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Cortical differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213444/the-dendrites-of-ca2-and-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-differentially-regulate-information-flow-in-the-cortico-hippocampal-circuit
#1
Kalyan V Srinivas, Eric W Buss, Qian Sun, Bina Santoro, Hiroto Takahashi, Daniel A Nicholson, Steven A Siegelbaum
The impact of a given neuronal pathway depends on the number of synapses it makes with its postsynaptic target, the strength of each individual synapse and the integrative properties of the postsynaptic dendrites. Here we explore the cellular and synaptic mechanisms responsible for the differential excitatory drive from the entorhinal cortical pathway onto mouse CA2 compared to CA1 pyramidal neurons (PNs). Although both types of neurons receive direct input from entorhinal cortex onto their distal dendrites, these inputs produce a 5-6 fold larger excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) at the soma of CA2 compared to CA1 PNs, which is sufficient to drive action potential output from CA2 but not CA1...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213120/a-cross-validated-cytoarchitectonic-atlas-of-the-human-ventral-visual-stream
#2
M Rosenke, K S Weiner, M A Barnett, K Zilles, K Amunts, R Goebel, K Grill-Spector
The human ventral visual stream consists of several areas considered processing stages essential for perception and recognition. A fundamental microanatomical feature differentiating areas is cytoarchitecture, which refers to the distribution, size, and density of cells across cortical layers. Because cytoarchitectonic structure is measured in 20-micron-thick histological slices of postmortem tissue, it is difficult to assess (a) how anatomically consistent these areas are across brains and (b) how they relate to brain parcellations obtained with prevalent neuroimaging methods, acquired at the millimeter and centimeter scale...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211789/the-cortical-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-and-the-conditioned-response-to-the-threat-of-breathlessness
#3
Olivia K Faull, Kyle Ts Pattinson
Previously we observed differential activation in individual columns of the periaqueductal grey (PAG) during breathlessness and its conditioned anticipation (Faull et al., 2016). Here, we have extended this work by determining how the individual columns of the PAG interact with higher cortical centres, both at rest and in the context of breathlessness threat. Activation was observed in ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG) and lateral PAG (lPAG), where activity scaled with breathlessness intensity ratings, revealing a potential interface between sensation and cognition during breathlessness...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210849/developmental-changes-in-notch1-and-nle1-expression-in-a-genetic-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#4
Fariba Karimzadeh, Sayed Mostafa Modarres Mousavi, Fatemeh Alipour, Hassan Hosseini Ravandi, Stjepana Kovac, Ali Gorji
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is an epilepsy syndrome with seizures occurring in the early childhood, highlighting that seizures susceptibility in CAE is dependent on brain development. The Notch 1 signalling pathway is important in brain development, yet the role of the Notch1 signalling pathway in CAE remains elusive. We here explored Notch1 and its modulator notchless homologue 1 (NLE1) expression in WAG/Rij and control rats using immunohistochemistry. Functional Notch 1 effects were assessed in WAG/Rij rats in vivo...
February 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208950/cerebral-venous-thrombosis-in-pregnancy-a-poignant-allegory-of-an-unusual-case
#5
Sheeba Marwah, Gaikwad Harsha Shailesh, Sumedha Gupta, Manjula Sharma, Pratima Mittal
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis (CVT), also known as cortical venous, cerebral sinus, cerebral venous sinus, or dural sinus thrombosis, is an infrequent grave condition affecting pregnant females, resulting from clot formation in one of the many outflow tracts of the brain. Although pregnancy-associated stroke or CVT is uncommon, the risk of stroke is greatly increased above the low baseline rate in young patients during late pregnancy and, even more so, during the puerperium. Haemorrhagic infarction can occur in the acute stage of CVT...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206669/characterization-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-with-balloon-cells-by-layer-specific-markers-evidence-for-differential-vulnerability-of-interneurons
#6
Julia M Nakagawa, Catharina Donkels, Susanne Fauser, Andreas Schulze- Bonhage, Marco Prinz, Josef Zentner, Carola A Haas
OBJECTIVE: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a major cause of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. Little is known about the pathomechanisms underlying the characteristic cytoarchitectural abnormalities associated with FCD. In the present study, a broad panel of markers identifying layer-specific neuron subpopulations was applied to characterize dyslamination and structural alterations in FCD with balloon cells (FCD 2b). METHODS: Pan-neuronal neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and layer-specific protein expression (Reelin, Calbindin, Calretinin, SMI32 (nonphosphorylated neurofilament H), Parvalbumin, transducin-like enhancer protein 4 (TLE4), and Vimentin) was studied by immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections of FCD2b cases (n = 22) and was compared to two control groups with (n = 7) or without epilepsy (n = 4 postmortem cases)...
