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Toxocara canis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160521/migration-pattern-of-toxocara-canis-larvae-in-experimentally-infected-male-and-female-rattus-norvegicus
#1
Sergio Vieira Dos Santos, Felipe Henrique Yazawa Santos, Susana Angelica Zevallos Lescano, Daniel Maurício Dos Santos, Érico da Silva Tiago, Gabriela Rodrigues E Fonseca, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida Ribeiro, Pedro Paulo Chieffi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150700/prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-in-companion-dogs-with-diarrhea-in-beijing-china-and-genetic-characteristics-of-giardia-and-cryptosporidium-species
#2
Zhongjia Yu, Yang Ruan, Mengjie Zhou, Siyuan Chen, Yinxin Zhang, Liya Wang, Guan Zhu, Yonglan Yu
Companion animals including dogs are one of the important components in One Health. Parasites may cause not only diseases in pet animals but also many zoonotic diseases infecting humans. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in fecal specimens (n = 485) collected from outpatient pet dogs with diarrhea in Beijing, China, for the entire year of 2015 by microscopic examination (all parasites) and SSU rRNA-based nested PCR detection (Giardia and Cryptosporidium). We observed a total of 124 (25...
November 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143662/heat-treatment-and-false-positive-heartworm-antigen-testing-in-ex-vivo-parasites-and-dogs-naturally-infected-by-dirofilaria-repens-and-angiostrongylus-vasorum
#3
Luigi Venco, Simone Manzocchi, Marco Genchi, Laura H Kramer
BACKGROUND: Heartworm antigen testing is considered sensitive and specific. Currently available tests are reported as detecting a glycoprotein found predominantly in the reproductive tract of the female worm and can reach specificity close to 100%. Main concerns regard sensitivity in the case of light infections, the presence of immature females or cases of all-male infections. Research and development have been aimed at increasing sensitivity. Recently, heat treatment of serum prior to antigen testing has been shown to result in an increase in positive antigen test results, presumably due to disruption of natural antigen-antibody complexes...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141740/a-lateral-flow-rapid-test-for-human-toxocariasis-developed-using-three-toxocara-canis-recombinant-antigens
#4
Muhammad Hafiznur Yunus, Siti Naqiuyah Tan Farrizam, Izzati Zahidah Abdul Karim, Rahmah Noordin
Laboratory diagnosis of toxocariasis is still a challenge especially in developing endemic countries with polyparasitism. In this study, three Toxocara canis recombinant antigens, rTES-26, rTES-30, and rTES-120, were expressed and used to prepare lateral flow immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) dipsticks. The concordance of the results of the rapid test (comprising three dipsticks) with a commercial IgG-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Cypress Diagnostics, Belgium) was compared against the concordance of two other commercial IgG-ELISA kits (Bordier, Switzerland and NovaTec, Germany) with the Cypress kit...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118011/comparative-genome-analysis-of-programmed-dna-elimination-in-nematodes
#5
Jianbin Wang, Shenghan Gao, Yulia Mostovoy, Yuanyuan Kang, Maxim Zagoskin, Yongqiao Sun, Bing Zhang, Laura K White, Alice Easton, Thomas B Nutman, Pui-Yan Kwok, Songnian Hu, Martin K Nielsen, Richard E Davis
Programmed DNA elimination is a developmentally regulated process leading to the reproducible loss of specific genomic sequences. DNA elimination occurs in unicellular ciliates and a variety of metazoans, including invertebrates and vertebrates. In metazoa, DNA elimination typically occurs in somatic cells during early development, leaving the germline genome intact. Reference genomes for metazoa that undergo DNA elimination are not available. Here, we generated germline and somatic reference genome sequences of the DNA eliminating pig parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and the horse parasite Parascaris univalens...
