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intestine DC

Danai Agiasotelli, Alexandra Alexopoulou, Larisa Vasilieva, Emilia Hadziyannis, Dimitris Goukos, George L Daikos, Spyros P Dourakis
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein (LBP) is an acute-phase-protein produced by hepatocytes. Changes in LBP are associated with the dynamics of bacterial translocation and intestinal permeability in decompensated cirrhosis (DC). We assessed serum and ascitic-fluid (AF) LBP and examined their association with mortality in patients with DC. METHODS: Eighty-eight consecutive patients (73.9% males) underwent thorough diagnostic investigations for infection...
October 6, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Jian-Ming Li, Christopher T Petersen, Jingxia Li, Reema Panjwani, Daniel J Chandra, Cynthia R Giver, Bruce R Blazar, Edmund K Waller
The goal of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) is elimination of leukemia cells through the graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) activity of donor cells, while limiting graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Immune checkpoint pathways regulate GvL and GvHD activities, but blocking antibodies or genetic inactivation of these pathways can cause lethal GVHD. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an immunosuppressive neuropeptide that regulates co-inhibitory pathways; its role in allo-BMT has not been studied...
September 26, 2016: Cancer Research
T Sun, O L Rojas, C Li, L A Ward, D J Philpott, J L Gommerman
Although we know a great deal about which types of dendritic cells (DCs) promote T-cell priming in the periphery, less is known about which DC subset(s) provoke antiviral responses within the gut. Here we report that conventional Zbtb46-dependent DCs were critically required for antiviral CD8(+) T-cell responses against rotavirus (RV), the major cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Furthermore, we found that in adult mice, Batf3-dependent DCs were required for generating optimal RV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses...
September 7, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Long Hang, Arthur M Blum, Sangeeta Kumar, Joseph F Urban, Makedonka Mitreva, Timothy G Geary, Armando Jardim, Mary M Stevenson, Clifford A Lowell, Joel V Weinstock
Helminthic infections modulate host immunity and may protect people in less-developed countries from developing immunological diseases. In a murine colitis model, the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri prevents colitis via induction of regulatory dendritic cells (DCs). The mechanism driving the development of these regulatory DCs is unexplored. There is decreased expression of the intracellular signaling pathway spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in intestinal DCs from H. polygyrus bakeri-infected mice. To explore the importance of this observation, it was shown that intestinal DCs from DC-specific Syk(-/-) mice were powerful inhibitors of murine colitis, suggesting that loss of Syk was sufficient to convert these cells into their regulatory phenotype...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Szu-Wei Huang, Catherine Walker, Joanne Pennock, Kathryn Else, Werner Muller, Michael J D Daniels, Carolina Pellegrini, David Brough, Gloria Lopez-Castejon, Sheena M Cruickshank
Infection and injury of the gut are associated with cell damage and release of molecules such as extracellular ATP which is recognised by the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). P2X7R is widely expressed in the gut by antigen presenting cells (APC) and epithelial cells, but the role of the P2X7R on epithelial cells is poorly understood. We investigated P2X7R in intestinal epithelium in vitro and in vivo using two model infections- Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis. LPS and ATP treatment of intestinal epithelial cells and infection with T...
August 25, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
Chuanping Si, Ruihua Zhang, Tianshu Wu, Geming Lu, Yuan Hu, Hui Zhang, Feihong Xu, Peter Wei, Kang Chen, Hua Tang, Garabet Yeretssian, Huabao Xiong
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the development of effective immune defense while avoiding detrimental inflammation and autoimmunity by regulating the balance of adaptive immunity and immune tolerance. However, the mechanisms that govern the effector and regulatory functions of DCs are incompletely understood. Here, we show that DC-derived nitric oxide (NO) controls the balance of effector and regulatory DC differentiation. Mice deficient in the NO-producing enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) harbored increased effector DCs that produced interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-6 but normal numbers of regulatory DCs that expressed IL-10 and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)...
