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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134690/faecal-calcium-excretion-does-not-decrease-during-long-term-feeding-of-a-low-calcium-diet-in-adult-dogs
#1
S Schmitt, J Mack, E Kienzle, L G Alexander, P J Morris, A Colyer, B Dobenecker
According to a previous meta-analysis, adult dogs do not notably increase calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract when calcium intake is decreased. This results in a negative calcium balance even with a moderate calcium reduction. In this study we wanted to verify (i) whether a negative calcium balance occurs at a calcium intake equivalent to NRC (2006) (Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats, 2006, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC) minimal requirements, and if so (ii) whether the negative calcium balance will persist for up to 6 months on a low-calcium diet...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115398/vibrio-vulnificus-infection-induces-the-maturation-and-activation-of-dendritic-cells-with-inflammatory-th17-polarizing-ability
#2
Arim Lee, Hui Xuan Lim, Myun Soo Kim, Daeho Cho, Kyung Ku Jang, Sang Ho Choi, Tae Sung Kim
Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) is a gram-negative bacterium, which causes life-threatening septicemia and gastroenteritis through the consumption of contaminated seafood or wound infection. In addition, V. vulnificus infection is known to stimulate the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are associated with inflammatory responses mediated predominantly by dendritic cells (DCs), functioning as antigen-presenting cells. The present study aimed to investigate whether V. vulnificus infection induced the maturation and activation of murine DCs, which have the ability to polarize T helper (Th) cells into Th17 cells...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106601/flexible-fate-commitment-of-e2-2high-common-dc-progenitors-implies-tuning-in-tissue-microenvironments
#3
Nobuyuki Onai, Jumpei Asano, Rumiko Kurosaki-Nakamura, Shoko Kuroda, Toshiaki Ohteki
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor E2-2 is essential for the development of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) but not conventional DCs (cDCs). Here, we generated E2-2 reporter mice and demonstrated that an E2-2high fraction among common DC progenitors (CDPs), which are a major source of pDCs and cDCs in the steady state, strictly gave rise to pDCs in the presence of Flt3 ligand ex vivo or in the secondary lymphoid organs when transferred in vivo. However, in the small intestine, some of these E2-2high progenitors differentiated into cDCs that produced retinoic acid...
November 2, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068402/oral-delivery-of-probiotics-expressing-dendritic-cell-targeting-peptide-fused-with-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-coe-antigen-a-promising-vaccine-strategy-against-pedv
#4
Xiaona Wang, Li Wang, Xuewei Huang, Sunting Ma, Meiling Yu, Wen Shi, Xinyuan Qiao, Lijie Tang, Yigang Xu, Yijing Li
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteric coronavirus, is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) that damages intestinal epithelial cells and results in severe diarrhea and dehydration in neonatal suckling pigs with up to 100% mortality. The oral vaccine route is reported as a promising approach for inducing protective immunity against PEDV invasion. Furthermore, dendritic cells (DCs), professional antigen-presenting cells, link humoral and cellular immune responses for homeostasis of the intestinal immune environment...
