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plant metabolomics

María Jesús Martínez Bueno, Francisco José Díaz-Galiano, Łukasz Rajski, Víctor Cutillas, Amadeo R Fernández-Alba
In the last decade, the consumption trend of organic food has increased dramatically worldwide. However, the lack of reliable chemical markers to discriminate between organic and conventional products makes this market susceptible to food fraud in products labeled as "organic". Metabolomic fingerprinting approach has been demonstrated as the best option for a full characterization of metabolome occurring in plants, since their pattern may reflect the impact of both endogenous and exogenous factors...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Humberto Mitio Horikoshi, Yoshihiko Sekozawa, Makoto Kobayashi, Kazuki Saito, Miyako Kusano, Sumiko Sugaya
Dormancy is a complex phenomenon that allows plants to survive the winter season. Studies of dormancy have recently attracted more attention due to the expansion of temperate fruit production in areas under mild winters and due to climate changes. This study aimed to identify and characterize the metabolic changes induced by chilling temperatures, as well as during thermal fluctuation conditions that simulate mild winter and/or climate change scenarios. To do this, we compared the metabolic profile of Japanese pear flower buds exposed to constant chilling at 6 °C and thermal fluctuations of 6 °C/18 °C (150 h/150 h) during endodormancy...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ricarda Höhner, Joaquim V Marques, Tetsuro Ito, Yoshiaki Amakura, Alan D Budgeon, Karl Weitz, Kim K Hixson, Laurence B Davin, Helmut Kirchhoff, Norman G Lewis
Arogenate dehydratase (ADT) catalyzes the final step of phenylalanine (Phe) biosynthesis. Previous work showed that ADT-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants had significantly reduced lignin contents, with stronger reductions in lines that had deficiencies in more ADT isoforms. Here, by analyzing Arabidopsis ADT mutants using our phenomics facility and UPLC-MS based metabolomics, we describe the effects of modulation of ADT on photosynthetic parameters and secondary metabolism. Our data indicate that a reduced carbon flux into Phe biosynthesis in ADT mutants impairs the consumption of photosynthetically produced ATP leading to an increased ATP/ADP ratio, the over-accumulation of transitory starch, and lower electron transport rates...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Simon R Law, Daria Chrobok, Marta Juvany, Nicolas Delhomme, Pernilla Lindén, Bastiaan Brouwer, Abdul Ahad, Thomas Moritz, Stefan Jansson, Per Gardestrom, Olivier Keech
In plants, an individually darkened leaf (IDL) initiates senescence much more rapidly than a leaf from a whole darkened plant (DP). Combining transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana, we present an overview of the metabolic strategies that are employed in response to different darkening treatments. Under DP conditions, the perception of carbon starvation drove a profound metabolic readjustment in which lipids, branched-chain amino acids, and potentially monosaccharides released from cell wall loosening became important substrates for maintaining minimal ATP production...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Almudena Trapero-Mozos, Laurence J M Ducreux, Craita E Bita, Wayne Morris, Cosima Wiese, Jenny A Morris, Christy Paterson, Peter E Hedley, Robert D Hancock, Mark Taylor
A powerful acquired thermotolerance response in potato was demonstrated and characterised in detail, showing the time course required for tolerance, the reversibility of the process and requirement for light. Potato is particularly vulnerable to increased temperature, considered to be the most important uncontrollable factor affecting growth and yield of this globally significant crop. Here, we describe an acquired thermotolerance response in potato, whereby treatment at a mildly elevated temperature primes the plant for more severe heat stress...
March 8, 2018: Planta
Juan I Vílchez, Karsten Niehaus, David N Dowling, Jesús González-López, Maximino Manzanera
Drought tolerance of plants such as tomato or pepper can be improved by their inoculation with rhizobacteria such as Microbacterium sp. 3J1. This interaction depends on the production of trehalose by the microorganisms that in turn modulate the phyto-hormone profile of the plant. In this work we describe the characterization of metabolic changes during the interaction of pepper plants with Microbacterium sp. 3J1 and of the microorganism alone over a period of drought. Our main findings include the observation that the plant responds to the presence of the microorganism by changing the C and N metabolism based on its glutamine and α-ketoglutarate content, these changes contribute to major changes in the concentration of molecules involved in the balance of the osmotic pressure...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jiyoung Shin, Jung-Eun Kim, Yin-Won Lee, Hokyoung Son
Cytochrome P450s (CYPs), heme-containing monooxygenases, play important roles in a wide variety of metabolic processes important for development as well as biotic/trophic interactions in most living organisms. Functions of some CYP enzymes are similar across organisms, but some are organism-specific; they are involved in the biosynthesis of structural components, signaling networks, secondary metabolisms, and xenobiotic/drug detoxification. Fungi possess more diverse CYP families than plants, animals, or bacteria...
