf-1r-mediated-signaling
#8
Hyo-Jin Jeon, Jihye Park, Joo-Hyun Shin, Mi-Sook Chang
Human bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a desirable cell source for cell‑based therapy to treat nervous system injuries due to their ability to differentiate into specific cell types. In addition to their multipotency, hMSCs render the tissue microenvironment more favorable for tissue repair by secreting various growth factors. Our previous study demonstrated that hMSCs secrete several growth factors, including several insulin‑like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs). Among these, IGFBP‑6 binds with high affinity and inhibits insulin growth factor‑2 (IGF‑2) to inhibit the growth of IGF‑2‑dependent tumors...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034618/altered-electroencephalography-spectral-profiles-in-rats-with-different-patterns-of-experimental-brain-dysplasia
#9
Michal Kielbinski, Zuzanna Setkowicz, Kinga Gzielo, Władysław Węglarz, Krzysztof Janeczko
BACKGROUND: Malformations of cortical development, such as focal cortical dysplasia, are commonly associated with intractable epilepsy. Multiple animal models were created in attempts to recapitulate features of human malformations of cortical development. These manipulations give rise to various focal or diffuse anatomical abnormalities, accompanied by altered susceptibility to epileptic seizures. Both in humans and in models of dysplasia, the question of timing of the initiating insult is important...
October 16, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030434/cadherin-10-maintains-excitatory-inhibitory-ratio-through-interactions-with-synaptic-proteins
#10
Katharine R Smith, Kelly A Jones, Katherine J Kopeikina, Alain C Burette, Bryan A Copits, Sehyoun Yoon, Marc Forrest, Jessica M Fawcett-Patel, Jonathan G Hanley, Richard J Weinberg, Geoffrey T Swanson, Peter Penzes
Appropriate excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance is essential for normal cortical function and is altered in some psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Cell-autonomous molecular mechanisms that control the balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapse function remain poorly understood; no proteins that regulate excitatory and inhibitory synapse strength in a coordinated reciprocal manner have been identified. Using super-resolution imaging, electrophysiology, and molecular manipulations we show that cadherin-10, encoded by CDH10 within the ASD risk locus 5p14...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028941/dysregulation-of-cortical-neuron-dna-methylation-profile-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Stefano Nardone, Dev Sharan Sams, Antonino Zito, Eli Reuveni, Evan Elliott
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome whose etiology includes genetic and environmental components. Since epigenetic marks are sensitive to environmental insult, they may be involved in the development of ASD. Initial brain studies have suggested a dysregulation of epigenetic marks in ASD. However, due to cellular heterogeneity in the brain, these studies have not determined if there is a true change in the neuronal epigenetic signature. Here, we report a genome-wide methylation study on fluorescence-activated cell sorting-sorted neuronal nuclei from the frontal cortex of 16 male ASD and 15 male control subjects...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028808/functional-characterization-of-gabaa-receptor-mediated-modulation-of-cortical-neuron-network-activity-in-microelectrode-array-recordings
#12
Benjamin M Bader, Anne Steder, Anders Bue Klein, Bente Frølund, Olaf H U Schroeder, Anders A Jensen
The numerous γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) subtypes are differentially expressed and mediate distinct functions at neuronal level. In this study we have investigated GABAAR-mediated modulation of the spontaneous activity patterns of primary neuronal networks from murine frontal cortex by characterizing the effects induced by a wide selection of pharmacological tools at a plethora of activity parameters in microelectrode array (MEA) recordings. The basic characteristics of the primary cortical neurons used in the recordings were studied in some detail, and the expression levels of various GABAAR subunits were investigated by western blotting and RT-qPCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027605/short-term-depression-and-transient-memory-in-sensory-cortex
#13
Grant Gillary, Rüdiger von der Heydt, Ernst Niebur
Persistent neuronal activity is usually studied in the context of short-term memory localized in central cortical areas. Recent studies show that early sensory areas also can have persistent representations of stimuli which emerge quickly (over tens of milliseconds) and decay slowly (over seconds). Traditional positive feedback models cannot explain sensory persistence for at least two reasons: (i) They show attractor dynamics, with transient perturbations resulting in a quasi-permanent change of system state, whereas sensory systems return to the original state after a transient...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026942/the-effects-of-subclinical-neck-pain-on-sensorimotor-integration-following-a-complex-motor-pursuit-task
#14
Danielle Andrew, Paul Yielder, Heidi Haavik, Bernadette Murphy
Recurrent subclinical neck pain (SCNP) may be associated with neural plastic changes in sensory processing and sensorimotor integration (SMI); however, its impact on motor learning has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SCNP alters neural markers of SMI during a complex motor acquisition task as compared to a healthy control group. Peripheral N9, spinal N13, brainstem N18, and cortical N20, P25, N24 and N30 early somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded following median nerve stimulation for 24 participants (12 control and 12 SCNP) before and after a 10-min tracing motor task intervention...
