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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757493/egg-yolk-provides-th2-adjuvant-stimuli-and-promotes-sensitization-to-egg-white-allergens-in-balb-c-mice
#1
Alba Pablos-Tanarro, Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo, Mónica Martínez-Blanco, Elena Molina, Rosina López-Fandiño
SCOPE: Egg is the second most frequent source of allergic reactions in children. Egg yolk (EY) amounts to one third in weight of a fresh whole egg, but its contribution to egg allergy has not been investigated in depth. This study assesses whether EY influences the capacity of egg white (EW) to sensitize and trigger allergic responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: BALB/c mice were exposed to EW, EY and their mixture, using models of orally (with and without adjuvant) and adjuvant-free intraperitoneally-induced allergy...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681186/role-of-dendritic-cells-in-peanut-allergy
#2
Raquel Aguilera-Insunza, Luis F Venegas, Mirentxu Iruretagoyena, Leticia Rojas, Arturo Borzutzky
The prevalence of peanut allergy (PA) has increased, affecting approximately 1.1% of children in Western countries. PA causes life-threatening anaphylaxis and frequently persists for life. There are no standardized curative therapies for PA, and avoidance of peanuts remains the main therapeutic option. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of PA is essential to identify new treatment strategies. Intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) are essential in the induction and maintenance of food tolerance because they present dietary allergens to T cells, thereby directing subsequent immune responses...
April 23, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648878/protective-effect-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-against-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis-is-mediated-by-toll-like-receptor-2
#3
Thomas K Hoang, Baokun He, Ting Wang, Dat Q Tran, Jon Marc Rhoads, Yuying Liu
Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (LR 17938) has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). It is unclear if preventing NEC by LR 17938 is mediated by toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which is known to mediate pro-inflammatory responses to bacterial cell wall components. NEC was induced in newborn TLR2-/- or WT mice by the combination of gavage-feeding cow milk-based formula and exposure to hypoxia and cold stress. Treatment groups were administered formula supplemented with LR 17938 or placebo (MRS media)...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581231/intestinal-mucin-activates-human-dendritic-cells-and-il-8-production-in-a-glycan-specific-manner
#4
Felipe Melo-Gonzalez, Thomas M Fenton, Cecilia Forss, Catherine Smedley, Anu Goenka, Andrew S MacDonald, David J Thornton, Mark A Travis
Cross-talk between different components of the intestinal barrier and the immune system may be important in maintaining gut homeostasis. A crucial part of the gut barrier is the mucus layer, a cross-linked gel on top of the intestinal epithelium that consists predominantly of the mucin glycoprotein MUC2. However, whether the mucin layer actively regulates intestinal immune cell responses is not clear. As recent evidence suggests that intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) may be regulated by the mucus layer, we purified intestinal mucin, incubated with human DCs and determined functional effects...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581197/tnf%C3%AE-antagonism-reveals-a-gut-lung-axis-that-amplifies-regulatory-t-cells-in-a-pulmonary-fungal-infection
#5
Jamie L Tweedle, George S Deepe
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists are popular therapies for inflammatory diseases. These agents enhance numbers and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) which are important in controlling inflammatory diseases. However, elevated Tregs increase susceptibility to infections, including histoplasmosis. We determined the mechanism by which Tregs expand in TNF-neutralized mice infected with Histoplasma capsulatum Lung CD11c+ CD11b+ dendritic cells (DC), but not alveolar macrophages, from H. capsulatum -infected mice treated with anti-TNF induced a higher percentage of Tregs than control DC in vitro...
March 26, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574798/modulation-of-human-dendritic-cell-activity-by-giardia-and-helminth-antigens
#6
Anneka Summan, Peter Nejsum, Andrew R Williams
Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal protozoan parasite known to modulate host immune responses, including dendritic cell (DC) function. Co-infections of intestinal pathogens are common, and thus DCs may be concurrently exposed to antigens from multiple parasites. Here, we investigated the effects of G. duodenalis products on human monocyte-derived DC function independently and in combination with helminth antigens (Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis). All antigens individually induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype in DCs, reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12p70 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion...
