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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902901/virulence-of-serovar-c-1-strains-of-avibacterium-paragallinarum
#1
H H Trujillo-Ruíz, H L Shivaprasad, V Morales-Erasto, M Talavera-Rojas, C Salgado-Miranda, F Salazar-García, P J Blackall, E Soriano-Vargas
The bacterium Avibacterium paragallinarum is the etiologic agent of infectious coryza of chickens. There are nine serovars of A. paragallinarum , and serovar C-1 has emerged in outbreaks of infectious coryza in layer hens in the Americas, with all isolates having been obtained from infectious coryza-vaccinated chickens. In the current study, the clinical and histopathologic outcomes of experimental infections in chickens with A. paragallinarum of serovar C-1 were investigated. The Japanese serovar reference strain, H-18, and a Mexican isolate, ESV-135, were included in the study...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900728/distant-lymph-node-metastases-caused-by-esophageal-cancer-invasion-to-the-lamina-propria-a-case-report
#2
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Hiroshi Saeki, Yuichiro Nakashima, Yu Nakaji, Kensuke Kudou, Ryosuke Tsutsumi, Sho Nishimura, Shingo Akiyama, Hirotada Tajiri, Takafumi Yukaya, Kimihiro Tanaka, Ryota Nakanishi, Masahiko Sugiyama, Kippei Ohgaki, Hideto Sonoda, Minako Hirahashi, Eiji Oki, Masaru Morita, Yoshinao Oda, Yoshihiko Maehara
BACKGROUND: Pathological examination after endoscopic submucosal dissection revealed that a 62-year-old male had esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with lamina propria mucosal invasion and lymphatic permeation. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient underwent subtotal esophagectomy and reconstruction as an additional therapy. At 3 years and 4 months after esophagectomy, enlargement of abdominal para-aortic lymph nodes metastases was detected by computed tomography scanning...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900483/indigo-naturalis-ameliorates-murine-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis-via-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation
#3
Shoichiro Kawai, Hideki Iijima, Shinichiro Shinzaki, Satoshi Hiyama, Toshio Yamaguchi, Manabu Araki, Shuko Iwatani, Eri Shiraishi, Akira Mukai, Takahiro Inoue, Yoshito Hayashi, Masahiko Tsujii, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Tetsuya Iida, Tetsuo Takehara
BACKGROUND: Indigo Naturalis (IN) is used as a traditional herbal medicine for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the mechanisms of action of IN have not been clarified. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of IN for ameliorating colonic inflammation. We further investigated the mechanisms of action of IN. METHODS: Colitis severity was assessed in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis models with or without the oral administration of IN or indigo, which is a known major component of IN...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895423/increased-cd4-cd45ra-foxp3-low-cells-alter-the-balance-between-treg-and-th17-cells-in-colitis-mice
#4
Ya-Hui Ma, Jie Zhang, Xue Chen, You-Fu Xie, Yan-Hua Pang, Xin-Juan Liu
AIM: To investigate the role of regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets in the balance between Treg and T helper 17 (Th17) cells in various tissues from mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. METHODS: Treg cells, Treg cell subsets, Th17 cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)IL-17(+) cells from the lamina propria of colon (LPC) and other ulcerative colitis (UC) mouse tissues were evaluated by flow cytometry. Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3), interleukin 17A (IL-17A), and RORC mRNA levels were assessed by real-time PCR, while interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-17A levels were detected with a Cytometric Beads Array...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891587/intestinal-mononuclear-cells-primed-by-systemic-interleukin-12-display-long-term-ability-to-aggravate-colitis-in-mice
#5
Luciano P Pedrotti, Angela A Sena, María Cecilia Rodriguez Galán, Hugo Cejas, Silvia G Correa
To address whether the burst of systemic interleukin-12 (IL-12) influences intestinal inflammation elicited by luminal stimuli, we induced IL-12 release by cDNA injection in C57BL/6 mice and simultaneously started dextran sulphate sodium administration. The sequence of the inflammatory response triggered by IL-12 release was characterized by assessing myeloperoxidase activity and histological damage in colon samples on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 after colitis induction. To evaluate the persistence of IL-12 priming, colitis was induced in mice 7 or 60 days after cDNA injection...
