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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934109/intestinal-production-of-anti-tissue-transglutaminase-2-antibodies-in-patients-with-diagnosis-other-than-celiac-disease
#1
Mariantonia Maglio, Fabiana Ziberna, Rosita Aitoro, Valentina Discepolo, Giuliana Lania, Virginia Bassi, Erasmo Miele, Tarcisio Not, Riccardo Troncone, Renata Auricchio
It has been hypothesized that gluten-dependent production of anti-tissue-transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2) antibodies may occur only at an intestinal level. We have investigated intestinal production of anti-TG2 antibodies in 136 patients with normal serum levels of anti-TG2 antibodies and normal duodenal mucosa. Intestinal deposits of anti-TG2 antibodies were evaluated by immunofluorescence and anti-TG2 antibodies released in organ culture supernatants measured by ELISA. Intestinal antibody libraries were obtained from 10 subjects...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933185/identification-and-distribution-of-the-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-abomasum-of-goats
#2
Lingling Wang, Yu Liang, Qiusheng Chen, Nisar Ahmed, Feng Wang, Bing Hu, Ping Yang
The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are regarded as pacemakers and are involved in neurotransmission in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animals. However, limited information is available about the existence of ICCs within the GIT of ruminants. In this study, we investigated the ultrastructural characteristics and distribution of ICCs in goat abomasum using transmission electron microscopy and c-kit immunohistochemistry. Two different kinds of c-kit immunoreactive cells were observed in the abomasum. The first was identified as ICCs, which appeared to be multipolar or bipolar in shape, with some processes...
January 1, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932043/gingival-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Deepak Venkatesh, K P Mohan Kumar, Jyoti B Alur
The human gingiva, characterized by its outstanding scarless wound healing properties, is a unique tissue and a pivotal component of the periodontal apparatus, investing and surrounding the teeth in their sockets in the alveolar bone. In the last year's gingival mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (GMSCs), with promising regenerative and immunomodulatory properties, have been isolated and characterized from the gingival lamina propria. These cells, in contrast to other mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell (MSC) sources, are abundant, readily accessible and easily obtainable through minimally invasive cell isolation techniques...
May 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928739/gut-reg3%C3%AE-associated-lactobacillus-induces-anti-inflammatory-macrophages-to-maintain-adipose-tissue-homeostasis
#4
Yugang Huang, HouBao Qi, Zhiqian Zhang, Enlin Wang, Huan Yun, Hui Yan, Xiaomin Su, Yingquan Liu, Zenzen Tang, Yunhuan Gao, Wencong Shang, Jiang Zhou, Tianze Wang, Yongzhe Che, Yuan Zhang, Rongcun Yang
Gut microbiota may not only affect composition of local immune cells but also affect systemic immune cells. However, it is not completely clear how gut microbiota modulate these immune systems. Here, we found that there exist expanded macrophage pools in huREG3γ (tgIEC) mice. REG3γ-associated Lactobacillus, which is homology to Lactobacillus Taiwanese, could enlarge macrophage pools not only in the small intestinal lamina propria but also in the spleen and adipose tissues. STAT3-mediated signal(s) was a critical factor in the Lactobacillus-mediated anti-inflammatory macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924192/short-chain-fatty-acids-ameliorate-immune-mediated-uveitis-partially-by-altering-migration-of-lymphocytes-from-the-intestine
#5
Yukiko K Nakamura, Cathleen Janowitz, Christina Metea, Mark Asquith, Lisa Karstens, James T Rosenbaum, Phoebe Lin