March 25, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558385/microbial-biotransformation-of-a-polyphenol-rich-potato-extract-affects-antioxidant-capacity-in-a-simulated-gastrointestinal-model
#7
Joelle Khairallah, Shima Sadeghi Ekbatan, Kebba Sabally, Michèle M Iskandar, Raza Hussain, Atef Nassar, Lekha Sleno, Laetitia Rodes, Satya Prakash, Danielle J Donnelly, Stan Kubow
A multistage human gastrointestinal model was used to digest a polyphenol-rich potato extract containing chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin as the primary polyphenols, to assess for their microbial biotransformation and to measure changes in antioxidant capacity in up to 24 h of digestion. The biotransformation of polyphenols was assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antioxidant capacity was measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Among the colonic reactors, parent (poly)phenols were detected in the ascending (AC), but not the transverse (TC) or descending (DC) colons...
March 20, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531307/mucosal-luminal-interface-proteomics-reveals-biomarkers-of-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-associated-colitis
#8
Shelley A Deeke, Amanda E Starr, Zhibin Ning, Sara Ahmadi, Xu Zhang, Janice Mayne, Cheng-Kang Chiang, Ruth Singleton, Eric I Benchimol, David R Mack, Alain Stintzi, Daniel Figeys
OBJECTIVE: Improved biomarkers are an unmet clinical need for suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Need is greatest for children, since current biomarkers suffers from low specificity, particularly in this population; thus, invasive testing methods, with the accompanying risk of complications, are necessary. Additionally, current biomarkers do not delineate disease extent assessment for ulcerative colitis (UC), a factor involved in therapeutic decisions. METHODS: Intestinal mucosal-luminal interface (MLI) aspirates from the ascending colon (AC) and descending colon (DC) were collected during diagnostic colonoscopy from treatment-naïve children...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515025/nlrp3-dependent-il-1%C3%AE-inhibits-cd103-dendritic-cell-differentiation-in-the-gut
#9
Rachel Mak'Anyengo, Peter Duewell, Cornelia Reichl, Christine Hörth, Hans-Anton Lehr, Sandra Fischer, Thomas Clavel, Gerald Denk, Simon Hohenester, Sebastian Kobold, Stefan Endres, Max Schnurr, Christian Bauer
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with enhanced levels of the IL-1 family cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, which are activated by the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Here, we investigated the role of inflammasome-driven cytokine release on T cell polarization and DC differentiation in steady state and T cell transfer colitis. In vitro and in vivo data showed that IL-1β induces Th17 polarization and increases GM‑CSF production by T cells. Reduced IL-1β levels in Nlrp3-/- mice correlated with enhanced FLT3L levels and increased frequency of tolerogenic CD103+ DC...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514100/coupling-of-rigor-mortis-and-intestinal-necrosis-during-c-elegans-organismal-death
#10
Evgeniy R Galimov, Rosina E Pryor, Sarah E Poole, Alexandre Benedetto, Zachary Pincus, David Gems
Organismal death is a process of systemic collapse whose mechanisms are less well understood than those of cell death. We previously reported that death in C. elegans is accompanied by a calcium-propagated wave of intestinal necrosis, marked by a wave of blue autofluorescence (death fluorescence). Here, we describe another feature of organismal death, a wave of body wall muscle contraction, or death contraction (DC). This phenomenon is accompanied by a wave of intramuscular Ca2+ release and, subsequently, of intestinal necrosis...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491406/fc%C3%AE-ri-co-stimulation-converts-human-intestinal-cd103-dendritic-cells-into-pro-inflammatory-cells-through-glycolytic-reprogramming
#11
Ivo S Hansen, Lisette Krabbendam, Jochem H Bernink, Fabricio Loayza-Puch, Willianne Hoepel, Johan A van Burgsteden, Elsa C Kuijper, Christianne J Buskens, Willem A Bemelman, Sebastiaan A J Zaat, Reuven Agami, Gestur Vidarsson, Gijs R van den Brink, Esther C de Jong, Manon E Wildenberg, Dominique L P Baeten, Bart Everts, Jeroen den Dunnen
CD103+ dendritic cells (DC) are crucial for regulation of intestinal tolerance in humans. However, upon infection of the lamina propria this tolerogenic response is converted to an inflammatory response. Here we show that immunoglobulin A (IgA) immune complexes (IgA-IC), which are present after bacterial infection of the lamina propria, are important for the induction of inflammation by the human CD103+ SIRPα+ DC subset. IgA-IC, by recognition through FcαRI, selectively amplify the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-1β and IL-23 by human CD103+ DCs...