November 5, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891580/acute-infection-with-the-intestinal-parasite-trichuris-muris-has-long-term-consequences-on-mucosal-mast-cell-homeostasis-and-epithelial-integrity
#6
Daniel Sorobetea, Jacob Bak Holm, Henrietta Henningsson, Karsten Kristiansen, Marcus Svensson-Frej
A hallmark of parasite infection is the accumulation of innate immune cells, notably granulocytes and mast cells, at the site of infection. While this is typically viewed as a transient response, with the tissue returning to steady state once the infection is cleared, we found that mast cells accumulated in the large-intestinal epithelium following infection with the nematode Trichuris muris and persisted at this site for several months after worm expulsion. Mast cell accumulation in the epithelium was associated with the induction of type-2 immunity and appeared to be driven by increased maturation of local progenitors in the intestinal lamina propria...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878645/the-synaptojanins-in-the-murine-small-and-large-intestine
#7
María Dolores Vázquez-Carretero, Ana Eloisa Carvajal, José Manuel Serrano-Morales, Pablo García-Miranda, Anunciación Ana Ilundain, María José Peral
The expression of the phosphoinositides phosphatases Synaptojanins (Synjs) 1 and 2 has been shown in brain and in some peripheral tissues, but their expression in the intestine has not been reported. Herein we show that the small and large intestine express Synj1 and Synj2. Their mRNA levels, measured by RT-PCR, are not affected by development in the small intestine but in the colon they increase with age. Immunostaining assays reveal that both Synjs localize at the apical domain of the epithelial cells and at the lamina propria at sites also expressing the neuron marker calretinin...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875388/is-vulvovaginal-atrophy-due-to-a-lack-of-both-estrogens-and-androgens
#8
Fernand Labrie, Céline Martel, Georges Pelletier
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the preclinical data showing the role of both estrogens and androgens in the physiology of the vagina, and, most likely, in vulvovaginal atrophy of menopause. METHODS: Mass spectrometry-based assays (validated according to the FDA guidelines) for the measurement of sex steroids, their precursors, and metabolites were used. In addition to fixation of the vagina for morphological examination, histomorphometry, immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed...
November 21, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874308/microbial-metabolomic-and-immunologic-dynamics-in-a-relapsing-genetic-mouse-model-of-colitis-induced-by-t-synthase-deficiency
#9
Jonathan P Jacobs, Lin Lin, Maryam Goudarzi, Paul Ruegger, Dermot P B McGovern, Albert J Fornace, James Borneman, Lijun Xia, Jonathan Braun
Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to confer susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is unknown whether dynamic changes in the microbiome contribute to fluctuations in disease activity. We explored this question using mice with intestine-specific deletion of C1galt1 (also known as T-synthase) (Tsyn mice). These mice develop spontaneous microbiota-dependent colitis with a remitting/relapsing course due to loss of mucin core-1 derived O-glycans. 16S rRNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics demonstrated age-specific perturbations in the intestinal microbiome and metabolome of Tsyn mice compare with littermate controls at weeks 3 (disease onset), 5 (during remission), and 9 (after relapse)...