August 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Yanni Zhou, Juan Shan, Yingjia Guo, Shengfu Li, Dan Long, Youping Li, Li Feng
Objective. To dissect the efficacy of Tol-DC therapy with or without IS in multiple animal models of transplantation. Methods and Results. PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for reviews published up to April 2015. Six systematic reviews and a total of 61 articles were finally included. Data were grouped by organ transplantation models and applied to meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis shows that Tol-DC therapy successfully prolonged allograft survival to varying extents in all except the islet transplantation models and with IS drugs further prolonged the survival of heart, skin, and islet allografts in mice, but not of heart allografts in rats...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Dong-Hun Woo, Qijun Chen, Ting-Lin B Yang, M Rebecca Glineburg, Carla Hoge, Nicolae A Leu, F Brad Johnson, Christopher J Lengner
Patients with dyskeratosis congenita (DC) suffer from stem cell failure in highly proliferative tissues, including the intestinal epithelium. Few therapeutic options exist for this disorder, and patients are treated primarily with bone marrow transplantation to restore hematopoietic function. Here, we generate isogenic DC patient and disease allele-corrected intestinal tissue using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated gene correction in induced pluripotent stem cells and directed differentiation...
September 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Balázs Koscsó, Milena Bogunovic
The unit presents a method for analysis of intestinal dendritic cell (DC) and macrophage subsets by flow cytometry in the single cell suspension prepared from the mouse small and large intestine (Basic Protocol). describes a strategy to enrich the hematopoietic cell fraction in the sample by Percoll gradient centrifugation, and describes preparation of single cell suspensions from specific tissue layers of the small intestine, such as the epithelium, villi mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa. Finally, Support Protocol explains how to purify specific intestinal DC and macrophage subsets by flow-cytometry-based cell sorting...
2016: Current Protocols in Immunology
Anastasia N Vlasova, Lulu Shao, Sukumar Kandasamy, David D Fischer, Abdul Rauf, Stephanie N Langel, Kuldeep S Chattha, Anand Kumar, Huang-Chi Huang, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a gram-positive lactic acid bacterium, is one of the most widely used probiotics; while fewer gram-negative probiotics including Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are characterized. A mechanistic understanding of their individual and interactive effects on human rotavirus (HRV) and immunity is lacking. In this study, noncolonized, EcN-, LGG-, and EcN + LGG-colonized neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were challenged with HRV. EcN colonization is associated with a greater protection against HRV, and induces the highest frequencies of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), significantly increased NK-cell function and decreased frequencies of apoptotic and TLR4(+) mononuclear cells (MNCs)...
October 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Qi Su, Jiao He, Ziye Wang, Le Lv, Yuan Suo, Jingjing Wang, Zongwei Zheng, Chuanchuan Huo, Jing Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Menispermum dauricum DC., commonly known as "Bei Dou Gen" (BDG) in China, has been used extensively in folk medicine to treat inflammatory diseases, especially intestinal inflammations such as enteritis and dysentery, and in pharyngitis, tonsillitis, rheumatism and bronchitis. Although previous studies showed that BDG has anti-inflammatory activities, its effects on ulcerative colitis (UC) have not yet been explored. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the intestinal anti-inflammatory effect of the rhizome extracts of Menispermum dauricum DC...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
John B Gorham, Seungha Kang, Barbara A Williams, Lucas J Grant, Christopher S McSweeney, Michael J Gidley, Deirdre Mikkelsen
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of two cereal soluble dietary fibres (SDF), wheat arabinoxylan (AX) and oat-mixed linkage glucans (MLG), on fermentative end-products and bacterial community profiles of the porcine caecum (Cae) and distal colon (DC). We hypothesised that feeding pigs these SDF would stimulate Cae and DC carbohydrate fermentation, resulting in a modification of the resident bacterial communities. METHODS: Five groups of six pigs were each fed one diet based on wheat starch (WS) only, or treatment diets in which some WS was replaced by 10 % AX, or 10 % MLG, a combination of 5 % AX:5 % MLG (AXMLG), or completely replaced with ground whole wheat...
July 11, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Kerry L Hilligan, Lisa M Connor, Alfonso J Schmidt, Franca Ronchese
Macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) populations residing in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) are highly heterogeneous and have disparate yet collaborative roles in the promotion of adaptive immune responses towards intestinal antigen. Under steady-state conditions, macrophages are efficient at acquiring antigen but are non-migratory. In comparison, intestinal DC are inefficient at antigen uptake but migrate to the mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN) where they present antigen to T cells. Whether such distinction in the roles of DC and macrophages in the uptake and transport of antigen is maintained under immunostimulatory conditions is less clear...
