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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534429/prevalence-and-costs-of-defensive-medicine-a-national-survey-of-italian-physicians
#1
Massimiliano Panella, Carmela Rinaldi, Fabrizio Leigheb, Sanita Knesse, Chiara Donnarumma, Seval Kul, Kris Vanhaecht, Francesco Di Stanislao
Objective To identify the prevalence of the practice of defensive medicine among Italian hospital physicians, its costs and the reasons for practising defensive medicine and possible solutions to reduce the practice of defensive medicine. Methods Cross-sectional web survey. Main outcome measures Number of physicians reporting having engaged in any defensive medicine behaviour in the previous year. Results A total of 1313 physicians completed the survey. Ninety-five per cent believed that defensive medicine would increase in the near future...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532613/the-practice-of-evidence-based-medicine-involves-the-care-of-whole-persons
#2
W Scott Richardson
In this issue of the Journal, Dr. Fava posits that evidence-based medicine (EBM) was bound to fail. I share some of the concerns he expresses, yet I see more reasons for optimism. Having been on rounds with both Drs. Engel and Sackett, I reckon they would have agreed more than they disagreed. Their central teaching was the compassionate and well-informed care of sick persons. The model that emerged from these rounds was that patient care could be both person-centered and evidence-based, that clinical judgment was essential to both, and the decisions could and should be shared...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531789/do-picu-patients-meet-technical-criteria-for-performing-indirect-calorimetry
#3
Megan R Beggs, Gonzalo Garcia Guerra, Bodil M K Larsen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Indirect calorimetry (IC) is considered gold standard for assessing energy needs of critically ill children as predictive equations and clinical status indicators are often unreliable. Accurate assessment of energy requirements in this vulnerable population is essential given the high risk of over or underfeeding and the consequences thereof. The proportion of patients and patient days in pediatric intensive care (PICU) for which energy expenditure (EE) can be measured using IC is currently unknown...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527510/saposhnikoviae-divaricata-a-phytochemical-pharmacological-and-pharmacokinetic-review
#4
REVIEW
Jenny Kreiner, Edwin Pang, George Binh Lenon, Angela Wei Hong Yang
Saposhnikoviae divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk (SD) is a traditional Chinese herb commonly used to treat clinical conditions such as rheumatism and allergic rhinitis. This review article evaluates a collection of works on in vitro and biochemical studies of SD. The discourse on the diverse class of chromones and coumarins in SD offers an insight to the pharmacological effects of these bioactive constituents as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immunoregulatory, antioxidative, and anti-proliferative agents. It is highlighted that there is a structural relationship between the constituents and bioactive activities, which in effect provides a valid reasoning and reaffirm the use of SD in the treatment of the pathologies in Chinese medicine...
April 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523139/an-overview-of-the-use-of-artificial-neural-networks-in-lung-cancer-research
#5
EDITORIAL
Luca Bertolaccini, Piergiorgio Solli, Alessandro Pardolesi, Antonello Pasini
The artificial neural networks (ANNs) are statistical models where the mathematical structure reproduces the biological organisation of neural cells simulating the learning dynamics of the brain. Although definitions of the term ANN could vary, the term usually refers to a neural network used for non-linear statistical data modelling. The neural models applied today in various fields of medicine, such as oncology, do not aim to be biologically realistic in detail but just efficient models for nonlinear regression or classification...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521677/molluscum-contagiosum-an-update
#6
Alexander Kc Leung, Benjamin Barankin, Kam Lun Hon
BACKGROUND: Molluscum contagiosum is a viral cutaneous infection in childhood that occurs worldwide. Physicians should familiarize themselves with this common condition. OBJECTIVE: To review in depth the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, complications and, in particular, treatment of molluscum contagiosum. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "molluscum contagiosum". Patents were searched using the key term "molluscum contagiosum" from www...
May 17, 2017: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518214/immune-monitoring-as-prerequisite-for-transplantation-tolerance-trials
#7
REVIEW
Katayoun Behnam Sani, Birgit Sawitzki
Ever since its first application in clinical medicine, scientists have urged to induce tolerance towards foreign allogeneic transplants and thus avoid rejection by the recipient's immune system. This would circumvent chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs (IS) and thus avoid development of IS-induced side effects, which are contributing to the still unsatisfactory long-term graft and patient survival after solid organ transplantation. Although manifold strategies of tolerance induction have been described in preclinical models, only three therapeutic approaches have been successfully utilized in a still small number of patients...