March 7, 2018: Toxins
Xingyun Wang, Qingsong Liu, Michael Meissle, Yufa Peng, Kongming Wu, Jörg Romeis, Yunhe Li
Genetically engineered (GE) rice lines expressing Lepidoptera-active insecticidal cry genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed in China. Field surveys indicated that Bt rice harbours fewer rice planthoppers than non-Bt rice although planthoppers are not sensitive to the produced Bt Cry proteins. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. Here we show that the low numbers of planthoppers on Bt rice is associated with reduced caterpillar damage. In laboratory and field-cage experiments, the rice planthopper Nilapavata lugens had no feeding preference for undamaged Bt or non-Bt plants but exhibited a strong preference for caterpillar-damaged plants whether Bt or non-Bt...
March 6, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Kaspar Valgepea, Renato de Souza Pinto Lemgruber, Tanus Abdalla, Steve Binos, Nobuaki Takemori, Ayako Takemori, Yuki Tanaka, Ryan Tappel, Michael Köpke, Séan Dennis Simpson, Lars Keld Nielsen, Esteban Marcellin
Background: The global demand for affordable carbon has never been stronger, and there is an imperative in many industrial processes to use waste streams to make products. Gas-fermenting acetogens offer a potential solution and several commercial gas fermentation plants are currently under construction. As energy limits acetogen metabolism, supply of H2 should diminish substrate loss to CO2 and facilitate production of reduced and energy-intensive products. However, the effects of H2 supply on CO-grown acetogens have yet to be experimentally quantified under controlled growth conditions...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Nathan T Reem, Han-Yi Chen, Manhoi Hur, Xuefeng Zhao, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Xu Li, Ling Li, Olga Zabotina
This research provides new insights into plant response to cell wall perturbations through correlation of transcriptome and metabolome datasets obtained from transgenic plants expressing cell wall-modifying enzymes. Plants respond to changes in their cell walls in order to protect themselves from pathogens and other stresses. Cell wall modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana have profound effects on gene expression and defense response, but the cell signaling mechanisms underlying these responses are not well understood...
March 3, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Eirini Sarrou, Lefki-Pavlina Giassafaki, Domenico Masuero, Daniele Perenzoni, Ioannis S Vizirianakis, Maria Irakli, Paschalina Chatzopoulou, Stefan Martens
Hypericum perforatum is known as an important medicinal plant, used for the treatment of several diseases, while its pharmacological properties are attributed to the presence of a wide range of secondary metabolites. Due to the great chemotypic variability of Hypericum species in the nature, and the demand for standardized herbal products, a detailed phytochemical investigation was carried out on different parts (herba, leaf, flowers) from wild collected and cultivated populations, using advanced chromatographic tools...
February 27, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Joana Carrola, Ricardo J B Pinto, Maryam Nasirpour, Carmen S R Freire, Ana M Gil, Conceição Santos, Helena Oliveira, Iola F Duarte
The expansion of biomedical and therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) raises the need to further understand their biological effects on human cells. In this work, NMR metabolomics has been applied to reveal the metabolic effects of AgNPs toward human hepatoma (HepG2) cells, which are relevant with respect to nanoparticle accumulation and detoxification. Cellular responses to widely disseminated citrate-coated AgNPs (Cit30) and to emergent biogenic AgNPs prepared using an aqueous plant extract as reducing and stabilizing agent (GS30) have been compared with a view to assess the influence of nanoparticle coating on the metabolic effects produced...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Marta-Marina Pérez-Alonso, Víctor Carrasco-Loba, Joaquín Medina, Jesús Vicente-Carbajosa, Stephan Pollmann
Over the last three decades, novel "omics" platform technologies for the sequencing of DNA and complementary DNA (cDNA) (RNA-Seq), as well as for the analysis of proteins and metabolites by mass spectrometry, have become more and more available and increasingly found their way into general laboratory life. With this, the ability to generate highly multivariate datasets on the biological systems of choice has increased tremendously. However, the processing and, perhaps even more importantly, the integration of "omics" datasets still remains a bottleneck, although considerable computational and algorithmic advances have been made in recent years...