November 22, 2016: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873064/development-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-from-follicular-lymphoma-of-the-duodenum-changes-in-endoscopic-findings-during-a-6-year-follow-up
#10
Hiroyuki Kitabatake, Tadanobu Nagaya, Naoki Tanaka, Hiroyoshi Ota, Kenji Sano, Naoko Asano, Tomoaki Suga, Yoshiyuki Nakamura, Taiji Akamatsu, Eiji Tanaka
A 71-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed as having stage I primary follicular lymphoma (FL) of the duodenum according to Lugano International Conference Classification and began receiving annual checkups. Endoscopic examination disclosed white villi swelling with depressed red mucosal lesions. Biopsy specimens from the area of white villi exhibited histopathological features that met the diagnostic criteria for low-grade FL. The depressed red lesions gradually enlarged over six years of follow-up. A biopsy of the white villi swelling revealed distinct well-circumscribed follicles with attenuated mantles in the lamina propria that were positive for CD20, bcl-2, and CD10...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872210/distribution-and-activation-of-cd8-t-cells-in-the-duodenal-mucosa-before-and-after-hiv-seroconversion
#11
Kristina Allers, Andreas Puyskens, Hans-Jörg Epple, Dirk Schürmann, Jörg Hofmann, Verena Moos, Thomas Schneider
CD8(+) T cells in the intestinal mucosa influence the HIV-associated pathogenesis, but little is known about the dynamics of mucosal CD8(+) T cell counts and activation of these cells during the course of infection. In this study, mucosal CD8(+) T cells in the duodenum were studied at different stages of HIV infection, starting from the seronegative phase. In seronegative acute HIV infection, CD8(+) T cell counts increased in the epithelium, but not in the lamina propria. Infiltration of the lamina propria by peripherally expanded CD8(+) T cells was observed after seroconversion...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866157/loss-of-free-fatty-acid-receptor-2-enhances-colonic-adenoma-development-and-reduces-the-chemopreventive-effects-of-black-raspberries-in-apcmin-mice
#12
Pan Pan, Chad W Skaer, Hsin-Tzu Wang, Kiyoko Oshima, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianhua Yu, Jianying Zhang, Martha Yearsley, Kimberle Agle, William Drobyski, Xiao Chen, Li-Shu Wang
We previously showed that black raspberries (BRBs) have beneficial effects in human colorectal cancer and a mouse model of colorectal cancer (Apc(Min/+)). The current study investigated the role of free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) in colon carcinogenesis and whether the FFAR2 signaling pathway contributes to BRB-mediated chemoprevention in mice. FFAR2 (also named GPR43) is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family that is expressed in leukocytes and colon. Apc(Min/+) and Apc(Min/+)-FFAR2(-/-) mice were given a control diet or the control diet supplemented with 5% BRBs for 8 weeks...
November 19, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865932/oral-helicobacter-pylori-vaccine-encapsulated-acid-resistant-hp55-plga-nanoparticles-promote-immune-protection
#13
Zhoulin Tan, Wei Liu, Hai Liu, Cheng Li, Yan Zhang, Xia Meng, Tingting Tang, Tao Xi, Yingying Xing
Oral vaccination, is notoriously weak or nonimmunogenic. One of the major reasons is the inefficient antigen uptake caused by enzymolysis and hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, acid-resistant HP55/PLGA nanoparticle was developed as an oral delivery system to protect H. pylori recombinant antigen CCF against the complex gastrointestinal environment. These ∼200nm particles controlled the release of antigen in the acidic environment (pH⩽5.5). Immunized mice with HP55/PLGA-CCF nanoparticles induced high levels of urease-specific antibodies and memory T cell responses...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863138/prevention-of-sinonasal-inflammation-by-a-synthetic-glycosaminoglycan
#14
Abigail Pulsipher, Xuan Qin, Andrew J Thomas, Glenn D Prestwich, Siam Oottamasathien, Jeremiah A Alt
BACKGROUND: Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are polysaccharides that are distributed on respiratory epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and submucosal glands. Uniquely positioned, certain GAGs exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in respiratory diseases and serve important roles in repairing mucosal surfaces and modulating mucociliary clearance. We hypothesized that topical administration of a synthetic GAG (GM-0111) would prevent sinonasal inflammation in a mouse model of rhinosinusitis (RS)...