October 25, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055663/damage-control-concept-and-implementation
#5
B Malgras, B Prunet, X Lesaffre, G Boddaert, S Travers, P-J Cungi, E Hornez, O Barbier, H Lefort, S Beaume, M Bignand, J Cotte, P Esnault, J-L Daban, J Bordes, E Meaudre, J-P Tourtier, S Gaujoux, S Bonnet
The concept of damage control (DC) is based on a sequential therapeutic strategy that favors physiological restoration over anatomical repair in patients presenting acutely with hemorrhagic trauma. Initially described as damage control surgery (DCS) for war-wounded patients with abdominal penetrating hemorrhagic trauma, this concept is articulated in three steps: surgical control of lesions (hemostasis, sealing of intestinal spillage), physiological restoration, then surgery for definitive repair. This concept was quickly adapted for intensive care management under the name damage control resuscitation (DCR), which refers to the modalities of hospital resuscitation carried out in patients suffering from traumatic hemorrhagic shock within the context of DCS...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Visceral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960280/functional-specialization-of-intestinal-dendritic-cell-subsets-during-th2-helminth-infection-in-mice
#6
Stephen A Redpath, Graham A Heieis, Lisa A Reynolds, Nicolette M Fonseca, Sandra S-Y Kim, Georgia Perona-Wright
Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential in dictating the nature and effectiveness of immune responses. In the intestine DCs can be separated into discrete subsets, defined by expression of CD11b and CD103, each with different developmental requirements and distinct functional potential. Recent evidence has shown that different intestinal DC subsets are involved in the induction of T helper (Th)17 and regulatory T cell responses, but the cells that initiate Th2 immune responses are still incompletely understood...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951300/effect-of-sea-buckthorn-protein-on-the-intestinal-microbial-community-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#7
Huaibo Yuan, Fangfang Shi, Lina Meng, Wenjuan Wang
This study investigated the intestinal microbial community distribution of Type 2 diabetic mice and discussed the effects of the sea buckthorn protein on the regulation of gut microbes. Date was collected for 12 cases of normal mice (NC group), 12 cases of Type 2 diabetic mice (DC group), and 12 cases of highly concentrated sea buckthorn seed protein dosed mice (SSPH group). This study analysed fecal samples, measured faecal pH value, and cultivated and determined intestinal bacteria count. This investigation also included the extraction of faecal samples for genomic DNA, PCR amplification of bacterial V3 16S rDNA products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE map analysis of intestinal flora, determination of intestinal bacteria richness, Shannon-Wiener index and evenness index, and image similarity cluster analysis with UPGMA clustering...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931816/tgf%C3%AE-r-signalling-controls-cd103-cd11b-dendritic-cell-development-in-the-intestine
#8
C C Bain, J Montgomery, C L Scott, J M Kel, M J H Girard-Madoux, L Martens, T F P Zangerle-Murray, J Ober-Blöbaum, D Lindenbergh-Kortleve, J N Samsom, S Henri, T Lawrence, Y Saeys, B Malissen, M Dalod, B E Clausen, A McI Mowat
CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DCs) are unique to the intestine, but the factors governing their differentiation are unclear. Here we show that transforming growth factor receptor 1 (TGFβR1) has an indispensable, cell intrinsic role in the development of these cells. Deletion of Tgfbr1 results in markedly fewer intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs and a reciprocal increase in the CD103(-)CD11b(+) dendritic cell subset. Transcriptional profiling identifies markers that define the CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC lineage, including CD101, TREM1 and Siglec-F, and shows that the absence of CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs in CD11c-Cre...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913556/high-dose-vitamin-d3-supplementation-decreases-the-number-of-colonic-cd103-dendritic-cells-in-healthy-subjects
#9
Nina Friis Bak, M Bendix, S Hald, L Reinert, M K Magnusson, J Agnholt
PURPOSE: Vitamin D may induce tolerance in the intestinal immune system and has been shown to regulate the phenotype of tolerogenic intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. It is unknown whether vitamin D supplementation affects human intestinal DCs in vivo, and we aimed to investigate the tolerability and effect on intestinal CD103(+)DCs of high-dose vitamin D3 treatment in healthy subjects. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects received a total of 480,000 IU oral vitamin D3 over 15 days and colonic biopsies were obtained before and after intervention by endoscopy...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889122/galectin-9-produced-by-intestinal-epithelial-cells-enhances-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-in-dendritic-cells-in-a-pi3k-and-p38-dependent-manner
#10
Sander de Kivit, Atanaska I Kostadinova, JoAnn Kerperien, Veronica Ayechu Muruzabal, Mary E Morgan, Leon M J Knippels, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Linette E M Willemsen
Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) drive regulatory T cell (Treg) responses by promoting the differentiation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-expressing CD103+ dendritic cells (DC). Apical stimulation of TLR9 by CpG DNA on IEC supports galectin-9 expression by IEC, which is promoted by short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (GF). While galectin-9 can induce the maturation of monocyte-derived DC (moDC), the contribution of galectin-9 on the induction of ALDH activity in DC is not known...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861049/characterization-of-histopathological-and-ultrastructural-changes-in-channel-catfish-experimentally-infected-with-virulent-aeromonas-hydrophila
#11
Hossam Abdelhamed, Iman Ibrahim, Wes Baumgartner, Mark L Lawrence, Attila Karsi
A highly virulent clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) has been the cause of recent motile Aeromonas septicemia epizootic in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) farms in the Southeastern United States. The pathology of the disease caused by vAh has not been studied well yet. Thus, our aim was to determine histopathological and ultrastructural changes in channel catfish following vAh challenge. To accomplish this, catfish fingerlings were challenged with vAh (strain ML09-119) by bath. Six fish per each time point were collected at 1, 3, 5, 6, 24, and 48 h for light microscopy, and six fish were collected at 48 h for transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802050/distinct-dc-subsets-regulate-adaptive-th1-and-2-responses-during-trichuris-muris-infection
#12
M Demiri, K Müller-Luda, W W Agace, M Svensson-Frej
Low- and high-dose infections with the murine large intestinal nematode Trichuris muris are associated with induction of adaptive Th1 and Th2 responses, respectively, in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Classical dendritic cells (cDC) accumulate in the large intestinal mucosa and MLN upon T. muris infection, yet their role in driving adaptive responses to infection remains largely unknown. We performed low- and high-dose T. muris infections of mice deficient in defined cDC subsets to investigate their role in induction of adaptive immune responses...
August 12, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776072/tof-sims-and-principal-component-analysis-of-lipids-and-amino-acids-from-inflamed-and-dysplastic-human-colonic-mucosa
#13
Marco Urbini, Valentina Petito, Francesco de Notaristefani, Franco Scaldaferri, Antonio Gasbarrini, Luca Tortora
Here, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and multivariate analysis were combined to study the role of ulcerative colitis (UC), a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in the colon cancer progression. ToF-SIMS was used to obtain mass spectra and chemical maps from the mucosal surface of human normal (NC), inflamed (IC), and dysplastic (DC) colon tissues. Chemical mapping with a lateral resolution of ≈ 1 μm allowed to evaluate zonation of fatty acids and amino acids as well as the morphological condition of the intestinal glands...
October 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771533/mechanisms-by-which-porphyromonas-gingivalis-evades-innate-immunity
#14
Kaveh Abdi, Tsute Chen, Brian A Klein, Albert K Tai, Jill Coursen, Xiangdong Liu, Jeff Skinner, Saravanan Periasamy, Youngnim Choi, Benedikt M Kessler, Robert J Palmer, Apostolos Gittis, Polly Matzinger, Margaret J Duncan, Nevil J Singh
The oral cavity is home to unique resident microbial communities whose interactions with host immunity are less frequently studied than those of the intestinal microbiome. We examined the stimulatory capacity and the interactions of two oral bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), on Dendritic Cell (DC) activation, comparing them to the effects of the well-studied intestinal microbe Escherichia coli (E. coli). Unlike F. nucleatum and E. coli, P. gingivalis failed to activate DCs, and in fact silenced DC responses induced by F...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673320/the-clinical-importance-of-tumour-infiltrating-macrophages-and-dendritic-cells-in-periampullary-adenocarcinoma-differs-by-morphological-subtype
#15
Sebastian Lundgren, Emelie Karnevi, Jacob Elebro, Björn Nodin, Mikael C I Karlsson, Jakob Eberhard, Karin Leandersson, Karin Jirström
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DC) and tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) are essential in linking the innate and adaptive immune response against tumour cells and tumour progression. These cells are also potential target for immunotherapy as well as providing a handle to investigate immune status in the tumour microenvironment. The aim of the present study was to examine their impact on prognosis and chemotherapy response in periampullary adenocarcinoma, including pancreatic cancer, with particular reference to morphological subtype...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645296/myd88-dependent-pro-interleukin-1%C3%AE-induction-in-dendritic-cells-exposed-to-food-grade-synthetic-amorphous-silica
#16
Hans Christian Winkler, Julian Kornprobst, Peter Wick, Lea Maria von Moos, Ioannis Trantakis, Elisabeth Maria Schraner, Barbara Bathke, Hubertus Hochrein, Mark Suter, Hanspeter Naegeli
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized first-line sensors of foreign materials invading the organism. These sentinel cells rely on pattern recognition receptors such as Nod-like or Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to launch immune reactions against pathogens, but also to mediate tolerance to self-antigens and, in the intestinal milieu, to nutrients and commensals. Since inappropriate DC activation contributes to inflammatory diseases and immunopathologies, a key question in the evaluation of orally ingested nanomaterials is whether their contact with DCs in the intestinal mucosa disrupts this delicate homeostatic balance between pathogen defense and tolerance...