February 16, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202569/local-vs-volume-conductance-activity-of-field-potentials-in-the-human-subthalamic-nucleus
#7
Odeya Marmor, Dan Valsky, Mati Joshua, Atira S Bick, David Arkadir, Idit Tamir, Hagai Bergmann, Zvi Israel, Renana Eitan
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic nucleus field potentials have attracted growing research and clinical interest over the last few decades. However, it is unclear whether subthalamic field potentials represent locally generated neuronal subthreshold activity or volume conductance of the organized neuronal activity generated in the cortex. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at understanding of the physiological origin of subthalamic field potentials and determining the most accurate method for recording them...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201864/recurrent-contrast-induced-encephalopathy-following-coronary-angiography
#8
Roberto Spina, Neil Simon, Romesh Markus, David W M Muller, Krishna Kathir
Contrast-induced encephalopathy (CIE) is an acute and reversible neurological disturbance associated with the intra-arterial administration of iodinated contrast medium during cardiac catheterisation. It may manifest with encephalopathy, motor and sensory disturbances; vision disturbances, including cortical blindness, ophthalmoplegia, aphasia; and seizures. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier and direct neuronal toxicity are believed to be implicated in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Symptoms appear soon after contrast administration and resolve completely within 24-48 h...
February 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199851/the-input-output-relationship-of-the-cholinergic-basal-forebrain
#9
Matthew R Gielow, Laszlo Zaborszky
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons influence cortical state, plasticity, learning, and attention. They collectively innervate the entire cerebral cortex, differentially controlling acetylcholine efflux across different cortical areas and timescales. Such control might be achieved by differential inputs driving separable cholinergic outputs, although no input-output relationship on a brain-wide level has ever been demonstrated. Here, we identify input neurons to cholinergic cells projecting to specific cortical regions by infecting cholinergic axon terminals with a monosynaptically restricted viral tracer...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198409/electrical-stimulation-using-conductive-polymer-polypyrrole-counters-reduced-neurite-outgrowth-of-primary-prefrontal-cortical-neurons-from-nrg1-ko-and-disc1-li-mice
#10
Qingsheng Zhang, Dorna Esrafilzadeh, Jeremy M Crook, Robert Kapsa, Elise M Stewart, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Xu-Feng Huang
Deficits in neurite outgrowth, possibly involving dysregulation of risk genes neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) have been implicated in psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Electrical stimulation using conductive polymers has been shown to stimulate neurite outgrowth of differentiating human neural stem cells. This study investigated the use of the electroactive conductive polymer polypyrrole (Ppy) to counter impaired neurite outgrowth of primary pre-frontal cortical (PFC) neurons from NRG1-knock out (NRG1-KO) and DISC1-locus impairment (DISC1-LI) mice...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194630/source-based-morphometry-multivariate-approach-to-analyze-123-i-fp-cit-spect-imaging
#11
Enrico Premi, V D Calhoun, V Garibotto, R Turrone, A Alberici, E Cottini, A Pilotto, S Gazzina, M Magoni, B Paghera, B Borroni, A Padovani
PURPOSE: [(123)I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN®) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is widely used to study neurodegenerative parkinsonism, by measuring presynaptic dopamine transporter (DAT) in striatal regions. Beyond DAT, [(123)I]FP-CIT may be considered for other monoaminergic systems, in particular the serotonin transporter (SERT). Independent component analysis (ICA) implemented in source-based morphometry (SBM) could represent an alternative method to explore monoaminergic pathways, studying the relationship among voxels and grouping them into "neurotransmission" networks...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193862/differential-modulation-of-global-and-local-neural-oscillations-in-rem-sleep-by-homeostatic-sleep-regulation
#12
Bowon Kim, Bernat Kocsis, Eunjin Hwang, Youngsoo Kim, Robert E Strecker, Robert W McCarley, Jee Hyun Choi
Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is implemented in cortical regions with different functions and network architectures. We found that across all areas, slow oscillations repeated the behavioral pattern of persistent enhancement during CSR, whereas high-frequency oscillations showed progressive increases...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193488/validation-of-periodic-fmri-signals-in-response-to-wearable-tactile-stimulation
#13
Ching-Fu Chen, Kenneth Kreutz-Delgado, Martin I Sereno, Ruey-Song Huang
To map cortical representations of the body, we recently developed a wearable technology for automatic tactile stimulation in human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments. In a two-condition block design experiment, air puffs were delivered to the face and hands periodically. Surface-based regions of interest (S-ROIs) were initially identified by thresholding a linear statistical measure of signal-to-noise ratio of periodic response. Across subjects, S-ROIs were found in the frontal, primary sensorimotor, posterior parietal, insular, temporal, cingulate, and occipital cortices...
