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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912107/limits-to-tdcs-effects-in-language-failures-to-modulate-word-production-in-healthy-participants-with-frontal-or-temporal-tdcs
#1
Samuel J Westwood, Andrew Olson, R Chris Miall, Raffaele Nappo, Cristina Romani
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation widely used to modulate cognitive functions. Recent studies, however, suggests that effects are unreliable, small and often non-significant at least when stimulation is applied in a single session to healthy individuals. We examined the effects of frontal and temporal lobe anodal tDCS on naming and reading tasks and considered possible interactions with linguistic activation and selection mechanisms as well as possible interactions with item difficulty and participant individual variability...
November 3, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910290/radiation-therapy-staffing-model-2014
#2
Leigh J Smith, Rachel Kearvell, Anthony J Arnold, Kevina Choma, Aniko Cooper, Michael R Young, Donna L Matthews, Bronwyn Hilder, Debbie Howson, Katherine Fox, Katheryn Churcher
INTRODUCTION: In 2001, the Radiation Therapy Advisory Panel (RTAP) of the Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy (ASMIRT) (formerly known as Australian Institute of Radiography) published a model for radiation therapist staffing in Australian radiation oncology departments. Between 2012-2013, the model was reviewed to ensure it reflected current radiation therapy practice, technology, and to facilitate forward planning of the radiation therapy workforce. METHOD: Twenty-four sites from all states participated and provided data on megavoltage simulation, planning and treatment delivery...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901053/visual-search-performance-is-predicted-by-both-prestimulus-and-poststimulus-electrical-brain-activity
#3
Berry van den Berg, Lawrence G Appelbaum, Kait Clark, Monicque M Lorist, Marty G Woldorff
An individual's performance on cognitive and perceptual tasks varies considerably across time and circumstances. We investigated neural mechanisms underlying such performance variability using regression-based analyses to examine trial-by-trial relationships between response times (RTs) and different facets of electrical brain activity. Thirteen participants trained five days on a color-popout visual-search task, with EEG recorded on days one and five. The task was to find a color-popout target ellipse in a briefly presented array of ellipses and discriminate its orientation...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900665/use-of-capillary-electrophoresis-to-study-the-binding-interaction-of-aptamers-with-wild-type-k103n-and-double-mutant-k103n-y181c-hiv-1-rt-studying-the-binding-interaction-of-wild-type-k103n-and-double-mutant-k103n-y181c-hiv-1-rt-with-aptamers-by-performing
#4
Niran Aeksiri, Chompunuch Warakulwit, Supa Hannongbua, Sasimanas Unajak, Kiattawee Choowongkomon
A number of nucleic acid aptamers with high affinities to human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) are currently known. They can potentially be developed as broad-spectrum antiviral drugs, but there is little known about their binding interaction with mutant HIV-1 RT. Therefore, we utilized non-equilibrium capillary electrophoresis of equilibrium mixture (NECEEM) to study the interaction of three HIV-1 RTs (wild type, K103N, and double mutant (K103N/Y181C)) with RT1t49 and RT12 aptamers...
November 30, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896714/stopping-ability-in-younger-and-older-adults-behavioral-and-event-related-potential
#5
Shulan Hsieh, Yu-Chi Lin
This study examines age-related differences in inhibitory control as measured by stop-signal performance. The participants were 24 adults aged 20-30 years and 24 older adults aged 61-76 years. The task blocks were pure choice reaction-time blocks, global stop-signal blocks (with an auditory stop signal), and selective stop-signal blocks (with valid and invalid stop signals). There was a decline in reactive inhibitory control for the older group reflected by greater stop-signal reaction times and reduced P3 peak amplitudes in both global and selective stop-signal task blocks...
November 28, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896707/detection-costs-and-contingent-attentional-capture
#6
Josef G Schönhammer, Dirk Kerzel
Peripheral cues reduce reaction times (RTs) to targets at the cued location with short cue-target SOAs (cueing benefits) but increase RTs at long SOAs (cueing costs or inhibition of return). In detection tasks, cueing costs occur at shorter SOAs and are larger compared with identification tasks. To account for effects of task, detection cost theory claims that the integration of cue and target into an object file makes it more difficult to detect the target as a new event, which is the principal task-requirement in detection tasks...
November 28, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896290/do-clinical-results-and-return-to-sport-rates-after-ulnar-collateral-ligament-reconstruction-differ-based-on-graft-choice-and-surgical-technique
#7
Brandon J Erickson, Gregory L Cvetanovich, Rachel M Frank, Bernard R Bach, Mark S Cohen, Charles A Bush-Joseph, Brian J Cole, Anthony A Romeo
BACKGROUND: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure performed in overhead-throwing athletes of many athletic levels. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical outcomes and return-to-sport (RTS) rates differ among patients undergoing UCLR based on graft choice, surgical technique, athletic competition level, handedness, and treatment of the ulnar nerve. We hypothesized that no differences would exist in clinical outcomes or RTS rates between technique, graft choice, or other variables...
