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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791188/the-effects-of-cognitive-and-visual-workload-on-peripheral-detection-in-the-detection-response-task
#1
Wim van Winsum
OBJECTIVE: The independent effects of cognitive and visual load on visual Detection Response Task (vDRT) reaction times were studied in a driving simulator by performing a backwards counting task and a simple driving task that required continuous focused visual attention to the forward view of the road. The study aimed to unravel the attentional processes underlying the Detection Response Task effects. BACKGROUND: The claim of previous studies that performance degradation on the vDRT is due to a general interference instead of visual tunneling was challenged in this experiment...
May 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785695/differences-in-characteristics-and-outcome-of-patients-with-penetrating-injuries-in-the-usa-and-the-netherlands-a-multi-institutional-comparison
#2
Suzan Dijkink, Pieta Krijnen, Aglaia Hage, Gwendolyn M Van der Wilden, George Kasotakis, Dennis den Hartog, Ali Salim, J Carel Goslings, Frank W Bloemers, Steven J Rhemrev, David R King, George C Velmahos, Inger B Schipper
INTRODUCTION: The incidence and nature of penetrating injuries differ between countries. The aim of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with penetrating injuries treated at urban Level-1 trauma centers in the USA (USTC) and the Netherlands (NLTC). METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 1331 adult patients (470 from five NLTC and 861 from three USTC) with truncal penetrating injuries admitted between July 2011 and December 2014 were included...
May 21, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779243/co-occurrence-of-schwannomatosis-and-rhabdoid-tumor-predisposition-syndrome-1
#3
Hildegard Kehrer-Sawatzki, Uwe Kordes, Simone Seiffert, Anna Summerer, Christian Hagel, Ulrich Schüller, Said Farschtschi, Reinhard Schneppenheim, Martin Bendszus, Tim Godel, Victor-Felix Mautner
BACKGROUND: The clinical phenotype associated with germline SMARCB1 mutations has as yet not been fully documented. It is known that germline SMARCB1 mutations may cause rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS1) or schwannomatosis. However, the co-occurrence of rhabdoid tumor and schwannomas in the same patient has not so far been reported. METHODS: We investigated a family with members harboring a germline SMARCB1 deletion by means of whole-body MRI as well as high-resolution microstructural magnetic resonance neurography (MRN)...
May 20, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775379/decision-to-return-to-sport-participation-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-part-ii-self-reported-and-functional-performance-outcomes
#4
Jennifer L Werner, Julie P Burland, Carl G Mattacola, Jenny Toonstra, Robert A English, Jennifer S Howard
CONTEXT:   Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) is the most commonly used method for helping athletes regain function and return to preinjury activity levels after ACL injury. Outcomes after ACLR have suggested that athletes return to a level of function that would support a return to sport participation; however, in a recent meta-analysis, pooled return rates were only 55%. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is a result of functional impairments. OBJECTIVE:   To compare patient-reported outcomes (PROs), dynamic balance, dynamic functional performance, strength, and muscular endurance in athletes who have returned to sport (RTS) and athletes who have not returned to sport (NRTS) after ACLR...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770738/aging-and-guided-visual-search-the-role-of-visual-working-memory
#5
Sowon Hahn, Daniel R Buttaccio
In the present study, we examined age-related differences in utilizing learned associations to guide visual search. Participants viewed an object cue that was associated with 1 or 2 target colors, followed by a search array. Older adults showed slower RTs, larger visual search slopes, and reduced cue-target association knowledge than did younger adults. We also found increased search RTs and higher error rates when the cue was associated with 2 colors instead of 1. However, visual search slopes did not vary with the number of associated colors...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765090/a-rightward-saccade-to-an-unexpected-stimulus-as-a-marker-for-lateralised-visuospatial-attention
#6
Masafumi Sanefuji, Hiroshi Yamashita, Michiko Torio, Daisuke Katsuki, Satoshi Akamine, Yoshito Ishizaki, Junji Kishimoto, Yasunari Sakai, Hidetoshi Takada, Keiko Yoshida, Shouichi Ohga
The human brain is lateralised to the right for visuospatial attention, particularly when reorienting attention to unexpected stimuli. However, the developmental characteristics of lateralisation remain unclear. To address this question, we devised a saccade task applicable for both adults and children. To assess the utility of this system, we investigated the correlation between line bisection test performance and the saccade task for 54 healthy adult volunteers. Participants followed a visual target that jumped 10 times, alternating between two fixed positions across the midline with a constant pace...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761210/biochemical-properties-of-bacterial-reverse-transcriptase-related-rvt-gene-products-multimerization-protein-priming-and-nucleotide-preference
#7
Irina A Yushenova, Irina R Arkhipova
Cellular reverse transcriptase-related (rvt) genes represent a novel class of reverse transcriptases (RTs), which are only distantly related to RTs of retrotransposons and retroviruses, but, similarly to telomerase RTs, are immobilized in the genome as single-copy genes. They have been preserved by natural selection throughout the evolutionary history of large taxonomic groups, including most fungi, a few plants and invertebrates, and even certain bacteria, being the only RTs present across different domains of life...
