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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228139/hmga2-immunostaining-is-a-straightforward-technique-which-helps-to-distinguish-pulmonary-fat-forming-lesions-from-normal-adipose-tissue-in-small-biopsies-a-retrospective-observational-study-about-a-series-of-13-lung-biopsies
#1
Nicolas Piton, Émilie Angot, Florent Marguet, Jean-Christophe Sabourin
BACKGROUND: A tracheobronchial lesion observed during an endoscopic examination is usually sampled by the pulmonologist and sent to the pathologist for microscopic examination. Adipocytes may be observed in the lamina propria of tracheobronchial biopsies, which may complicate diagnosis of sampled lesions because these adipose cells may be part of the lesion (lipoma or pulmonary hamartoma), but may also be a normal component of the bronchial mucosa. Because endoscopic samples frequently miss their target, adipocytes observed in such biopsies usually lead to uncertainty regarding diagnosis...
February 23, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225814/e-npp3-controls-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-numbers-in-the-small-intestine
#2
Yoki Furuta, Shih-Han Tsai, Makoto Kinoshita, Kosuke Fujimoto, Ryu Okumura, Eiji Umemoto, Yosuke Kurashima, Hiroshi Kiyono, Hisako Kayama, Kiyoshi Takeda
Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) performs multiple functions including activation and induction of apoptosis of many cell types. The ATP-hydrolyzing ectoenzyme ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 3 (E-NPP3) regulates ATP-dependent chronic allergic responses by mast cells and basophils. However, E-NPP3 is also highly expressed on epithelial cells of the small intestine. In this study, we showed that E-NPP3 controls plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) numbers in the intestine through regulation of intestinal extracellular ATP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220946/light-and-energy-based-therapeutics-for-genitourinary-syndrome-of-menopause-consensus-and-controversies
#3
Yona Tadir, Adrian Gaspar, Ahinoam Lev-Sagie, Macrene Alexiades, Red Alinsod, Alex Bader, Alberto Calligaro, Jorge A Elias, Marco Gambaciani, Jorge E Graviria, Cheryl B Iglesia, Ksenija Selih-Martinec, Patricia L Mwesigwa, Urska B Ogrinc, Stefano Salvatore, Paolo Scollo, Nicola Zerbinati, John Stuart Nelson
Gynecologist and plastic surgeons pioneered the application of lasers in medicine and surgery almost 5 decades ago, initially used to treat cervical and vaginal pathologies. Ever since, energy-based devices have been deployed to treat pelvic pathologies and improve fertility. Recent technological developments triggered an unprecedented wave of publications, assessing the efficacy of fractional laser, and radiofrequency on the vaginal wall in reversing natural aging processes. Studies have shown that a certain degree of thermal energy deposited on the vaginal wall stimulates proliferation of the glycogen-enriched epithelium, neovascularization, and collagen formation in the lamina propria, and improves natural lubrication and control of urination...
February 21, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219889/rapid-and-rigorous-il-17a-production-by-a-distinct-subpopulation-of-effector-memory-t-lymphocytes-constitutes-a-novel-mechanism-of-toxic-shock-syndrome-immunopathology
#4
Peter A Szabo, Ankur Goswami, Delfina M Mazzuca, Kyoungok Kim, David B O'Gorman, David A Hess, Ian D Welch, Howard A Young, Bhagirath Singh, John K McCormick, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is caused by staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens (SAgs) that provoke a swift hyperinflammatory response typified by a cytokine storm. The precipitous decline in the host's clinical status and the lack of targeted therapies for TSS emphasize the need to identify key players of the storm's initial wave. Using a humanized mouse model of TSS and human cells, we herein demonstrate that SAgs elicit in vitro and in vivo IL-17A responses within hours. SAg-triggered human IL-17A production was characterized by remarkably high mRNA stability for this cytokine...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192057/tongue-and-taste-organ-biology-and-function-homeostasis-maintained-by-hedgehog-signaling
#5
Charlotte M Mistretta, Archana Kumari
The tongue is an elaborate complex of heterogeneous tissues with taste organs of diverse embryonic origins. The lingual taste organs are papillae, composed of an epithelium that includes specialized taste buds, the basal lamina, and a lamina propria core with matrix molecules, fibroblasts, nerves, and vessels. Because taste organs are dynamic in cell biology and sensory function, homeostasis requires tight regulation in specific compartments or niches. Recently, the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has emerged as an essential regulator that maintains lingual taste papillae, taste bud and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurophysiological function...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191818/changes-in-protein-expression-after-treatment-with-ancylostoma-caninum-excretory-secretory-products-in-a-mouse-model-of-colitis
#6
Javier Sotillo, Ivana Ferreira, Jeremy Potriquet, Thewarach Laha, Severine Navarro, Alex Loukas, Jason Mulvenna
Different reports have highlighted the potential use of helminths and their secretions in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) conditions; however, no reports have investigated their effects at a proteome level. Herein, we characterise the protein expression changes that occur in lamina propria (LP) and the intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) of mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis treated with Ancylostoma caninum excretory/secretory (ES) products using a quantitative proteomic approach...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185248/mastering-gut-permeability-new-roles-for-old-friends
#7
Michael Bramhall, Colby Zaph
Mast cells are innate immune cells that respond rapidly to infection in barrier tissues such as the skin and intestinal mucosa. Expulsion of parasitic worms in the gut involves a robust type 2 host response, and an acute mastocytosis is often generated at the site of infection. However, the role of mast cells in resistance to worm infections appears to be parasite specific. Mast cells are also involved in tissue repair, but the long-term contribution of mast cell activation after worm expulsion has not been definitively studied...