November 11, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861815/intestinal-helminth-infection-induces-highly-functional-resident-memory-cd4-t-cells-in-mice
#15
Svenja Steinfelder, Sebastian Rausch, Dörte Michael, Anja A Kühl, Susanne Hartmann
Immunity to intestinal nematodes requires CD4⁺ Th2-cell responses, including IL-4 and IL-13 production. Chronic infection with intestinal nematodes leads to downregulation of these responses, and few functional T helper (Th) 2 cells are detected in secondary lymphoid organs in the chronic phase or after abrogation of infection. Here, we show with a natural murine infection with Heligmosomoides polygyrus that highly functional memory Th2 cells persist in the lamina propria and in addition in the peritoneal cavity (PC) after abrogation of infection...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845198/hyaluronan-35kda-treatment-protects-mice-from-citrobacter-rodentium-infection-and-induces-epithelial-tight-junction-protein-zo-1-in-vivo
#16
Yeojung Kim, Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Craig R Homer, Christine McDonald, Carol A de la Motte
Maintaining a healthy intestinal barrier, the primary physical barrier between intestinal microbiota and the underlying lamina propria, is critical for optimal health. Epithelial integrity is essential for the prevention of the entrance of luminal contents, such as bacteria and their products, through the large intestinal barrier. In this study, we investigated the protective functions of biosynthetic, specific sized, hyaluronan around 35kDa (HA35) on intestinal epithelium in healthy mice, as well as mice infected Citrobacter rodentium, an established model that mimics infection with a serious human pathogen, enteropathogenic E...
November 11, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833553/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-herbal-preparations-stw5-and-stw5-ii-in-cytokine-challenged-normal-human-colon-cells
#17
Mathias Schneider, Thomas Efferth, Heba Abdel-Aziz
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing intestinal disorders characterized by up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines followed by invasion of immune cells to the intestinal lamina propria. Standard therapies consist of anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive drugs. Since clinical efficiency is not satisfactory and the established drugs have massive side effects, new strategies to treat IBD are required. Herein, we investigate the protective effect of the fixed combination herbal preparations STW5 and STW5-II and the contribution of the corresponding single components in an in vitro inflammation model...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829601/whipple-s-disease-diagnosed-using-electron-microscopy-and-polymerase-chain-reaction
#18
Tomohiro Nagasue, Koichi Kurahara, Hiroki Yaita, Takahide Tanaka, Yumi Oshiro, Nobuaki Kuno, Akira Harada, Masashi Kameda, Kazuhide Iwasaki, Yutaka Tsutsumi
A 50-year-old man presented with bloody diarrhea and 25-kg weight loss over 3 months. Upper and lower endoscopy showed diffuse shaggy white villi in the duodenum and terminal ileum. In addition, capsule endoscopy and double-balloon enteroscopy revealed shaggy white villi in the entire small intestine. Histological examination of biopsy specimens found the lamina propria of the duodenal and intestinal mucosa to be densely infiltrated by rich foamy macrophages that were periodic acid-Schiff-positive. Electron microscopy showed numerous bacilli in the lamina propria...
2016: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828940/different-tissue-phagocytes-sample-apoptotic-cells-to-direct-distinct-homeostasis-programs
#19
Ryan J Cummings, Gaetan Barbet, Gerold Bongers, Boris M Hartmann, Kyle Gettler, Luciana Muniz, Glaucia C Furtado, Judy Cho, Sergio A Lira, J Magarian Blander
Recognition and removal of apoptotic cells by professional phagocytes, including dendritic cells and macrophages, preserves immune self-tolerance and prevents chronic inflammation and autoimmune pathologies. The diverse array of phagocytes that reside within different tissues, combined with the necessarily prompt nature of apoptotic cell clearance, makes it difficult to study this process in situ. The full spectrum of functions executed by tissue-resident phagocytes in response to homeostatic apoptosis, therefore, remains unclear...
November 9, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827367/cd301b-dendritic-cells-stimulate-tissue-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells-to-protect-against-genital-hsv-2
#20
Haina Shin, Yosuke Kumamoto, Smita Gopinath, Akiko Iwasaki
Tissue-resident memory CD8+ T (CD8 TRM) cells are an essential component of protective immune responses at barrier tissues, including the female genital tract. However, the mechanisms that lead to the initiation of CD8 TRM-mediated protective immunity after viral infection are unclear. Here we report that CD8 TRM cells established by 'prime and pull' method confer protection against genital HSV-2 infection, and that IFN-γ produced by CD8 TRM cells is required for this protection. Furthermore, we find that CD8 TRM-cell restimulation depends on a population of CD301b(+) antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the lamina propria...
November 9, 2016: Nature Communications
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