May 14, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760687/molecular-characterization-of-clostridium-difficil-e-isolates-in-china-from-2010-to-2015
#8
Xiao-Shu Liu, Wen-Ge Li, Wen-Zhu Zhang, Yuan Wu, Jin-Xing Lu
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become a worldwide public health problem causing high mortality and a large disease burden. Molecular typing and analysis is important for surveillance and infection control of CDI. However, molecular characterization of C . difficile across China is extremely rare. Here, we report on the toxin profiles, molecular subtyping with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PCR ribotyping, and epidemiological characteristics of 199 C. difficile isolates collected between 2010 through 2015 from 13 participating centers across China...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760504/beliefs-about-others-intentions-determine-whether-cooperation-is-the-faster-choice
#9
Juana Castro Santa, Filippos Exadaktylos, Salvador Soto-Faraco
Is collaboration the fast choice for humans? Past studies proposed that cooperation is a behavioural default, based on Response Times (RT) findings. Here we contend that the individual's reckoning of the immediate social environment shapes her predisposition to cooperate and, hence, response latencies. In a social dilemma game, we manipulate the beliefs about the partner's intentions to cooperate and show that they act as a switch that determines cooperation and defection RTs; when the partner's intention to cooperate is perceived as high, cooperation choices are speeded up, while defection is slowed down...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756794/neurodevelopment-of-conflict-adaptation-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#10
Xiuying Liu, Tongran Liu, Fangfang Shangguan, Thomas Alrik Sørensen, Qian Liu, Jiannong Shi
Conflict adaptation is key in how children self-regulate and assert cognitive control in a given situation compared with a previous experience. In the current study, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify age-related differences in conflict adaptation. Participants of different ages (5-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults) were subjected to a stimulus-stimulus (S-S) conflict control task (the flanker task) and a stimulus-response (S-R) conflict control task (the Simon task). The behavioral results revealed that all age groups had reliable conflict adaptation effects (CAEs), with faster response times on current incongruent trials preceded by incongruent trials (iI trials) compared with current incongruent trials preceded by congruent trials (cI trials)...
May 14, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756531/the-ethics-of-end-of-trial-obligations-in-a-pediatric-malaria-vaccine-trial-the-perspectives-of-stakeholders-from-ghana-and-tanzania
#11
Claire Leonie Ward, David Shaw, Evelyn Anane-Sarpong, Osman Sankoh, Marcel Tanner, Bernice Elger
This study explores stakeholder experiences and perspectives on end-of-trial obligations at the close of a phase II/III Pediatric Malaria Vaccine Trial (PMVT) [GSK/PATH-MVI RTS, S) (NCT00866619]. We conducted 52 key informant interviews with major stakeholders of an international multicentre PMVT in Ghana and Tanzania. The responses fell into four main themes: (a) Communicating End-of-Trial, (b) Maintaining Health Care Services, (c) Dissemination of Results, and (d) Post-Trial Access. Interviewee responses shared important practical experiences and insights that complement current thinking in the literature on research ethics guidance: (a) accompany end-of-trial communication with information on personal and family health care responsibilities, (b) establish public health indicators to measure the impact of research on a health care system,...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755109/regulated-intratumoral-expression-of-il-12-using-a-rheoswitch-therapeutic-system-%C3%A2-rts-%C3%A2-gene-switch-as-gene-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-glioma
#12
John A Barrett, Hongliang Cai, John Miao, Pranay D Khare, Paul Gonzalez, Jessica Dalsing-Hernandez, Geeta Sharma, Tim Chan, Laurence J N Cooper, Francois Lebel
The purpose of this study was to determine if localized delivery of IL-12 encoded by a replication-incompetent adenoviral vector engineered to express IL-12 via a RheoSwitch Therapeutic System® (RTS® ) gene switch (Ad-RTS-IL-12) administered intratumorally which is inducibly controlled by the oral activator veledimex is an effective approach for glioma therapy. Mice bearing 5-10-day-old intracranial GL-261 gliomas were intratumorally administered Ad-RTS-mIL-12 in which IL-12 protein expression is tightly controlled by the activator ligand, veledimex...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752660/classification-errors-and-response-times-over-multiple-distributed-sessions-as-a-function-of-category-structure
#13
Derek E Zeigler, Ronaldo Vigo
Learning difficulty orderings for categorical stimuli have long provided an empirical foundation for concept learning and categorization research. The conventional approach seeks to determine learning difficulty orderings in terms of mean classification accuracy. However, it is relatively rare that the stability of such orderings is tested over a period of extended learning. Further, research rarely explores dependent variables beyond classification accuracy that may also indicate relative learning difficulty, such as classification response times (RTs)...