February 28, 2018: High Throughput
Nyuk Ling Ma, Wan Afifudeen Che Lah, Nisrin Abd Kadir, Mohamad Mustaqim, Zaidah Rahmat, Aziz Ahmad, Su Datt Lam, Mohd Razi Ismail
Salinity threat is estimated to reduce global rice production by 50%. Comprehensive analysis of the physiological and metabolite changes in rice plants from salinity stress (i.e. tolerant versus susceptible plants) is important to combat higher salinity conditions. In this study, we screened a total of 92 genotypes and selected the most salinity tolerant line (SS1-14) and most susceptible line (SS2-18) to conduct comparative physiological and metabolome inspections. We demonstrated that the tolerant line managed to maintain their water and chlorophyll content with lower incidence of sodium ion accumulation...
2018: PloS One
Artur Conde, Andreia Neves, Richard Breia, Diana Pimentel, Lia-Tânia Dinis, Sara Bernardo, Carlos Manuel Correia, Ana Cunha, Hernâni Gerós, José Moutinho-Pereira
Water scarcity is associated with extreme temperatures and high irradiance, and significantly and increasingly affects grapevine yield and quality. In this context, the foliar application of kaolin, a chemically inert mineral that greatly reflects ultraviolet and infrared radiations, as well as, in part, photosynthetically active radiation, has recently been shown to decrease photoinhibition in mature leaves. Here, the influence of this particle film on grapevine leaf metabolome and carbohydrate metabolism was evaluated...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Blanca Velasco-Arroyo, Mercedes Diaz-Mendoza, Andrea Gomez-Sanchez, Beatriz Moreno-Garcia, Maria Estrella Santamaria, Miguel Torija-Bonilla, Goetz Hensel, Jochen Kumlehn, Manuel Martinez, Isabel Diaz
Protein breakdown and mobilization are some of the major metabolic features associated with abiotic stresses, essential for nutrient recycling and plant survival. Genetic manipulation of protease and/or protease inhibitors may contribute to modulate proteolytic processes and plant responses. The expression analysis of the whole cystatin family, inhibitors of C1A cysteine proteases, after water deprivation in barley leaves highlighted the involvement of Icy2 and Icy4 cystatin genes. Artificial microRNA lines independently silencing the two drought-induced cystatins were generated to assess their function in planta...
February 27, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Msizi I Mhlongo, Lizelle A Piater, Ntakadzeni E Madala, Nico Labuschagne, Ian A Dubery
Plant roots communicate with microbes in a sophisticated manner through chemical communication within the rhizosphere, thereby leading to biofilm formation of beneficial microbes and, in the case of plant growth-promoting rhizomicrobes/-bacteria (PGPR), resulting in priming of defense, or induced resistance in the plant host. The knowledge of plant-plant and plant-microbe interactions have been greatly extended over recent years; however, the chemical communication leading to priming is far from being well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
François Chassagne, Mohamed Haddad, Aurélien Amiel, Chiobouaphong Pharkeovilay, Chanthanom Manithip, Geneviève Bourdy, Eric Deharo, Guillaume Marti
Liver cancer is a major health burden in Southeast Asia, and most patients turn towards the use of medicinal plants to alleviate their symptoms. The aim of this work was to apply to Southeast Asian plants traditionally used to treat liver disorders, a successive ranking strategy based on a comprehensive review of the literature and metabolomic data in order to relate ethnopharmacological relevance to chemical entities of interest. We analyzed 45 publications resulting in a list of 378 plant species, and our point system based on the frequency of citation in the literature allowed the selection of 10 top ranked species for further collection and extraction...
February 22, 2018: Fitoterapia
Faith M Robison, Marie Turner, Courtney E Jahn, Howard F Schwartz, Jessica E Prenni, Mark A Brick, Adam L Heuberger
Plant physiology and metabolism are important components of a plant response to microbial pathogens. Physiological resistance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been established, but the mechanisms of resistance are largely unknown. Here, the physiological and metabolic responses of bean varieties that differ in physiological resistance to S. sclerotiorum are investigated. Upon infection, the resistant bean variety A195 had a unique physiological response that included reduced photosynthesis and maintaining a higher leaf surface pH during infection...
February 24, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Sezgi Biyiklioglu, Burcu Alptekin, B Ani Akpinar, Andrea C Varella, Megan L Hofland, David K Weaver, Brian Bothner, Hikmet Budak
The wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is an important pest of wheat and other cereals, threatening the quality and quantity of grain production. WSS larvae feed and develop inside the stem where they are protected from the external environment; therefore, pest management strategies primarily rely on host plant resistance. A major locus on the long arm of wheat chromosome 3B underlies most of the variation in stem solidness; however, the impact of stem solidness on WSS feeding has not been completely characterized...
February 22, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
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