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are metabolites of intestinal bacteria resulting from fermentation of dietary fiber. SCFA are protective in various animal models of inflammatory disease. We investigated the effects of exogenous administration of SFCAs, particularly propionate, on uveitis using an inducible model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Oral SCFA administration attenuated uveitis severity in a mouse strain-dependent manner through regulatory T cell induction among lymphocytes in the intestinal lamina propria (LPL) and cervical lymph nodes (CLN)...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922261/the-effect-of-gluten-free-diet-on-clinical-symptoms-and-the-intestinal-mucosa-of-patients-with-potential-celiac-disease
#6
Roberta Mandile, Valentina Discepolo, Serena Scapaticci, Maria Rosaria Del Vecchio, Maria Antonia Maglio, Luigi Greco, Riccardo Troncone, Renata Auricchio
In this prospective study, we evaluated the effect of gluten free diet (GFD) in a cohort of 65 children with potential celiac disease (PCD). Patients received GFD for signs/symptoms (N = 47) or parents' choice (N = 18). Most frequent signs/symptoms were low Body Mass Index (BMI) (36%), recurrent abdominal pain (34%) and diarrhea (19%). Of the 35/47 patients followed-up on GFD, only 54% (19/35) showed a complete clinical response. In 9/65 patients an intestinal biopsy was also performed after at least one year of GFD...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918646/depletion-of-gut-resident-ccr5-cells-for-hiv-cure-strategies
#7
David Patrick Merriam, Connie Chen, Gema Mendez-Lagares, Kenneth Rogers, Anthony Michaels, Jiangli Yan, Paul Casaz, Keith Reimann, Francois Villenger, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor
The HIV reservoir forming at the earliest stages of infection is likely composed of CCR5+ cells, because these cells are the targets of transmissible virus. Restriction of the CCR5+ reservoir, particularly in gut, may be needed for subsequent cure attempts. Strategies for killing or depleting CCR5+ cells have been described, but none have been tested in vivo in non-human primates and the extent of achievable depletion from tissues is not known. Here we investigate the efficacy of two novel cytotoxic treatments for targeting and eliminating CCR5+ cells in young rhesus macaques...
September 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917953/migratory-capacity-and-function-of-dendritic-cells-from-mesenteric-afferent-lymph-nodes-after-feeding-a-single-dose-of-vitamin-a
#8
Ivanna Novotny Nuñez, Bibiana E Barrios, Lisa Macció-Maretto, Silvia G Correa
Lamina propria dendritic cells (DCs) have a permanent turnover with constitutive migration to mesenteric lymph nodes and replenishment by progenitors. Luminal bacteria and dietary constituents provide key signals that endow DCs their unique properties in vivo. Taking into account that the intestinal immune system is greatly influenced by retinoids, we evaluated in B6 mice 3, 8, 16 and 24 h after feeding a single dose of vitamin A phenotype and function of cells present in mesenteric afferent lymph nodes as well as signals involved in migration...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916254/development-of-a-natural-language-processing-engine-to-generate-bladder-cancer-pathology-data-for-health-services-research
#9
Florian R Schroeck, Olga V Patterson, Patrick R Alba, Erik A Pattison, John D Seigne, Scott L DuVall, Douglas J Robertson, Brenda Sirovich, Philip P Goodney
OBJECTIVE: To take a first step towards assembling population based cohorts of bladder cancer patients with longitudinal pathology data, we developed and validated a natural language processing (NLP) engine that abstracts pathology data from full text pathology reports. METHODS: Using 600 bladder pathology reports randomly selected from the Department of Veterans Affairs, we developed and validated an NLP engine to abstract data on histology, invasion (presence versus absence and depth), grade, presence of muscularis propria, and presence of carcinoma in situ...