October 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024818/differential-cortical-contribution-of-syntax-and-semantics-an-fmri-study-on-two-word-phrasal-processing
#15
Marianne Schell, Emiliano Zaccarella, Angela D Friederici
Linguistic expressions consist of sequences of words combined together to form phrases and sentences. The neurocognitive process handling word combination is drawing increasing attention among the neuroscientific community, given that the underlying syntactic and semantic mechanisms of such basic combinations-although essential to the generation of more complex structures-still need to be consistently determined. The current experiment was conducted to disentangle the neural networks supporting syntactic and semantic processing at the level of two-word combinations...
September 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021756/expression-of-tau-pathology-related-proteins-in-different-brain-regions-a-molecular-basis-of-tau-pathogenesis
#16
Wen Hu, Feng Wu, Yanchong Zhang, Cheng-Xin Gong, Khalid Iqbal, Fei Liu
Microtubule-associated protein tau is hyperphosphorylated and aggregated in affected neurons in Alzheimer disease (AD) brains. The tau pathology starts from the entorhinal cortex (EC), spreads to the hippocampus and frontal and temporal cortices, and finally to all isocortex areas, but the cerebellum is spared from tau lesions. The molecular basis of differential vulnerability of different brain regions to tau pathology is not understood. In the present study, we analyzed brain regional expressions of tau and tau pathology-related proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020636/self-organized-cerebral-organoids-with-human-specific-features-predict-effective-drugs-to-combat-zika-virus-infection
#17
Momoko Watanabe, Jessie E Buth, Neda Vishlaghi, Luis de la Torre-Ubieta, Jiannis Taxidis, Baljit S Khakh, Giovanni Coppola, Caroline A Pearson, Ken Yamauchi, Danyang Gong, Xinghong Dai, Robert Damoiseaux, Roghiyh Aliyari, Simone Liebscher, Katja Schenke-Layland, Christine Caneda, Eric J Huang, Ye Zhang, Genhong Cheng, Daniel H Geschwind, Peyman Golshani, Ren Sun, Bennett G Novitch
The human cerebral cortex possesses distinct structural and functional features that are not found in the lower species traditionally used to model brain development and disease. Accordingly, considerable attention has been placed on the development of methods to direct pluripotent stem cells to form human brain-like structures termed organoids. However, many organoid differentiation protocols are inefficient and display marked variability in their ability to recapitulate the three-dimensional architecture and course of neurogenesis in the developing human brain...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019762/central-nervous-system-effects-of-intrauterine-zika-virus-infection-a-pictorial-review
#18
Bianca Guedes Ribeiro, Heron Werner, Flávia P P L Lopes, L Celso Hygino da Cruz, Tatiana M Fazecas, Pedro A N Daltro, Renata A Nogueira
Relatively few agents have been associated with congenital infections involving the brain. One such agent is the Zika virus, which has caused several outbreaks worldwide and has spread in the Americas since 2015. The Zika virus is an arbovirus transmitted by infected female mosquito vectors, such as the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This virus has been commonly associated with congenital infections of the central nervous system and has greatly increased the rates of microcephaly. Ultrasonography (US) remains the method of choice for fetal evaluation of congenital Zika virus infection...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019082/loss-of-the-nutrient-sensor-tas1r3-leads-to-reduced-bone-resorption
#19
Michael S Eaton, Nicholas Weinstein, Jordan B Newby, Maggie M Plattes, Hanna E Foster, Jon W Arthur, Taylor D Ward, Stephen R Shively, Ryann Shor, Justin Nathan, Hannah M Davis, Lilian I Plotkin, Eric M Wauson, Brian J Dewar, Aaron Broege, Jonathan W Lowery
The taste receptor type 1 (TAS1R) family of heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors participates in monitoring energy and nutrient status. TAS1R member 3 (TAS1R3) is a bi-functional protein that recognizes amino acids such as L-glycine and L-glutamate or sweet molecules such as sucrose and fructose when dimerized with TAS1R member 1 (TAS1R1) or TAS1R member 2 (TAS1R2), respectively. It was recently reported that deletion of TAS1R3 expression in Tas1R3 mutant mice leads to increased cortical bone mass but the underlying cellular mechanism leading to this phenotype remains unclear...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017910/developmental-ethanol-exposure-alters-the-morphology-of-mouse-prefrontal-neurons-in-a-layer-specific-manner
#20
Emma L Louth, Hanna D Luctkar, Kayla A Heney, Craig D C Bailey
Chronic developmental exposure to ethanol can lead to a wide variety of teratogenic effects, which in humans are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Individuals affected by FASD may exhibit persistent impairments to cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and attention, which are highly dependent on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. The objective of this study was to determine long-term effects of chronic developmental ethanol exposure on mPFC neuron morphology, in order to better-understand potential neuronal mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments associated with FASD...
October 7, 2017: Brain Research
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