June 23, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634689/survival-intestinal-mucosa-adhesion-and-immunomodulatory-potential-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-strains
#17
Valentini Santarmaki, Yiannis Kourkoutas, Georgia Zoumpopoulou, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Mikis Kiourtzidis, Nikos Chorianopoulos, Chrysoula Tassou, Effie Tsakalidou, Constantinos Simopoulos, Petros Ypsilantis
Survival during transit through the gastrointestinal track, intestinal mucosa adhesion, and a potential immunomodulatory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum strains 2035 and ACA-DC 2640 were investigated in a rat model. According to microbiological and multiplex PCR analysis, both strains were detected in feces 24 h after either single-dose or daily administration for 7 days. Intestinal mucosa adhesion of L. plantarum 2035 was noted in the large intestine at 24 h after single-dose administration, while it was not detected at 48 h...
September 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615301/irf4-dependent-cd103-cd11b-dendritic-cells-and-the-intestinal-microbiome-regulate-monocyte-and-macrophage-activation-and-intestinal-peristalsis-in-postoperative-ileus
#18
Judith-Mira Pohl, Sebastian Gutweiler, Stephanie Thiebes, Julia K Volke, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Denise Zwanziger, Matthias Gunzer, Steffen Jung, William W Agace, Christian Kurts, Daniel Robert Engel
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative ileus (POI), the most frequent complication after intestinal surgery, depends on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Here, we have investigated the mechanism that activates these cells and the contribution of the intestinal microbiota for POI induction. DESIGN: POI was induced by manipulating the intestine of mice, which selectively lack DCs, monocytes or macrophages. The disease severity in the small and large intestine was analysed by determining the distribution of orally applied fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran and by measuring the excretion time of a retrogradely inserted glass ball...
June 14, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598427/different-populations-of-cd11b-dendritic-cells-drive-th2-responses-in-the-small-intestine-and-colon
#19
Johannes U Mayer, Mimoza Demiri, William W Agace, Andrew S MacDonald, Marcus Svensson-Frej, Simon W Milling
T-helper 2 (Th2) cell responses defend against parasites. Although dendritic cells (DCs) are vital for the induction of T-cell responses, the DC subpopulations that induce Th2 cells in the intestine are unidentified. Here we show that intestinal Th2 responses against Trichuris muris worms and Schistosoma mansoni eggs do not develop in mice with IRF-4-deficient DCs (IRF-4(f/f) CD11c-cre). Adoptive transfer of conventional DCs, in particular CD11b-expressing DCs from the intestine, is sufficient to prime S. mansoni-specific Th2 responses...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587925/siga-shigella-immune-complexes-interact-with-dectin-1-and-signr3-to-differentially-regulate-mouse-peyer-s-patch-and-mesenteric-lymph-node-dendritic-cell-s-responsiveness
#20
Josip Mikulic, Gilles Bioley, Blaise Corthésy
In addition to contributing to immune exclusion at mucosal surfaces, secretory IgA (SIgA) made of polymeric IgA and secretory component is able to selectively reenter via microfold cells into Peyer's patches (PPs) present along the intestine and to associate with dendritic cells (DCs) of the CD11c(+)CD11b(+)MHCII(+)F4/80(-)CD8(-)phenotype in the subepithelial dome region and the draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). However, the nature of the receptor(s) for SIgA on murine PP and MLN DCs is unknown. We find that glycosylated secretory component moiety and polymeric IgA are both involved in the specific interaction with these cells...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
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