February 28, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491349/the-circadian-regulator-bmal1-programmes-responses-to-parasitic-worm-infection-via-a-dendritic-cell-clock
#12
Thomas W Hopwood, Sarah Hall, Nicola Begley, Ruth Forman, Sheila Brown, Ryan Vonslow, Ben Saer, Matthew C Little, Emma A Murphy, Rebecca J Hurst, David W Ray, Andrew S MacDonald, Andy Brass, David A Bechtold, Julie E Gibbs, Andrew S Loudon, Kathryn J Else
Resistance to the intestinal parasitic helminth Trichuris muris requires T-helper 2 (TH 2) cellular and associated IgG1 responses, with expulsion typically taking up to 4 weeks in mice. Here, we show that the time-of-day of the initial infection affects efficiency of worm expulsion, with strong TH 2 bias and early expulsion in morning-infected mice. Conversely, mice infected at the start of the night show delayed resistance to infection, and this is associated with feeding-driven metabolic cues, such that feeding restriction to the day-time in normally nocturnal-feeding mice disrupts parasitic expulsion kinetics...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486265/design-of-cellulose-ether-based-macromolecular-prodrugs-of-ciprofloxacin-for-extended-release-and-enhanced-bioavailability
#13
Muhammad Amin, Nazia Shahana Abbas, Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Muhammad Sher, Kevin J Edgar
The present study reveals the syntheses of hydroxypropylcellulose‑(HPC) and hydroxyethylcellulose‑(HEC) based macromolecular prodrugs (MPDs) of ciprofloxacin (CIP) using homogeneous reaction methodology. Covalently loaded drug content (DC) of each prodrug was quantified using UV-Vis spectrophotometry to determine degree of substitution (DS). HPC-ciprofloxacin (HPC-CIP) conjugates showed DS of CIP in the range 0.87-1.15 whereas HEC-ciprofloxacin (HEC-CIP) conjugates showed DS range 0.51-0.75. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that HPC-CIP conjugate 2 and HEC-CIP conjugate 6 self-assembled into nanoparticles of 150-300 and 180-250nm, respectively...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378774/cd1d-mediated-lipid-presentation-by-cd11c-cells-regulates-intestinal-homeostasis
#14
Julia Sáez de Guinoa, Rebeca Jimeno, Mauro Gaya, David Kipling, María José Garzón, Deborah Dunn-Walters, Carles Ubeda, Patricia Barral
Intestinal homeostasis relies on a continuous dialogue between the commensal bacteria and the immune system. Natural killer T (NKT) cells, which recognize CD1d-restricted microbial lipids and self-lipids, contribute to the regulation of mucosal immunity, yet the mechanisms underlying their functions remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that NKT cells respond to intestinal lipids and CD11c+ cells (including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages) are essential to mediate lipid presentation within the gut ultimately controlling intestinal NKT cell homeostasis and activation...
March 1, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361084/lactobacillus-brevis-kb290-with-vitamin-a-ameliorates-murine-intestinal-inflammation-associated-with-the-increase-of-cd11c-macrophage-cd103-dendritic-cell-ratio
#15
Nobuo Fuke, Tomohisa Takagi, Yasuki Higashimura, Toshifumi Tsuji, Ryohei Umeda, Katsura Mizushima, Makoto Tanaka, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Koichi Aizawa, Nobuhiro Yajima, Yuji Naito
Background: The ratio of colonic anti-inflammatory CD11c+ macrophages (MPs) to inflammatory CD103- dendritic cells (DCs) plays pivotal roles in intestinal inflammation. Little is known about how the ratio is regulated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria (Bif). We investigated the contribution of LAB/Bif to this ratio. Methods: We established an in vitro experimental system using human myeloblastic KG-1 cells, which differentiate into CD11c+ MP-like (CD11c+ MPL) and CD103- DC-like (CD103- DCL) cells, and explored effective LAB/Bif strains...