May 11, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751213/from-human-antibody-structure-and-function-towards-the-design-of-a-novel-plasmodium-falciparum-circumsporozoite-protein-malaria-vaccine
#14
REVIEW
Hedda Wardemann, Rajagopal Murugan
Malaria is a life-threatening vector-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites that infect millions of people in endemic areas every year. The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S targets the immune response against circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum (PfCSP), the most deadly Plasmodium species in humans. PfCSP plays a fundamental role in parasite development as well as the establishment of the infection and is a molecular target of protective antibodies. However, RTS,S shows overall low efficacy and insufficient long-term protection...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747216/survival-outcomes-in-split-compared-to-whole-liver-transplantation
#15
Kyung Chul Yoon, Sanghee Song, Eun-Kyoung Jwa, Sanghoon Lee, Jong Man Kim, Ok-Kyoung Kim, Suk Kyun Hong, Nam-Joon Yi, Kwang-Woong Lee, Myoung Soo Kim, Shin Hwang, Kyung-Suk Suh, Suk-Koo Lee
Split liver transplantation (SLT) should be cautiously considered because the right tri-sectional (RTS) graft can be a marginal graft in adult recipients. Herein, we analyzed the outcomes of RTS-SLT in Korea, where > 75% of adult liver transplantations are performed by living donor liver transplantation. Among 2,462 patients who underwent deceased donor liver transplantations (DDLT) from 2005 to 2014, we retrospectively reviewed 86 adult patients (3.4%) who received a RTS graft (RTS-SLT group). The outcomes of the RTS-SLT group were compared to those of 303 recipients of whole liver (WL-DDLT group)...
May 10, 2018: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746594/the-interplay-between-selective-and-nonselective-inhibition-during-single-word-production
#16
Ruben D Vromans, Suzanne R Jongman
The present study investigated the interplay between selective inhibition (the ability to suppress specific competing responses) and nonselective inhibition (the ability to suppress any inappropriate response) during single word production. To this end, we combined two well-established research paradigms: the picture-word interference task and the stop-signal task. Selective inhibition was assessed by instructing participants to name target pictures (e.g., dog) in the presence of semantically related (e.g., cat) or unrelated (e...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745716/-objectifying-the-subjective-building-blocks-of-metacognitive-experiences-in-conflict-tasks-correction-to-questienne-et-al-2018
#17
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Objectifying the subjective: Building blocks of metacognitive experiences in conflict tasks" by Laurence Questienne, Anne Atas, Boris Burle and Wim Gevers ( Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 2018[Jan], Vol 147[1], 125-131). In this article, the second sentence of the second paragraph of the Data Processing section is incorrect due to a production error. The second sentence should read as follows: RTs slower/shorter than Median 3 Median Absolute Deviations computed by participant were removed...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745708/a-meta-analysis-of-inhibitory-control-deficits-in-patients-diagnosed-with-alzheimer-s-dementia
#18
Anna Kaiser, Beatrice G Kuhlmann, Michael Bosnjak
OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted meta-analyses to determine the magnitude of performance impairments in patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) compared with healthy aging (HA) controls on eight tasks commonly used to measure inhibitory control. METHOD: Response time (RT) and error rates from a total of 64 studies were analyzed with random-effects models (overall effects) and mixed-effects models (moderator analyses). RESULTS: Large differences between AD patients and HA controls emerged in the basic inhibition conditions of many of the tasks with AD patients often performing slower, overall d = 1...
May 10, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739858/communication-of-career-pathways-through-associate-degree-program-web-sites-a-baseline-assessment
#19
Ellen A Becker, Jenny Vargas
BACKGROUND: The American Association for Respiratory Care sponsored a series of conferences that addressed the competency of the future workforce of respiratory therapists (RTs). Based upon the findings from those conferences, several initiatives emerged that support RTs earning a baccalaureate (or bachelor's) degree. The objective of this study was to identify the ways that associate degree programs communicate career pathways toward a baccalaureate degree through their Web sites. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study used a random sample of 100 of the 362 associate degree programs approved by the Commission on Accreditation for Respiratory Care...
May 8, 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733673/learned-suppression-for-multiple-distractors-in-visual-search
#20
Bo-Yeong Won, Joy J Geng
Visual search for a target object occurs rapidly if there were no distractors to compete for attention, but this rarely happens in real-world environments. Distractors are almost always present and must be suppressed for target selection to succeed. Previous research suggests that one way this occurs is through the creation of a stimulus-specific distractor template. However, it remains unknown how information within such templates scale up with multiple distractors. Here we investigated the informational content of distractor templates created from repeated exposures to multiple distractors...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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