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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336524/human-intestinal-dendritic-cells-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#1
REVIEW
David Bernardo, María Chaparro, Javier P Gisbert
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a serious, costly and persistent health problem with an estimated prevalence in Western countries around 0.5% of the general population; its socioeconomic impact is comparable with that for chronic diseases such as diabetes. Conventional treatment involves escalating drug regimens with concomitant side effects followed, in some cases, by surgical interventions which are often multiple, mainly in Crohn's disease. The goal of finding a targeted gut-specific immunotherapy for IBD patients is therefore an important unmet need...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328042/dynamics-of-changes-in-indices-of-endogenous-intoxication-in-patients-with-acute-small-intestinal-obstruction-in-case-of-reamberin-use-in-the-comprehensive-treatment
#2
V Skrypko, A Kovalenko, E Talikova
The objective of this research was to study changes in parameters, characterizing endogenous intoxication in patients with acute small bowel obstruction with Reamberin included into therapy scheme. Full physical examination and surgical treatment of 202 patients with acute small bowel obstruction were conducted. The control group included 30 healthy individuals. Dynamics of such clinical biochemical parameters as medium mass molecules (MMM), malondialdehyde (MDA), diene conjugates (DC) in blood serum were analyzed in preoperative period and on the 1st, 5th and 14th day of postoperative period...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300158/vaccination-of-sows-with-a-dendritic-cell-targeted-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-s1-protein-based-candidate-vaccine-reduced-viral-shedding-but-exacerbated-gross-pathological-lesions-in-suckling-neonatal-piglets
#3
Sakthivel Subramaniam, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Adam J Rogers, Harini Sooryanarain, Tanya LeRoith, Christopher Overend, Dianjun Cao, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) poses a serious threat to swine worldwide as evidenced by its recent introduction into the USA and the devastating economic impact it caused to the USA swine industry. Commercial vaccines against PEDV are available but their efficacies are inadequate. Therefore, vaccines with improved efficacy are needed to effectively control PEDV infections. We previously determined the immunogenicity of a novel dendritic cell (DC)-targeted PEDV S1 protein-based subunit vaccine in weaned piglets in which the PEDV antigen was targeted to DCs through a porcine Langerin-specific antibody...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281833/nlrp3-controls-the-development-of-gastrointestinal-cd11b-dendritic-cells-in-the-steady-state-and-during-chronic-bacterial-infection
#4
Isabelle C Arnold, Xiaozhou Zhang, Sabine Urban, Mariela Artola-Borán, Markus G Manz, Karen M Ottemann, Anne Müller
The gastric lamina propria is largely uncharted immunological territory. Here we describe the evolution and composition of the gastric, small intestinal, and colonic lamina propria mononuclear phagocyte system during the steady state and infection with the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. We show that monocytes, CX3CR1hi macrophages, and CD11b+ dendritic cells are recruited to the infected stomach in a CCR2-dependent manner. All three populations, but not BATF3-dependent CD103+ DCs, sample red fluorescent protein (RFP)+Helicobacter pylori (H...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228157/gut-epithelial-vitamin-d-receptor-regulates-microbiota-dependent-mucosal-inflammation-by-suppressing-intestinal-epithelial-cell-apoptosis
#5
Lei He, Tianjing Liu, Yongyan Shi, Feng Tian, Huiyuan Hu, Dilip K Deb, Yinyin Chen, Marc Bissonnette, Yan Chun Li
Recent studies show that colonic vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling protects the mucosal epithelial barrier and suppresses colonic inflammation, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be fully understood. To investigate the implication of colonic VDR down-regulation seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, we assessed the effect of gut epithelial VDR deletion on colonic inflammatory responses in an experimental colitis model. In 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model, mice carrying VDR deletion in gut epithelial cells (VDRf/f;Villin-Cre or VDRΔIEC) or in colonic epithelial cells (VDRf/f;CDX2-Cre or VDRΔCEC) developed more severe clinical colitis than VDRf/f control mice, characterized by more robust TH1 and TH17 responses, with greater increases in mucosal IFN-γ+, IL-17+ and IFN-γ+IL-17+ T cells...