January 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351397/acute-small-intestinal-inflammation-results-in-persistent-lymphatic-alterations
#16
Sonia Rehal, Matthew Stephens, Simon Roizes, Shan Liao, Pierre-Yves von der Weid
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has a complex pathophysiology with limited treatments. Structural and functional changes in the intestinal lymphatic system have been associated with the disease, with increased risk of IBD occurrence linked to a history of acute intestinal injury. To examine the potential role of the lymphatic system in inflammation recurrence, we evaluated morphological and functional changes in mouse mucosal and mesenteric lymphatic vessels, and within the mesenteric lymph nodes during acute ileitis caused by a 7-day treatment with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336524/human-intestinal-dendritic-cells-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#17
REVIEW
David Bernardo, María Chaparro, Javier P Gisbert
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a serious, costly, and persistent health problem with an estimated prevalence in Western countries around 0.5% of the general population; its socioeconomic impact is comparable with that for chronic diseases such as diabetes. Conventional treatment involves escalating drug regimens with concomitant side effects followed, in some cases, by surgical interventions, which are often multiple, mainly in Crohn's disease. The goal of finding a targeted gut-specific immunotherapy for IBD patients is therefore an important unmet need...
April 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328042/dynamics-of-changes-in-indices-of-endogenous-intoxication-in-patients-with-acute-small-intestinal-obstruction-in-case-of-reamberin-use-in-the-comprehensive-treatment
#18
V Skrypko, A Kovalenko, E Talikova
The objective of this research was to study changes in parameters, characterizing endogenous intoxication in patients with acute small bowel obstruction with Reamberin included into therapy scheme. Full physical examination and surgical treatment of 202 patients with acute small bowel obstruction were conducted. The control group included 30 healthy individuals. Dynamics of such clinical biochemical parameters as medium mass molecules (MMM), malondialdehyde (MDA), diene conjugates (DC) in blood serum were analyzed in preoperative period and on the 1st, 5th and 14th day of postoperative period...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300158/vaccination-of-sows-with-a-dendritic-cell-targeted-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-s1-protein-based-candidate-vaccine-reduced-viral-shedding-but-exacerbated-gross-pathological-lesions-in-suckling-neonatal-piglets
#19
Sakthivel Subramaniam, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Adam J Rogers, Harini Sooryanarain, Tanya LeRoith, Christopher Overend, Dianjun Cao, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) poses a serious threat to swine worldwide as evidenced by its recent introduction into the USA and the devastating economic impact it caused to the USA swine industry. Commercial vaccines against PEDV are available but their efficacies are inadequate. Therefore, vaccines with improved efficacy are needed to effectively control PEDV infections. We previously determined the immunogenicity of a novel dendritic cell (DC)-targeted PEDV S1 protein-based subunit vaccine in weaned piglets in which the PEDV antigen was targeted to DCs through a porcine Langerin-specific antibody...
February 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281833/nlrp3-controls-the-development-of-gastrointestinal-cd11b-dendritic-cells-in-the-steady-state-and-during-chronic-bacterial-infection
#20
Isabelle C Arnold, Xiaozhou Zhang, Sabine Urban, Mariela Artola-Borán, Markus G Manz, Karen M Ottemann, Anne Müller
The gastric lamina propria is largely uncharted immunological territory. Here we describe the evolution and composition of the gastric, small intestinal, and colonic lamina propria mononuclear phagocyte system during the steady state and infection with the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. We show that monocytes, CX3 CR1hi macrophages, and CD11b+ dendritic cells are recruited to the infected stomach in a CCR2-dependent manner. All three populations, but not BATF3-dependent CD103+ DCs, sample red fluorescent protein (RFP)+ Helicobacter pylori (H...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
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