November 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893266/assessing-civilian-perceptions-of-combat-veterans-an-iat-study
#8
Cade Schreger, Matthew Kimble
Objective: Evidence suggests that civilians may have considerable ambivalence to returning veterans. While civilians are frequently grateful for the service of military personnel, they can often be wary of the mental health and stability of returning veterans. If civilians do hold such negative biases toward veterans, whether implicit or explicit, this may have a significant impact on the ability of military personnel to integrate back into society. The goal of the study was to test whether participants held an implicit bias of mental instability toward veterans...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890400/country-specific-predictions-of-the-cost-effectiveness-of-malaria-vaccine-rts-s-as01-in-endemic-africa
#9
Katya Galactionova, Fabrizio Tediosi, Flavia Camponovo, Thomas A Smith, Peter W Gething, Melissa A Penny
BACKGROUND: RTS,S/AS01 is a safe and moderately efficacious vaccine considered for implementation in endemic Africa. Model predictions of impact and cost-effectiveness of this new intervention could aid in country adoption decisions. METHODS: The impact of RTS,S was assessed in 43 countries using an ensemble of models of Plasmodium falciparum epidemiology. Informed by the 32months follow-up data from the phase 3 trial, vaccine effectiveness was evaluated at country levels of malaria parasite prevalence, coverage of control interventions and immunization...
November 24, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889532/characterisation-of-zbtb46-and-dc-script-znf366-in-rainbow-trout-transcription-factors-potentially-involved-in-dendritic-cell-maturation-and-activation-in-fish
#10
Jun Wang, Tiehui Wang, Ottavia Benedicenti, Catherine Collins, Kaiyu Wang, Christopher J Secombes, Jun Zou
ZBTB46 and DC-SCRIPT/ZNF366 are two zinc finger transcription factors that play important roles in regulating differentiation of dendritic cells in mammals. In this study, the ZBTB46 and DC-SCRIPT/ZNF366 homologues were identified in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and their expression analysed in vivo and in vitro. As transcription factors, they are well conserved in sequence, genomic organisation and gene synteny. Their expression was differentially modulated by bacterial and viral PAMPs in the monocyte/macrophage like cell line RTS-11, in primary head kidney (HK) macrophages, and in HK macrophages cultured with IL-4/13A...
November 23, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883290/behavioral-evidence-for-a-differential-modulation-of-semantic-processing-and-lexical-production-by-aging-a-full-linear-mixed-effects-modeling-approach
#11
Naïla Boudiaf, Rafael Laboissière, Émilie Cousin, Nathalie Fournet, Alexandre Krainik, Monica Baciu
The effect of normal aging on lexical production and semantic processing was evaluated in 72 healthy participants. Four tasks were used, picture naming (PN), picture categorization (PC), numerical judgment (NJ), and color judgment (CJ). The dependence of reaction time (RT) and correct responses with age was accounted by mixed-effects models. Participants underwent neuropsychological testing for verbal, executive, and memory functions. The RTs increase significantly with age for all tasks. After parceling out the non-specific cognitive decline, as reflected by the NJ task, the RT for the PN task decreases with age...
November 24, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878557/simple-reaction-time-for-broadband-sounds-compared-to-pure-tones
#12
Josef Schlittenlacher, Wolfgang Ellermeier, Gül Avci
Although many studies have explored the relation between reaction time (RT) and loudness, including effects of intensity, frequency, and binaural summation, comparable work on spectral summation is rare. However, most real-world sounds are not pure tones and typically have bandwidths covering several critical bands. Since comparing to a 1-kHz pure tone, the reference tone, is important for loudness measurement and standardization, the present work focuses on comparing RTs for broadband noise to those for 1-kHz pure tones in three experiments using different spectral and binaural configurations...
November 22, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872958/multisensory-integration-is-independent-of-perceived-simultaneity
#13
Vanessa Harrar, Laurence R Harris, Charles Spence
The importance of multisensory integration for perception and action has long been recognised. Integrating information from individual senses increases the chance of survival by reducing the variability in the incoming signals, thus allowing us to respond more rapidly. Reaction times (RTs) are fastest when the components of the multisensory signals are simultaneous. This response facilitation is traditionally attributed to multisensory integration. However, it is unclear if facilitation of RTs occurs when stimuli are perceived as synchronous or are actually physically synchronous...
November 21, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871309/draft-genome-of-the-living-fossil-ginkgo-biloba
#14
Rui Guan, Yunpeng Zhao, He Zhang, Guangyi Fan, Xin Liu, Wenbin Zhou, Chengcheng Shi, Jiahao Wang, Weiqing Liu, Xinming Liang, Yuanyuan Fu, Kailong Ma, Lijun Zhao, Fumin Zhang, Zuhong Lu, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Xun Xu, Jian Wang, Huanming Yang, Chengxin Fu, Song Ge, Wenbin Chen
BACKGROUND: Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) is one of the most distinctive plants. It possesses a suite of fascinating characteristics including a large genome, outstanding resistance/tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, and dioecious reproduction, making it an ideal model species for biological studies. However, the lack of a high-quality genome sequence has been an impediment to our understanding of its biology and evolution. FINDINGS: The 10.61 Gb genome sequence containing 41,840 annotated genes was assembled in the present study...