December 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200903/ardipusilloside-i-stimulates-gastrointestinal-motility-and-phosphorylation-of-smooth-muscle-myosin-by-myosin-light-chain-kinase
#6
Zhili Xu, Hanye Liang, Mingbo Zhang, Xiaojun Tao, Deqiang Dou, Liping Hu, Tingguo Kang
Ardipusilloside-I is a natural triterpenoid saponin, which was isolated from Ardisia pusilla A. DC. The aim of the study was to evaluate the stimulation of ardipusilloside-I on gastrointestinal motility in vitro and in vivo. The experiment of smooth muscle contraction directly monitored the contractions of the isolated jejunal segment (IJS) in different contractile states, and the effects of ardipusilloside-I on myosin were measured in the presence of Ca2+-calmodulin using the activities of 20 kDa myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation and myosin Mg2+-ATPase...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194317/gut-epithelial-cell-derived-exosomes-trigger-post-trauma-immune-dysfunction
#7
Mitsuaki Kojima, Todd W Costantini, Brian P Eliceiri, Theresa W Chan, Andrew Baird, Raul Coimbra
INTRODUCTION: Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that act as endogenous mediators of the immune response. We have previously shown that exosomes released into mesenteric lymph (ML) following trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) induce pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and are involved in the pathogenesis of post-shock acute lung injury. However, the cellular origin of ML exosomes and their role in the post-trauma immune response remains unclear. We hypothesized that exosomes released from damaged-intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) contribute to post-trauma immune dysfunction by altering the function of dendritic cells (DCs), key regulators of the adaptive immunity...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134690/faecal-calcium-excretion-does-not-decrease-during-long-term-feeding-of-a-low-calcium-diet-in-adult-dogs
#8
S Schmitt, J Mack, E Kienzle, L G Alexander, P J Morris, A Colyer, B Dobenecker
According to a previous meta-analysis, adult dogs do not notably increase calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract when calcium intake is decreased. This results in a negative calcium balance even with a moderate calcium reduction. In this study we wanted to verify (i) whether a negative calcium balance occurs at a calcium intake equivalent to NRC (2006) (Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats, 2006, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC) minimal requirements, and if so (ii) whether the negative calcium balance will persist for up to 6 months on a low-calcium diet...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115398/vibrio-vulnificus-infection-induces-the-maturation-and-activation-of-dendritic-cells-with-inflammatory-th17-polarizing-ability
#9
Arim Lee, Hui Xuan Lim, Myun Soo Kim, Daeho Cho, Kyung Ku Jang, Sang Ho Choi, Tae Sung Kim
Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) is a gram-negative bacterium, which causes life-threatening septicemia and gastroenteritis through the consumption of contaminated seafood or wound infection. In addition, V. vulnificus infection is known to stimulate the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are associated with inflammatory responses mediated predominantly by dendritic cells (DCs), functioning as antigen-presenting cells. The present study aimed to investigate whether V. vulnificus infection induced the maturation and activation of murine DCs, which have the ability to polarize T helper (Th) cells into Th17 cells...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106601/flexible-fate-commitment-of-e2-2high-common-dc-progenitors-implies-tuning-in-tissue-microenvironments
#10
Nobuyuki Onai, Jumpei Asano, Rumiko Kurosaki-Nakamura, Shoko Kuroda, Toshiaki Ohteki
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor E2-2 is essential for the development of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) but not conventional DCs (cDCs). Here, we generated E2-2 reporter mice and demonstrated that an E2-2high fraction among common DC progenitors (CDPs), which are a major source of pDCs and cDCs in the steady state, strictly gave rise to pDCs in the presence of Flt3 ligand ex vivo or in the secondary lymphoid organs when transferred in vivo. However, in the small intestine, some of these E2-2high progenitors differentiated into cDCs that produced retinoic acid...