February 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175996/fractionated-abdominal-irradiation-induces-intestinal-microvascular-changes-in-an-in-vivo-model-of-radiotherapy-induced-gut-toxicity
#8
Romany L Stansborough, Emma H Bateman, Noor Al-Dasooqi, Joanne M Bowen, Dorothy M K Keefe, Ann S J Yeoh, Richard M Logan, Eric E K Yeoh, Andrea M Stringer, Rachel J Gibson
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy-induced gut toxicity (RIGT) is associated with diarrhoea, pain and rectal bleeding and can occur as an acute or chronic toxicity. The microvasculature has been shown to be altered in the development of RIGT; however, the features are not yet characterized. We hypothesized that apoptosis of microvascular cells would occur early in the gastrointestinal tract following fractionated irradiation, followed by late microvascular changes, including sclerosis and telangiectasis...
February 7, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175078/p339-madcam1-expression-in-intestinal-lamina-propria-endothelium-varies-among-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#9
T Zamborsky, K Berakova, B Kadleckova, D Podmanicky, Z Zelinkova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174758/interferon-alpha-promotes-th1-response-and-epithelial-apoptosis-via-inflammasome-activation-in-human-intestinal-mucosa
#10
Anne Jarry, Florent Malard, Chantal Bou-Hanna, Guillaume Meurette, Mohamad Mohty, Jean-François Mosnier, Christian L Laboisse, Céline Bossard
BACKGOUND & AIMS: Several lines of investigation suggest that interferon (IFN) alpha can alter human intestinal mucosa homeostasis. These include the endogenous production of IFN alpha in celiac disease or inflammatory bowel diseases, as well as the occurrence of intestinal side effects of exogenous IFN alpha used as a therapeutic tool. Here, we present an ex vivo translational approach to investigate the effects of IFN alpha on the human normal intestinal mucosa, as well as its underlying mechanisms...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171221/the-significance-of-electron-microscopic-examination-of-gingiva-in-cases-of-hunter-syndrome-and-hereditary-gingival-fibromatosis
#11
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Electron microscopy has been for decades a basic morphological method still used in diagnostic protocols of some pathological conditions affecting the ultrastructure of cells and extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was an ultrastructural description of gingiva of patients with Hunter syndrome and hereditary gingival fibromatosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Gingival biopsies were obtained during surgical periodontal treatment from a 9-year-old boy with Hunter disease (with enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human idursulphase) and a 15-year-old girl with hereditary gingival fibromatosis...
October 24, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168579/lrrk2-an-emerging-new-molecule-in-the-enteric-neuronal-system-that-quantitatively-regulates-neuronal-peptides-and-iga-in-the-gut
#12
Tatsunori Maekawa, Hitomi Shimayama, Hiromichi Tsushima, Fumitaka Kawakami, Rei Kawashima, Makoto Kubo, Takafumi Ichikawa
BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a recently discovered molecule associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease. It regulates many central neuronal functions such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, and axonal extension. However, in contrast to the well-documented function of LRRK2 in central neurons, it is unclear whether LRRK2 is expressed in enteric neurons and affects the physiology of the gut. AIMS: By examining LRRK2-KO mice, this study investigated whether enteric neurons express LRRK2 and whether intestinal neuronal peptides and IgA are quantitatively changed...
February 6, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158914/effect-of-porcine-glucagon-like-peptides-2-on-tight-junction-in-glp-2r%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ipec-j2-cell-through-the-pi3-k-akt-mtor-p70-s6k-signalling-pathway
#13
K K Qi, Y Q Sun, J Wan, B Deng, X M Men, J Wu, Z W Xu
Because of rare glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) receptor (+) cells within the gut mucosa, the molecular mechanisms transducing the diverse actions of GLP-2 remain largely obscure. This research identified the naturally occurring intestinal cell lines that endogenously express GLP-2R and determined the molecular mechanisms of the protective effects of GLP-2-mediated tight junctions (TJ) in GLP-2R (+) cell line. (i) Immunohistochemistry results showed that GLP-2R is localised to the epithelia, laminae propriae and muscle layers of the small and large bowels of newborn piglets...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152974/endoscopic-imaging-modalities-for-diagnosing-invasion-depth-of-superficial-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Ryu Ishihara, Noriko Matsuura, Noboru Hanaoka, Sachiko Yamamoto, Tomofumi Akasaka, Yoji Takeuchi, Koji Higashino, Noriya Uedo, Hiroyasu Iishi
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of cancer invasion depth is crucial for selecting the optimal treatment strategy in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the utilities of different endoscopic modalities for diagnosing invasion depth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, and Ichushi databases to identify studies evaluating the use of endoscopic modalities for diagnosing invasion depth of superficial esophageal SCC...