November 8, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114136/efficacy-of-zingiber-officinale-ethanol-extract-on-the-viability-embryogenesis-and-infectivity-of-toxocara-canis-eggs
#6
Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed
This study evaluated the effect of Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity Toxocara canis (T. canis) eggs. It was carried out both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiment, unembryonated T. canis eggs were incubated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL Z. officinale extract at 25 °C for 6, 12, and 24 h to assess the effect of Z. officinale on their viability and for two weeks to assess the effect of Z. officinale on their embryogenesis. In vivo experiment was performed to assess the effect of Z...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114134/epidemiological-investigation-of-gastrointestinal-parasites-in-dog-populations-in-basra-province-southern-iraq
#7
Khawla B N Al-Jassim, Yasser S Mahmmod, Zainab M Salem, Azmi Al-Jubury
The understanding of the epidemiology of canine parasitic infections is necessary for an efficient control program to minimize the risk of zoonotic transmission. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of canine gastrointestinal helminths and protozoa in Basra province, Southern Iraq, and (2) to identify the association of epidemiological characteristics (age, breed, gender, and feed type) of dogs with the parasitic infections. A total of 93 fecal samples, collected in the period from December 2014 to June 2015, were examined macroscopically and microscopically for the presence of worm eggs and protozoal oocysts, using centrifugal flotation method...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114122/dot-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-elisa-for-the-detection-of-toxocara-infection-using-a-rat-model
#8
Vachel Gay V Paller, Cyrelle M Besana, Isabel Kristine M Valdez
Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease usually caused by dog and cat roundworms, Toxocara canis and T. cati. Detection and diagnosis is difficult in paratenic and accidental hosts, including humans, as they cannot be detected through conventional methods such as fecal examination. Diagnosis therefore relies on immunological methods and molecular methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western Blot, which are both time-consuming and requires sophisticated equipment. In the Philippines, only a few studies are available on Toxocara seroprevalence...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080769/efficacy-of-two-anthelmintic-treatments-spinosad-milbemycin-oxime-and-ivermectin-praziquantel-in-dogs-with-natural-toxocara-spp-infection
#9
Rafael Heredia Cardenas, Camilo Romero Núñez, Laura Miranda Contreras
Toxocara canis is one of the most important zoonotic parasites of dogs. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs naturally infected with Toxocara spp. We studied 200 dogs with a positive diagnosis of Toxocara spp. Through coproparasitoscopic analysis, two study groups of 100 dogs each were assigned: spinosad/milbemycin oxime at a dose of 30-60mg/kg and 0.75-1.0mg/kg, respectively, or ivermectin/praziquantel administered at a dose of 0...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080756/diagnostic-strategies-to-reveal-covert-infections-with-intestinal-helminths-in-dogs
#10
Chris Adolph, Sharon Barnett, Melissa Beall, Jason Drake, David Elsemore, Jennifer Thomas, Susan Little
Intestinal helminths are common in dogs in the United States, particularly non-treated dogs in animal shelters, but surveys by fecal flotation may underestimate their prevalence. To determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation and detection of nematode antigen to identify those infections, contents of the entire gastrointestinal tract of 97 adult (>1year) dogs previously identified for humane euthanasia at two animal control shelters in northeastern Oklahoma, USA, were screened...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035863/sero-detection-of-toxocara-canis-infection-in-human-with-t-canis-recombinant-arginine-kinase-cathepsin-l-1-and-tes-26-antigens
#11
Anju Varghese, Opinder K Raina, Dinesh Chandra, Bijay R Mirdha, Naresh H Kelawala, Jayesh B Solanki, Niranjan Kumar, Reghu Ravindran, Anandanarayanan Arun, Ajayta Rialch, Hniang Lalrinkima, Rohan N Kelawala, Subhamoy Samanta
Three recombinant antigens viz. arginine kinase, cathepsin L-1 and TES-26 of Toxocara canis were expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated for their potential in the detection of T. canis larval infection in human in immunoglobulin G-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IgG-ELISA). Results of the IgG-ELISA with the above recombinant antigens were confirmed with commercially available IgG detection kit for T. canis infection used as a standard test. All three recombinant antigens were 100% sensitive in the detection of positive cases (n = 6) of T...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035857/humoral-response-of-mice-infected-with-toxocara-canis-following-different-infection-schemes
#12
Jan Novák, Lucie Panská, Tomáš Macháček, Libuše Kolářová, Petr Horák
The study was focused on the dynamics of humoral response to Toxocara canis excretory-secretory antigens (TES antigens) in mice experimentally infected by T. canis L3 larvae in different ways. In particular, we compared the effect of infection with two doses of 1000 larvae vs. repeated infections with a low number of larvae (daily infection with 10 larvae and weekly infection with 100 larvae in the course of 22 weeks). In ELISA, all infections, including both schemes with lower larval doses, elicited significant antibody response...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020386/seroprevalence-of-antibodies-to-toxocara-species-in-the-united-states-and-associated-risk-factors-2011-2014
#13
Eugene W Liu, Holly M Chastain, Sun Hee Shin, Ryan Wiegand, Deanna Kruszon-Moran, Sukwan Handali, Jeffrey L Jones
Background: Toxocariasis results from infection with larval stages of a dog and cat intestinal nematode and causes human morbidity. The current US estimate of Toxocara exposure is 13.9% (NHANES III 1988-1994). Methods: We used a multiplex bead based assay (Tc-CTL-1MBA) with purified Toxocara canis antigen to estimate Toxocara antibody seroprevalence in serum of 13,509 persons six years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011-2014 and identified seropositivity risk factors...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016316/toxocara-seroprevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-in-the-united-states
#14
Andrew N Berrett, Lance D Erickson, Shawn D Gale, Allison Stone, Bruce L Brown, Dawson W Hedges
Caused by the parasitic nematodes Toxocara canis and cati, toxocariasis in humans can result in covert toxocariasis, ocular toxocariasis, visceral larval migrans, and neurotoxocariasis. A common infection, toxocariasis exposure varies widely within and between countries, with a previous estimate of Toxocara seroprevalence using data from 1988 to 1994 in the United States of approximately 13%. Age, poverty, sex, educational attainment, ethnicity, and region have been associated with Toxocara seroprevalence. In this study, we sought to determine the seroprevalence of and factors associated with Toxocara seropositivity in the United States using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2011 to 2014 to provide a more recent estimate of Toxocara seroprevalence in the United States...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984036/a-cross-sectional-study-of-intestinal-parasitoses-in-dogs-and-children-of-the-periurban-area-of-la-plata-buenos-aires-argentina-zoonotic-importance-and-implications-in-public-health
#15
P Cociancic, M L Zonta, G T Navone
A cross-sectional study was performed between school term dates 2014 and 2015 to diagnose intestinal parasites in dogs and children living with them. The socio-environmental characteristics and hygiene practices of the children were also evaluated in terms of risk factors for parasitic infection of periurban neighbourhoods of La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Serial coproparasitological samples of 78 dogs and 211 children were analysed by means of concentration and flotation techniques. Socio-environmental variables and hygiene practices of children were evaluated through semi-structured questionnaires which were answered by every family...