November 2, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068402/oral-delivery-of-probiotics-expressing-dendritic-cell-targeting-peptide-fused-with-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-coe-antigen-a-promising-vaccine-strategy-against-pedv
#11
Xiaona Wang, Li Wang, Xuewei Huang, Sunting Ma, Meiling Yu, Wen Shi, Xinyuan Qiao, Lijie Tang, Yigang Xu, Yijing Li
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteric coronavirus, is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) that damages intestinal epithelial cells and results in severe diarrhea and dehydration in neonatal suckling pigs with up to 100% mortality. The oral vaccine route is reported as a promising approach for inducing protective immunity against PEDV invasion. Furthermore, dendritic cells (DCs), professional antigen-presenting cells, link humoral and cellular immune responses for homeostasis of the intestinal immune environment...
October 25, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055663/damage-control-concept-and-implementation
#12
B Malgras, B Prunet, X Lesaffre, G Boddaert, S Travers, P-J Cungi, E Hornez, O Barbier, H Lefort, S Beaume, M Bignand, J Cotte, P Esnault, J-L Daban, J Bordes, E Meaudre, J-P Tourtier, S Gaujoux, S Bonnet
The concept of damage control (DC) is based on a sequential therapeutic strategy that favors physiological restoration over anatomical repair in patients presenting acutely with hemorrhagic trauma. Initially described as damage control surgery (DCS) for war-wounded patients with abdominal penetrating hemorrhagic trauma, this concept is articulated in three steps: surgical control of lesions (hemostasis, sealing of intestinal spillage), physiological restoration, then surgery for definitive repair. This concept was quickly adapted for intensive care management under the name damage control resuscitation (DCR), which refers to the modalities of hospital resuscitation carried out in patients suffering from traumatic hemorrhagic shock within the context of DCS...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Visceral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960280/functional-specialization-of-intestinal-dendritic-cell-subsets-during-th2-helminth-infection-in-mice
#13
Stephen A Redpath, Graham A Heieis, Lisa A Reynolds, Nicolette M Fonseca, Sandra S-Y Kim, Georgia Perona-Wright
Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential in dictating the nature and effectiveness of immune responses. In the intestine DCs can be separated into discrete subsets, defined by expression of CD11b and CD103, each with different developmental requirements and distinct functional potential. Recent evidence has shown that different intestinal DC subsets are involved in the induction of T helper (Th)17 and regulatory T cell responses, but the cells that initiate Th2 immune responses are still incompletely understood...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951300/effect-of-sea-buckthorn-protein-on-the-intestinal-microbial-community-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#14
Huaibo Yuan, Fangfang Shi, Lina Meng, Wenjuan Wang
This study investigated the intestinal microbial community distribution of Type 2 diabetic mice and discussed the effects of the sea buckthorn protein on the regulation of gut microbes. Date was collected for 12 cases of normal mice (NC group), 12 cases of Type 2 diabetic mice (DC group), and 12 cases of highly concentrated sea buckthorn seed protein dosed mice (SSPH group). This study analysed fecal samples, measured faecal pH value, and cultivated and determined intestinal bacteria count. This investigation also included the extraction of faecal samples for genomic DNA, PCR amplification of bacterial V3 16S rDNA products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE map analysis of intestinal flora, determination of intestinal bacteria richness, Shannon-Wiener index and evenness index, and image similarity cluster analysis with UPGMA clustering...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931816/tgf%C3%AE-r-signalling-controls-cd103-cd11b-dendritic-cell-development-in-the-intestine
#15
C C Bain, J Montgomery, C L Scott, J M Kel, M J H Girard-Madoux, L Martens, T F P Zangerle-Murray, J Ober-Blöbaum, D Lindenbergh-Kortleve, J N Samsom, S Henri, T Lawrence, Y Saeys, B Malissen, M Dalod, B E Clausen, A McI Mowat
CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DCs) are unique to the intestine, but the factors governing their differentiation are unclear. Here we show that transforming growth factor receptor 1 (TGFβR1) has an indispensable, cell intrinsic role in the development of these cells. Deletion of Tgfbr1 results in markedly fewer intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs and a reciprocal increase in the CD103(-)CD11b(+) dendritic cell subset. Transcriptional profiling identifies markers that define the CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC lineage, including CD101, TREM1 and Siglec-F, and shows that the absence of CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs in CD11c-Cre...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913556/high-dose-vitamin-d3-supplementation-decreases-the-number-of-colonic-cd103-dendritic-cells-in-healthy-subjects
#16
Nina Friis Bak, M Bendix, S Hald, L Reinert, M K Magnusson, J Agnholt
PURPOSE: Vitamin D may induce tolerance in the intestinal immune system and has been shown to regulate the phenotype of tolerogenic intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. It is unknown whether vitamin D supplementation affects human intestinal DCs in vivo, and we aimed to investigate the tolerability and effect on intestinal CD103(+)DCs of high-dose vitamin D3 treatment in healthy subjects. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects received a total of 480,000 IU oral vitamin D3 over 15 days and colonic biopsies were obtained before and after intervention by endoscopy...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889122/galectin-9-produced-by-intestinal-epithelial-cells-enhances-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-in-dendritic-cells-in-a-pi3k-and-p38-dependent-manner
#17
Sander de Kivit, Atanaska I Kostadinova, JoAnn Kerperien, Veronica Ayechu Muruzabal, Mary E Morgan, Leon M J Knippels, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Linette E M Willemsen
Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) drive regulatory T cell (Treg) responses by promoting the differentiation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-expressing CD103+ dendritic cells (DC). Apical stimulation of TLR9 by CpG DNA on IEC supports galectin-9 expression by IEC, which is promoted by short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (GF). While galectin-9 can induce the maturation of monocyte-derived DC (moDC), the contribution of galectin-9 on the induction of ALDH activity in DC is not known...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861049/characterization-of-histopathological-and-ultrastructural-changes-in-channel-catfish-experimentally-infected-with-virulent-aeromonas-hydrophila
#18
Hossam Abdelhamed, Iman Ibrahim, Wes Baumgartner, Mark L Lawrence, Attila Karsi
A highly virulent clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) has been the cause of recent motile Aeromonas septicemia epizootic in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) farms in the Southeastern United States. The pathology of the disease caused by vAh has not been studied well yet. Thus, our aim was to determine histopathological and ultrastructural changes in channel catfish following vAh challenge. To accomplish this, catfish fingerlings were challenged with vAh (strain ML09-119) by bath. Six fish per each time point were collected at 1, 3, 5, 6, 24, and 48 h for light microscopy, and six fish were collected at 48 h for transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802050/distinct-dc-subsets-regulate-adaptive-th1-and-2-responses-during-trichuris-muris-infection
#19
M Demiri, K Müller-Luda, W W Agace, M Svensson-Frej
Low- and high-dose infections with the murine large intestinal nematode Trichuris muris are associated with induction of adaptive Th1 and Th2 responses, respectively, in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Classical dendritic cells (cDC) accumulate in the large intestinal mucosa and MLN upon T. muris infection, yet their role in driving adaptive responses to infection remains largely unknown. We performed low- and high-dose T. muris infections of mice deficient in defined cDC subsets to investigate their role in induction of adaptive immune responses...
August 12, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776072/tof-sims-and-principal-component-analysis-of-lipids-and-amino-acids-from-inflamed-and-dysplastic-human-colonic-mucosa
#20
Marco Urbini, Valentina Petito, Francesco de Notaristefani, Franco Scaldaferri, Antonio Gasbarrini, Luca Tortora
Here, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and multivariate analysis were combined to study the role of ulcerative colitis (UC), a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in the colon cancer progression. ToF-SIMS was used to obtain mass spectra and chemical maps from the mucosal surface of human normal (NC), inflamed (IC), and dysplastic (DC) colon tissues. Chemical mapping with a lateral resolution of ≈ 1 μm allowed to evaluate zonation of fatty acids and amino acids as well as the morphological condition of the intestinal glands...
October 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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