February 2, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151917/chronic-diarrhea-associated-with-high-serum-level-of-immunoglobulin-a-and-diffuse-infiltration-of-plasma-cell-in-small-intestine-a-case-report
#15
Junwen Yang, Shuijiao Chen, Linlin Chen, Miao Ouyang, Fujun Li
RATIONALE: Chronic diarrhea in adult patients due to various causes is very common in clinic, but patient suffering with mal-absorption due to immunoproliferative small intestinal disease was rarely reported in China. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: A 35-year-old female presented with more than three years history of chronic diarrhea, rickets, high serum value of immunoglobulin A protein, and anemia. Bone marrow aspiration suggested that the patient was in a sideropenic and megalobastic anemia stage...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140695/ccr5-expression-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-its-correlation-with-inflammatory-cells-and-%C3%AE-arrestin2-expression
#16
Xiaoyan Ye, Sixue Liu, Mei Hu, Yangda Song, Huarong Huang, Yingqiang Zhong
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the correlation of expression of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) with degrees of inflammatory cells infiltration and expression of β-arrestin2 in biopsic intestinal mucosa of the patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: Paraffin sections were derived from 53 patients with active IBD, 26 patients with remissive IBD and 30 healthy people. Immunohistochemical envision two-step method was used to test the expression of CCR5 and β-arrestin2 in biopsic intestinal mucosa...
January 31, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139502/diagnostic-roles-of-calretinin-in-hirschsprung-disease-a-comparison-to-neuron-specific-enolase
#17
Zaidoon A Musa, Ban J Qasim, Haider F Ghazi, A Wahab A K Al Shaikhly
BACKGROUND/AIM: Diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) can be hard and requires good experience, principally for pathologists who infrequently encounter the disease. However, diagnosis is not always possible with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) because staining has limitations in the identification of immature ganglion cells in neonates and the submucosal area. AIM: To assess the diagnostic role of calretinin immunostaining in HD in comparison to neuron-specific enolase...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134306/bacterial-translocation-aggravates-ccl4-induced-liver-cirrhosis-by-regulating-cd4-t-cells-in-rats
#18
Haiyan Shi, Longxian Lv, Hongcui Cao, Haifeng Lu, Ning Zhou, Jiezuan Yang, Haiyin Jiang, Huihui Dong, Xinjun Hu, Wei Yu, Xiawei Jiang, Beiwen Zheng, Lanjuan Li
Bacterial translocation (BT) is thought to play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis, but the mechanisms have not been fully explored. This study aims to investigate the distribution of Treg (CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)), Th17 (CD3(+)CD4(+)IL-17(+)), and Th1 (CD3(+)CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)) cells in the intestinal lamina propria, liver and blood and to explore their relationships with BT. Cirrhotic rats with ascites were induced by CCl4. We found that there were lower levels of total protein and albumin, lower albumin/globulin ratio, lower body weight and higher spleen weight and ascites volume in cirrhotic rats with than without BT...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126697/cells-of-the-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-and-their-interactions-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
REVIEW
Zbigniew Kmieć, Marta Cyman, Tomasz Jerzy Ślebioda
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract that includes two major phenotypes, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis that are characterized by different clinical features and different course of the immune response. The exact aetiology of IBD still remains unknown, although it is thought that the diseases result from an excessive immune response directed against microbial or environmentally derived antigens which can be triggered by the disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier integrity...
January 23, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125560/o-012-il-36-signaling-controls-the-induced-regulatory-t-cell-th9-cell-balance-and-gut-inflammation
#20
Akihito Harusato, Hirohito Abo, Vu Ngo, Samuel Yi, Satoru Osuka, Jakob Kohlmeier, Jian-Dong Li, Andrew Gewirtz, Asma Nusrat, Timothy Denning
BACKGROUND: In the United States over 1.4 million people suffer from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, there is a pressing need for the development of novel molecular therapeutics targeting pro-inflammatory mediators. Recently a novel interleukin-1 family member, IL-36γ was shown to be up-regulated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to play an important role in healing of acute intestinal damage in mice, however, the function of IL-36γ with regards to T helper (TH) cell differentiation during gut inflammation remains undefined...
February 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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