May 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511205/-stability-and-change-of-medical-specialty-of-residents-over-four-years-of-postgraduate-training-in-germany
#8
Hendrik van den Bussche, Stine Ziegler, Lea Krause-Solberg, Martin Scherer
Aim We analyzed medical residents' preferences in Germany with regard to the specialization fields after 4 years of postgraduate training and compared them to their preferences in the years before, e. g. at the end of undergraduate education in a gender comparative perspective, including the influence of parenthood. Methods The study is based on annual postal surveys of students of 7 medical faculties in Germany from their last year of medical school ("Practical Year") until after 4 years of postgraduate training...
May 16, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508440/has-evidence-based-medicine-ever-been-modern-a-latour-inspired-understanding-of-a-changing-ebm
#9
Sietse Wieringa, Eivind Engebretsen, Kristin Heggen, Trish Greenhalgh
Evidence-based health care (EBHC), previously evidence-based medicine (EBM), is considered by many to have modernized health care and brought it from an authority-based past to a more rationalist, scientific grounding. But recent concerns and criticisms pose serious challenges and urge us to look at the fundamentals of a changing EBHC. In this paper, we present French philosopher Bruno Latour's vision on modernity as a framework to discuss current changes in the discourse on EBHC/EBM. Drawing on Latour's work, we argue that the early EBM movement had a strong modernist agenda with an aim to "purify" clinical reality into a dichotomy of objective "evidence" from nature and subjective "preferences" from human society and culture...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503224/psychometric-properties-of-the-belief-about-medicines-questionnaire-bmq-in-the-maltese-language
#10
Ingrid Gatt, Lorna M West, Neville Calleja, Charles Briffa, Maria Cordina
BACKGROUND: Investigating beliefs about medicines has been of interest over the past years, with studies aiming to better understand theoretical reasons behind development of such beliefs. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to produce a culturally and contextually appropriate version of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) in the Maltese language and to assess its psychometric properties. METHODS: Medication beliefs were evaluated using the BMQ which is divided into two sections: BMQ-General (sub-scales: Overuse and Harm, 4 items per sub-scale) and BMQ-Specific (sub-scales: Necessity and Concerns, 5 items per sub-scale)...
January 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502000/reverse-phase-protein-microarrays
#11
Elisa Baldelli, Valerie Calvert, Alex Hodge, Amy VanMeter, Emanuel F Petricoin, Mariaelena Pierobon
While genes and RNA encode information about cellular status, proteins are considered the engine of the cellular machine, as they are the effective elements that drive all cellular functions including proliferation, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis. Consequently, investigations of the cellular protein network are considered a fundamental tool for understanding cellular functions.Alteration of the cellular homeostasis driven by elaborate intra- and extracellular interactions has become one of the most studied fields in the era of personalized medicine and targeted therapy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497983/promoting-responsible-electronic-documentation-validity-evidence-for-a-checklist-to-assess-progress-notes-in-the-electronic-health-record
#12
Jennifer A Bierman, Kathryn Kinner Hufmeyer, David T Liss, A Charlotta Weaver, Heather L Heiman
Construct: We aimed to develop an instrument to measure the quality of inpatient electronic health record- (EHR-) generated progress notes without requiring raters to review the detailed chart or know the patient. BACKGROUND: Notes written in EHRs have generated criticism for being unnecessarily long and redundant, perpetuating inaccuracy and obscuring providers' clinical reasoning. Available assessment tools either focus on outpatient progress notes or require chart review by raters to develop familiarity with the patient...
May 12, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497114/selectable-markers-for-use-in-genetic-manipulation-of-extensively-drug-resistant-xdr-acinetobacter-baumannii-humc1
#13
Brian M Luna, Amber Ulhaq, Jun Yan, Paul Pantapalangkoor, Travis B Nielsen, Bryan W Davies, Luis A Actis, Brad Spellberg
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most antibiotic-resistant pathogens in clinical medicine, and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains are commonly isolated from infected patients. Such XDR strains are already resistant to traditional selectable genetic markers, limiting the ability to conduct pathogenesis research by genetic disruption. Optimization of selectable markers is therefore critical for the advancement of fundamental molecular biology techniques to use in these strains. We screened 23 drugs that constitute a broad array of antibiotics spanning multiple drug classes against HUMC1, a highly virulent and XDR A...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491107/characteristics-of-herbal-medicine-users-and-adverse-events-experienced-in-south-korea-a-survey-study
#14
Soobin Jang, Kyeong Han Kim, Seung-Ho Sun, Ho-Yeon Go, Eun-Kyung Lee, Bo-Hyoung Jang, Yong-Cheol Shin, Seong-Gyu Ko
Background. This survey aimed to investigate the characteristics of users and nonusers of herbal medicine and the adverse events experienced due to herbal medicines in South Korea. Methods. The questionnaire consisted of safety, using experience, using type, usage and nonusage reason, purchase location, and adverse events of herbal medicine. The survey was administered by online. Results. Of the total 1,134 respondents, 726 (64.0%) considered herbal medicine safe, and 693 (61.1%) answered that they have taken herbal medicines within the past year...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488282/concise-review-wharton-s-jelly-the-rich-but-enigmatic-source-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#15
John E Davies, John T Walker, Armand Keating
The umbilical cord has become an increasingly used source of mesenchymal stromal cells for preclinical and, more recently, clinical studies. Despite the increased activity, several aspects of this cell population have been under-appreciated. Key issues are that consensus on the anatomical structures within the cord is lacking, and potentially different populations are identified as arising from a single source. To help address these points, we propose a histologically based nomenclature for cord structures and provide an analysis of their developmental origins and composition...