September 12, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915559/zbtb1-controls-nkp46-ror-gamma-t-innate-lymphoid-cell-ilc3-development
#10
Ying Lu, Xianyu Zhang, Nicolas Bouladoux, Saransh Neel Kaul, Kangxin Jin, Derek Sant'Angelo, Yasmine Belkaid, Damian Kovalovsky
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role conferring protection at the mucosal frontier. In this study, we have identified a requirement of the transcription factor Zbtb1 for the development of RORγt(+) ILCs (ILC3s). Zbtb1-deficient mice lacked NKp46(+) ILC3 cells in the lamina propria of the small and large intestine. This requirement of Zbtb1 was cell intrinsic, as NKp46(+) ILC3s were not generated from Zbtb1-deficient progenitors in bone marrow chimeras and Zbtb1-deficient RORγt(+) CCR6(-)NKp46(-) ILC3s didn't generate NKp46(+) ILC3s in co-cultures with OP9-DL1 stroma...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913556/high-dose-vitamin-d3-supplementation-decreases-the-number-of-colonic-cd103-dendritic-cells-in-healthy-subjects
#11
Nina Friis Bak, M Bendix, S Hald, L Reinert, M K Magnusson, J Agnholt
PURPOSE: Vitamin D may induce tolerance in the intestinal immune system and has been shown to regulate the phenotype of tolerogenic intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. It is unknown whether vitamin D supplementation affects human intestinal DCs in vivo, and we aimed to investigate the tolerability and effect on intestinal CD103(+)DCs of high-dose vitamin D3 treatment in healthy subjects. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects received a total of 480,000 IU oral vitamin D3 over 15 days and colonic biopsies were obtained before and after intervention by endoscopy...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912045/sulfate-reducing-bacteria-stimulate-gut-immune-responses-and-contribute-to-inflammation-in-experimental-colitis
#12
Vanessa Ribeiro Figliuolo, Liliane Martins Dos Santos, Alessandra Abalo, Hayandra Nanini, Angela Santos, Nilda M Brittes, Claudio Bernardazzi, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza, Leda Quercia Vieira, Robson Coutinho-Silva, Claudia Mara Lara Melo Coutinho
The intestinal microbiota is critical for mammalian immune system development and homeostasis. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are part of the normal gut microbiota, but their increased levels may contribute to colitis development, likely in association with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. Here, we investigated the effects of SRB in the gut immune response in germ-free mice, and in experimental colitis. After 7days of colonization with Desulfovibrio indonesiensis or with a human SRB consortium (from patients with colitis), germ-free mice exhibited alterations in the colonic architecture, with increased cell infiltration in the lamina propria...
September 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910873/-differential-expression-and-clinical-significance-of-calretinin-in-total-colonic-aganglionosis
#13
L Q Ke, J Huang, L L Liu, M J Huang, Q Zhang, J C Wang, W Zhang
Objective: To evaluate the differential calretinin immunostaining in different segments of total colonic aganglionosis and its utility in the diagnosis. Methods: Nine specimens including ileum and colon segments were obtained from 9 patients with total colonic aganglionosis (TCA), from 2010 to 2016 year, in Wuhan Children's Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Another 9 ganglionic specimens including the same segments from patients with non-Hirschsprung disease (non-HD) patients were collected as control...
September 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904023/%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-derived-metabolites-from-gut-lactic-acid-bacteria-induce-differentiation-of-anti-inflammatory-m2-macrophages-through-g-protein-coupled-receptor-40
#14
Ryuji Ohue-Kitano, Yumiko Yasuoka, Tsuyoshi Goto, Nahoko Kitamura, Si-Bum Park, Shigenobu Kishino, Ikuo Kimura, Mayu Kasubuchi, Haruya Takahashi, Yongjia Li, Yu-Sheng Yeh, Huei-Fen Jheng, Mari Iwase, Masashi Tanaka, Shinya Masuda, Takayuki Inoue, Hajime Yamakage, Toru Kusakabe, Fumito Tani, Akira Shimatsu, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Jun Ogawa, Noriko Satoh-Asahara, Teruo Kawada
Among dietary fatty acids with immunologic effects, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA), have been considered as factors that contribute to the differentiation of M2-type macrophages (M2 macrophages). In this study, we examined the effect of ALA and its gut lactic acid bacteria metabolites 13-hydroxy-9(Z),15(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (13-OH) and 13-oxo-9(Z),15(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (13-oxo) on the differentiation of M2 macrophages from bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and investigated the underlying mechanisms...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900043/a-natural-ligand-for-the-orphan-receptor-gpr15-modulates-lymphocyte-recruitment-to-epithelia
#15
Thomas Suply, Sébastien Hannedouche, Nathalie Carte, Jianping Li, Bianka Grosshans, Michael Schaefer, Layla Raad, Valérie Beck, Solange Vidal, Agnès Hiou-Feige, Noémie Beluch, Samuel Barbieri, Johann Wirsching, Nadine Lageyre, Frank Hillger, Corinne Debon, Janet Dawson, Philip Smith, Vincent Lannoy, Michel Detheux, Francis Bitsch, Rocco Falchetto, Tewis Bouwmeester, Jeffrey Porter, Birgit Baumgarten, Keith Mansfield, José M Carballido, Klaus Seuwen, Frédéric Bassilana
GPR15 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is found in lymphocytes. It functions as a co-receptor of simian immunodeficiency virus and HIV-2 and plays a role in the trafficking of T cells to the lamina propria in the colon and to the skin. We describe the purification from porcine colonic tissue extracts of an agonistic ligand for GPR15 and its functional characterization. In humans, this ligand, which we named GPR15L, is encoded by the gene C10ORF99 and has some features similar to the CC family of chemokines...