2016: PloS One
Gilles Boschetti, Reem Kanjarawi, Emilie Bardel, Sophie Collardeau-Frachon, Remi Duclaux-Loras, Ludovic Moro-Sibilot, Thibaut Almeras, Bernard Flourié, Stephane Nancey, Dominique Kaiserlian
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Regulatory Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells [Tregs] have been implicated in the control of colitis in T-cell transfer models, yet their ability to regulate colitis induced by innate immunity and the impact of gut inflammation on their fate and function have been poorly documented. METHODS: Colitis was induced by dextran sodium sulphate in DEREG transgenic mice. Tregs ablation and transfer experiments showd that Tregs could limit the severity of colitis in B6 mice...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Edelmarie Rivera de Jesus, Raymond A Isidro, Myrella L Cruz, Harry Marty, Caroline B Appleyard
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing inflammatory conditions of unknown cause and likely result from the loss of immunological tolerance, which leads to over-activation of the gut immune system. Gut macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for maintaining tolerance, but can also contribute to the inflammatory response in conditions such as IBD. Current therapies for IBD are limited by high costs and unwanted toxicities and side effects. The possibility of reducing intestinal inflammation with DCs genetically engineered to over-express the apoptosis-inducing FasL (FasL-DCs) has not yet been explored...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
María Fernández-Santoscoy, Ulf Alexander Wenzel, Emma Persson, Ulf Yrlid, William Agace, Mary Jo Wick
CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DC) are the major migratory DC subset in the small intestine lamina propria (siLP) and their survival is dependent on the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4). Mice with a DC-specific deletion of irf4 (CD11c-cre.Irf4 mice) have reduced mucosal CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC and altered T cell differentiation to protein antigen. The influence of CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC on oral infection with the gastrointestinal pathogen Salmonella, however, is poorly understood and is investigated here...
August 2016: Immunology Letters
Raine Toivonen, Lingjia Kong, Omid Rasool, Riikka J Lund, Riitta Lahesmaa, Arno Hänninen
Dendritic cells (DCs) bear the main responsibility for initiation of adaptive immune responses necessary for antimicrobial immunity. In the small intestine, afferent lymphatics convey Ags and microbial signals to mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs) to induce adaptive immune responses against microbes and food Ags derived from the small intestine. Whether the large intestine is covered by the same lymphatic system or represents its own lymphoid compartment has not been studied until very recently. We identified three small mesenteric LNs, distinct from small intestinal LNs, which drain lymph specifically from the colon, and studied DC responses to the attaching and effacing pathogen Citrobacter rodentium in these...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Andrea Reboldi, Tal I Arnon, Lauren B Rodda, Amha Atakilit, Dean Sheppard, Jason G Cyster
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) induction primarily occurs in intestinal Peyer's patches (PPs). However, the cellular interactions necessary for IgA class switching are poorly defined. Here we show that in mice, activated B cells use the chemokine receptor CCR6 to access the subepithelial dome (SED) of PPs. There, B cells undergo prolonged interactions with SED dendritic cells (DCs). PP IgA class switching requires innate lymphoid cells, which promote lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR)-dependent maintenance of DCs. PP DCs augment IgA production by integrin αvβ8-mediated activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)...
May 13, 2016: Science
Wei-Yu Cao, Bin Feng, Li-Fei Cheng, Ying Wang, Ji Wang, Xiao-Juan Wang
BACKGROUND: Ardipusilloside-I (ADS-I) is a triterpenoid saponin extracted from Chinese medicinal herb Ardisiapusill A. DC. Previous studies have demonstrated the potent anti-tumor activities of ADS-I both in vitro and in vivo, and its main metabolites (M1 and M2) from human intestinal bacteria. However, the physicochemical properties and intestinal permeation rate of ADS-I and its metabolites are not understood. In this study, the octanol/water distribution coefficients (logP) of ADS-I and metabolites were investigated using standard shake flask technique, and their permeability properties was investigated across Caco-2 cells monolayer...
2016: Chemistry Central Journal
Caterina Curato, Biana Bernshtein, Tegest Aychek, Steffen Jung
The study of the intestinal dendritic cell (DC) compartment, its homeostasis, regulation, and response to challenges calls for the investigation within the physiological tissue context comprising the unique anatomic constellation of the epithelial single cell layer and the luminal microbiota, as well as neighboring immune and nonimmune cells. Here we provide protocols we developed that use a combination of conditional cell ablation, conditional compartment mutagenesis, and adoptive precursor transfers to study DC and other intestinal mononuclear phagocytes in in vivo context...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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