May 10, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487653/chinese-herbal-medicines-attenuate-acute-pancreatitis-pharmacological-activities-and-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Hong Xiang, Qingkai Zhang, Bing Qi, Xufeng Tao, Shilin Xia, Huiyi Song, Jialin Qu, Dong Shang
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a commonly occurring gastrointestinal disorder. An increase in the annual incidence of AP has been observed, and it causes acute hospitalization and high mortality. The diagnosis and treatment guidelines for AP recommend conservative medical treatments focused on reducing pancreatic secretion and secondary injury, as a primary therapeutic approach. Unfortunately, the existing treatment options have limited impact on the incidence and severity of AP due to the complex and multifaceted pathological process of this disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486523/barriers-towards-the-publication-of-academic-drug-trials-follow-up-of-trials-approved-by-the-danish-medicines-agency
#17
Louise Berendt, Lene Grejs Petersen, Karin Friis Bach, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Kim Dalhoff
OBJECTIVE: To characterize and quantify barriers towards the publication of academic drug trials. STUDY DESIGN: We identified academic drug trials approved during a 3-year period (2004-2007) by the Danish Medicines Agency. We conducted a survey among the trial sponsors to describe the rates of initiation, completion, and publication, and the reasons for the failure to reach each of these milestones. Information on size and methodological characteristics of the trials was extracted from the EudraCT database, a prospective register of all approved clinical drug trials submitted to European medicines agencies since 2004...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483459/animal-models-of-atherosclerosis
#18
Besa Emini Veseli, Paola Perrotta, Gregory R A De Meyer, Lynn Roth, Carole Van der Donckt, Wim Martinet, Guido R Y De Meyer
An ideal animal model of atherosclerosis resembles human anatomy and pathophysiology and has the potential to be used in medical and pharmaceutical research to obtain results that can be extrapolated to human medicine. Moreover, it must be easy to acquire, can be maintained at a reasonable cost, is easy to handle and shares the topography of the lesions with humans. In general, animal models of atherosclerosis are based on accelerated plaque formation due to a cholesterol-rich/Western-type diet, manipulation of genes involved in the cholesterol metabolism, and the introduction of additional risk factors for atherosclerosis...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479889/prevalence-of-geophagia-and-its-contributing-factors-among-pregnant-women-at-dr-george-mukhari-academic-hospital-pretoria
#19
L R Macheka, J O Olowoyo, L Matsela, A A Khine
INTRODUCTION: Geophagia is very common among pregnant women, particularly in Africa. There are many reasons given for geophagia such as cultural, medicinal and religious, making it an acceptable norm regardless of health risks involved. OBJECTIVES: The study explored prevalence and factors influencing geophagia among women visiting an antenatal clinic in Pretoria. METHODS: A quantitative survey was done on a convenience sample of 597 pregnant women and structured interviews conducted...
December 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476180/transferring-embryos-with-genetic%C3%A2-anomalies-detected-in-preimplantation-testing-an-ethics-committee-opinion
#20
(no author information available yet)
Patient requests for transfer of embryos with genetic anomalies linked to serious health-affecting disorders detected in preimplantation testing are rare but do exist. This Opinion sets out the possible rationales for a provider's decision to assist or decline to assist in such transfers. The Committee concludes in most clinical cases it is ethically permissible to assist or decline to assist in transferring such embryos. In circumstances in which a child is highly likely to be born with a life-threatening condition that causes severe and early debility with no possibility of reasonable function, provider transfer of such embryos is ethically problematic and highly discouraged...
May 2017: Fertility and Sterility
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