September 12, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892653/saliva-derived-commensal-and-pathogenic-biofilms-in-a-human-gingiva-model
#16
J K Buskermolen, M M Janus, S Roffel, B P Krom, S Gibbs
In vitro models that closely mimic human host-microbiome interactions can be a powerful screening tool for antimicrobials and will hold great potential for drug validation and discovery. The aim of this study was to develop an organotypic oral mucosa model that could be exposed to in vitro cultured commensal and pathogenic biofilms in a standardized and scalable manner. The oral mucosa model consisted of a tissue-engineered human gingiva equivalent containing a multilayered differentiated gingiva epithelium (keratinocytes) grown on a collagen hydrogel, containing gingiva fibroblasts, which represented the lamina propria...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886055/comparative-analysis-of-the-oral-mucosae-from-rodents-and-non-rodents-application-to-the-nonclinical-evaluation-of-sublingual-immunotherapy-products
#17
Catherine Thirion-Delalande, Frédéric Gervais, Cécile Fisch, Jean Cuiné, Véronique Baron-Bodo, Philippe Moingeon, Laurent Mascarell
BACKGROUND: A comparative characterization of the oral mucosa in various animals is needed to identify the best animal model(s) for nonclinical evaluation of sublingual immunotherapy products. With this aim, we studied the histological characteristics and immune cell infiltrates of oral mucosae from common animal species. METHODS: Three oral regions (i.e. ventral surface of the tongue, mouth floor and cheek) obtained from eight animal species, including rodents (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883453/%C3%AE-catenin-twist-and-snail-transcriptional-regulation-of-emt-in-smokers-and-copd-and-relation-to-airflow-obstruction
#18
Malik Quasir Mahmood, Eugene Haydn Walters, Shakti D Shukla, Steve Weston, Hans Konrad Muller, Chris Ward, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal
COPD is characterised by poorly reversible airflow obstruction usually due to cigarette smoking. The transcription factor clusters of β-catenin/Snail1/Twist has been implicated in the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), an intermediate between smoking and airway fibrosis, and indeed lung cancer. We have investigated expression of these transcription factors and their "cellular localization" in bronchoscopic airway biopsies from patients with COPD, and in smoking and non-smoking controls. An immune-histochemical study compared cellular protein expression of β-catenin, Snail1 and Twist, in these subject groups in 3 large airways compartment: epithelium (basal region), reticular basement membrane (Rbm) and underlying lamina propria (LP)...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882796/protective-effect-of-glutamine-and-arginine-against-soybean-meal-induced-enteritis-in-the-juvenile-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#19
Min Gu, Nan Bai, Bingying Xu, Xiaojie Xu, Qian Jia, Zhiyu Zhang
Soybean meal can induce enteritis in the distal intestine (DI) and decrease the immunity of several cultured fish species, including turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Glutamine and arginine supplementation have been used to improve immunity and intestinal morphology in fish. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of these two amino acids on the immunity and intestinal health of turbot suffering from soybean meal-induced enteritis. Turbots (initial weight 7.6 g) were fed one of three isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets for 8 weeks: SBM (control diet), with 40% soybean meal; GLN, SBM diet plus 1...
September 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881897/comparative-evaluation-of-new-and-conventional-classifications-of-magnifying-endoscopy-with-narrow-band-imaging-for-invasion-depth-of-superficial-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
T Fujiyoshi, M Tajika, T Tanaka, M Ishihara, N Mizuno, K Hara, S Hijioka, H Imaoka, Y Yatabe, Y Hirooka, H Goto, K Yamao, Y Niwa
A new classification of magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (ME-NBI) for diagnosing and staging superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC) was proposed by the Japan Esophageal Society in 2011. This study aimed to compare the new classification with the conventional classifications (Inoue's classification and Arima's classification). This was a prospective analysis of data from a single cancer center involving 151 consecutive patients with 156 SESCCs that were endoscopically or surgically resected...
November 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
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