November 21, 2016: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865866/age-related-differences-in-processes-organizing-goal-directed-locomotion-toward-emotional-pictures
#15
S Vernazza-Martin, L Fautrelle, S Vieillard, S Longuet, V Dru
Previous studies yielded evidence for an interaction between age and valence in numerous cognitive processes. But, to date, no research has been conducted in the field of motor skills. In this study, we examined the age-related differences in the organization of an emotionally goal-directed locomotion task. Faced with a pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral picture displayed to the side of a stop button, younger and older adults were instructed to walk toward the button (intermediate goal) and push it to turn-off the picture (final goal)...
November 16, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862440/fertility-of-angus-cross-beef-heifers-after-gnrh-treatment-on-day-23-and-timing-of-insemination-in-14-day-cidr-protocol
#16
R K Kasimanickam, J B Hall, W D Whittier
This study compared artificial insemination pregnancy rate (AI-PR) between 14-day CIDR-GnRH-PGF2α-GnRH and CIDR-PGF2α-GnRH synchronization protocol with two fixed AI times (56 or 72 hr after PGF2α). On day 0, heifers (n = 1311) from nine locations assigned body condition score (BCS: 1, emaciated; 9, obese), reproductive tract score (RTS: 1, immature, acyclic; 5, mature, cyclic) and temperament score (0, calm; and 1, excited) and fitted with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR, 1.38 g of progesterone) insert for 14 days...
November 14, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853426/a-reaction-time-experiment-on-adult-attachment-the-development-of-a-measure-for-neurophysiological-settings
#17
Theresia Wichmann, Anna Buchheim, Hans Menning, Ingmar Schenk, Carol George, Dan Pokorny
In the last few decades, there has been an increase of experimental research on automatic unconscious processes concerning the evaluation of the self and others. Previous research investigated implicit aspects of romantic attachment using self-report measures as explicit instruments for assessing attachment style. There is a lack of experimental procedures feasible for neurobiological settings. We developed a reaction time (RT) experiment using a narrative attachment measure with an implicit nature and were interested to capture automatic processes, when the individuals' attachment system is activated...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832733/space-and-motion-stimulus-response-correspondence-src-effects-in-a-single-task
#18
Piotr Styrkowiec
Previous research indicated that congruency between stimulus location and response position (spatial stimulus-response correspondence [SRC]) and stimulus motion and response movement congruency (motion SRC) are distinct SRC phenomena. This study further explored this issue and tested whether these two SRC effects are independent. This was conducted by investigating these two SRC effects in a single task. A stimulus with leftward or rightward motion was presented on the left or the right side of the screen and the participant had to move the joysticks held with the left and right hands leftward or rightward in response to the stimulus color...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825382/a-monoclonal-antibody-based-immunoassay-to-measure-the-antibody-response-against-the-repeat-region-of-the-circumsporozoite-protein-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#19
Kristina Radin, Frederic Clement, Erik Jongert, Yann G J Sterckx, Christian Ockenhouse, Jason Regules, Franck Lemiale, Geert Leroux-Roels
BACKGROUND: The malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S/AS01 (GSK Vaccines) induces high IgG concentration against the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum. In human vaccine recipients circulating anti-CSP antibody concentrations are associated with protection against infection but appear not to be the correlate of protection. However, in a humanized mouse model of malaria infection prophylactic administration of a human monoclonal antibody (MAL1C), derived from a RTS,S/AS01-immunized volunteer, directed against the CSP repeat region, conveyed full protection in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that antibodies alone are able to prevent P...
November 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825348/bacterial-superglue-generates-a-full-length-circumsporozoite-protein-virus-like-particle-vaccine-capable-of-inducing-high-and-durable-antibody-responses
#20
Christoph M Janitzek, Sungwa Matondo, Susan Thrane, Morten A Nielsen, Reginald Kavishe, Steve B Mwakalinga, Thor G Theander, Ali Salanti, Adam F Sander
BACKGROUND: Malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum, continues to have a devastating impact on global health, emphasizing the great need for a malaria vaccine. The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is an attractive target for a malaria vaccine, and forms a major component of RTS,S, the most clinically advanced malaria vaccine. The clinical efficacy of RTS,S has been moderate, yet has demonstrated the viability of a CSP-based malaria vaccine. In this study, a vaccine comprised of the full-length CSP antigen presented on a virus-like particle (VLP) is produced using a split-intein conjugation system (SpyTag/SpyCatcher) and the immunogenicity is tested in mice...
November 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
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