October 5, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969780/experimental-transmission-of-toxocara-canis-from-blattella-germanica-and-periplaneta-americana-cockroaches-to-a-paratenic-host
#16
T González-García, M A Muñoz-Guzmán, H Sánchez-Arroyo, M G Prado-Ochoa, J A Cuéllar-Ordaz, F Alba-Hurtado
The present study assessed the capacity of Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana to disseminate and transmit infective phases of T. canis to rats, which were used as a model paratenic host. P. americana and B. germanica inoculated orally with T. canis larvated eggs shed eggs and larvae in their fecal matter during the first 6days post-inoculation. Larvae were recovered from the brain, lungs, kidneys and liver of rats that had been inoculated with either infected cockroaches or their feces. ELISAs of serum detected an increase of antibodies anti-T...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927435/detection-and-quantification-of-spirocerca-lupi-by-hrm-qpcr-in-fecal-samples-from-dogs-with-spirocercosis
#17
Alicia Rojas, Gilad Segev, Alex Markovics, Itamar Aroch, Gad Baneth
BACKGROUND: Spirocerca lupi, the dog oesophageal nematode, causes a potentially fatal disease in domestic dogs, and is currently clinically diagnosed by coproscopy and oesophagoscopy. To date, a single molecular method, a semi-nested PCR, targeting the cox1 gene, has been developed to aid in the diagnosis of spirocercosis. The present study describes three novel high-resolution melt (HRM) quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting fragments of the ITS1, 18S and cytb loci of S. lupi. The performance of these molecular assays in feces was compared to fecal flotation and to the previously described cox1 gene semi-nested PCR in 18 fecal samples from dogs with clinical oesophageal spirocercosis diagnosed by oesophagoscopy...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917315/protective-and-risk-factors-associated-with-the-presence-of-toxocara-spp-eggs-in-dog-hair
#18
Yslla Fernanda Fitz Balo Merigueti, Vamilton Alvares Santarém, Lívia Magosso Ramires, Aline da Silveira Batista, Layron Vinícus da Costa Beserra, Amábyle Lopes Nuci, Talita Mirella de Paula Esposte
Toxocariasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic zoonoses in the world. The disease is principally caused by the nematode Toxocara canis, whose definitive host is the dog. The transmission of toxocariasis to humans is mainly caused by accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs of the parasite, present in the soil. Studies have shown that dog hair has the capacity to harbor eggs of the parasite and represents a risk for transmission of the zoonosis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and factors associated with the contamination of dog hair by Toxocara spp...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915831/a-synoptic-overview-of-golden-jackal-parasites-reveals-high-diversity-of-species
#19
REVIEW
Călin Mircea Gherman, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a species under significant and fast geographic expansion. Various parasites are known from golden jackals across their geographic range, and certain groups can be spread during their expansion, increasing the risk of cross-infection with other carnivores or even humans. The current list of the golden jackal parasites includes 194 species and was compiled on the basis of an extensive literature search published from historical times until April 2017, and is shown herein in synoptic tables followed by critical comments of the various findings...
September 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871165/zoonotic-intestinal-helminths-interact-with-the-canine-immune-system-by-modulating-t-cell-responses-and-preventing-dendritic-cell-maturation
#20
Johannes Junginger, Katharina Raue, Karola Wolf, Elisabeth Janecek, Veronika M Stein, Andrea Tipold, Anne-Rose Günzel-Apel, Christina Strube, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein
Parasite co-evolution alongside the mammalian immune system gave rise to several modulatory strategies by which they prevent exaggerated pathology and facilitate a longer worm survival. As little is known about the immunoregulatory potential of the zoonotic canine parasites Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis in the natural host, the present study aimed to investigate whether their larval excretory-secretory (ES) products can modulate the canine immune system. We demonstrated TcES to increase the frequency of CD4+ Foxp3(high) T cells, while both AcES and TcES were associated with elevated Helios expression in Foxp3(high) lymphocytes...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
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