February 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190516/changes-in-the-correlation-between-spatial-and-temporal-source-memory-performance-and-bold-activity-across-the-adult-lifespan
#14
E Ankudowich, S Pasvanis, M N Rajah
Studies investigating age-related functional differences associated with source memory have recently focused on the importance of clarifying the relationship between effects of age and performance on memory-related brain activations. One methodological challenge has been in discriminating between effects of age on memory-related brain activations that are independent from age-related differences in performance. In the current study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify brain activity during spatial and temporal source encoding and retrieval across the adult lifespan...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188330/unravelling-the-effect-of-experimental-pain-on-the-corticomotor-system-using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-electroencephalography
#15
Marylie Martel, Marie-Philippe Harvey, Francis Houde, Frédéric Balg, Philippe Goffaux, Guillaume Léonard
The interaction between pain and the motor system is well-known, with past studies showing that pain can alter corticomotor excitability and have deleterious effects on motor learning. The aim of this study was to better understand the cortical mechanisms underlying the interaction between pain and the motor system. Experimental pain was induced on 19 young and healthy participants using capsaicin cream, applied on the middle volar part of the left forearm. The effect of pain on brain activity and on the corticomotor system was assessed with electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), respectively...
February 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185661/age-related-deficits-in-auditory-temporal-processing-unique-contributions-of-neural-dyssynchrony-and-slowed-neuronal-processing
#16
Kelly C Harris, Judy R Dubno
This study was guided by the hypothesis that the aging central nervous system progressively loses its ability to process rapid acoustic changes that are important for speech recognition. Specifically, we hypothesized that age-related deficits in neural synchrony and neuronal oscillatory activity occur independently in older adults and disrupt auditory temporal processing. Neural synchrony is largely dependent on phase locking within the central auditory pathway, beginning at the auditory nerve. In contrast, the resonance characteristics of oscillatory activity are dependent on the integrity and structure of long range cortical connections...
January 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184001/igfbp-4-regulates-adult-skeletal-growth-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#17
David E Maridas, Victoria E DeMambro, Phuong T Le, Subburaman Mohan, Cliff Rosen
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding proteins are critical mediators of skeletal growth. Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4 (IGFBP-4) is highly expressed in osteoblasts and inhibits IGF-1 actions in vitro. Yet, in vivo studies suggest that it could potentiate IGF-1 and IGF-2 actions. In this study, we hypothesized that IGFBP-4 might potentiate the actions of IGF-1 on the skeleton. To test this, we comprehensively studied 8 and 16-week-old Igfbp4-/- mice. Both male and female adult Igfbp4-/- mice had marked growth retardation with reductions in body weight, body and femur lengths, fat proportion and lean mass at 8 and 16 weeks...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183802/differential-effects-of-anoctamins-on-intracellular-calcium-signals
#18
Inês Cabrita, Roberta Benedetto, Ana Fonseca, Podchanart Wanitchakool, Lalida Sirianant, Boris V Skryabin, Laura K Schenk, Hermann Pavenstädt, Rainer Schreiber, Karl Kunzelmann
The Ca(2+) activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A [anoctamin (ANO)1] is homologous to yeast Ist2 and has been shown to tether the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane. We therefore examined whether ANO1 and other members of the ANO family affect intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) signals. It is shown that expression of ANO1 augments Ca(2+) store release upon stimulation of GPCRs, whereas knockdown of ANO1, or lack of Ano1 expression in Ano1(-/-) animals as shown in an earlier report, inhibits Ca(2+) release...
February 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181063/connexin43-and-the-intercellular-signaling-network-regulating-skeletal-remodeling
#19
REVIEW
Megan C Moorer, Joseph P Stains
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review highlights recent developments into how intercellular communication through connexin43 facilitates bone modeling and remodeling. RECENT FINDINGS: Connexin43 is required for both skeletal development and maintenance, particularly in cortical bone, where it carries out multiple functions, including preventing osteoclastogenesis, restraining osteoprogenitor proliferation, promoting osteoblast differentiation, coordinating organized collagen matrix deposition, and maintaining osteocyte survival...
February 8, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179556/distinct-oscillatory-frequencies-underlie-excitability-of-human-occipital-and-parietal-cortex
#20
Jason Samaha, Olivia Gosseries, Bradley R Postle
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of human occipital and posterior parietal cortex can give rise to visual sensations called phosphenes. We used near-threshold TMS with concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to measure how oscillatory brain dynamics covary, on single trials, with the perception of phosphenes following occipital and parietal TMS. Prestimulus power and phase, predominantly in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), predicted occipital TMS phosphenes, whereas higher frequency beta-band (13-20 Hz) power (but not phase) predicted parietal TMS phosphenes...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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