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Toxocara canis

Víctor Hugo Del Río-Araiza, Karen Elizabeth Nava-Castro, Fernando Alba-Hurtado, Andrés Quintanar-Stephano, Marco Antonio Muñoz-Guzmán, Olga CUenca-Micò, Jorge Morales-Montor
Toxocara canis is the helminth causing Toxocariasis, a parasitic disease with medical and veterinary implications. Their final host are members of the family Canidae and as paratenic hosts, most of the mammals are sensitive (man, rat, mouse, among others). It has been reported that a pituitary hormone, prolactin, it is responsible for reactivation and migration of larvae to the uterus and mammary gland during the last third of gestation in bitches. In addition, this hormone has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of the immune response...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Sofia S Sánchez, Hector H García, Alessandra Nicoletti
Human toxocariasis is one of the most prevalent helminthiases worldwide. Toxocara canis larvae can cross the blood-brain barrier leading to the neurotoxocariasis. The clinical presentation consists of a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations, but asymptomatic infection is probably common. Neurotoxocariasis is not a frequent diagnosis probably due to the non-specific nature of its symptoms as well as the lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. Diagnosis of neurotoxocariasis is based on the presence of a high titer of anti- Toxocara antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid or in the serum, presence of eosinophilia in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid, and clinical and radiological improvement after anthelmintic therapy; however, universally accepted diagnostic criteria are lacking...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Joice Margareth de Almeida Rodolpho, Luciana Camillo, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo, Elaine Speziali, Jordana Grazziela Coelho-Dos-Reis, Ricardo de Oliveira Correia, Débora Meira Neris, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Fernanda de Freitas Anibal
Eosinophils are multifunctional cells that have cytotoxic proinflammatory activities and stimulate CD4 + T-cells in experimental models of allergy and parasitic infections. Eosinophils, when exposed to antigens, are activated, expressing the CD38/CD69 molecules and exhibited increased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II), CD80 and CD86, suggesting they play a role upon Toxocara canis antigen stimulation. In the present study, we evaluated the profile of eosinophils using conventional and image flow cytometry upon experimental T...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lena L M N Zwickl, Deborah E Joekel, Nina M Fischer, Ana Rostaher, Kristian Thamsborg, Peter Deplazes, Claude Favrot
BACKGROUND: Total IgE concentrations are higher in dogs than in humans. Persistent Toxocara canis larval infection is prevalent in dogs and is associated with substantial specific antibody reactions. A correlation, however, between total IgE and T. canis-specific antibody levels in dogs has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between total IgE, T. canis-specific IgG and IgE, and allergen-specific IgE levels in atopic and non-atopic dogs, and to evaluate possible confounding factors...
February 9, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Yong-Li Luo, Guang-Xu Ma, Yong-Fang Luo, Ce-Yan Kuang, Ai-Yun Jiang, Guo-Qing Li, Rong-Qiong Zhou
Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite with worldwide distribution. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins which involve in a range of biological processes in various organisms. In present study, the full-length coding sequence of abcg-5 gene of T. canis (Tc-abcg-5) was cloned and characterized. A 633 aa polypeptide containing two conserved Walker A and Walker B motifs was predicted from a continuous 1902 nt open reading frame. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to determine the transcriptional levels of Tc-abcg-5 gene in adult male and female worms, which indicated high mRNA level of Tc-abcg-5 in the reproductive tract of adult female T...
February 8, 2018: Parasitology Research
Federica Sauda, Livia Malandrucco, Gladia Macrì, Manuela Scarpulla, Claudio De Liberato, Giuliana Terracciano, Gianluca Fichi, Federica Berrilli, Stefania Perrucci
Prevalence and risk factors of Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria spp. and other potentially zoonotic or canine-specific endoparasite infections were assessed in 639 kennel dogs from central Italy. To this end, individual blood and fecal samples were examined using parasitological, immunological and molecular techniques. The presence of compatible clinical pictures, as well as age and gender were considered as putative risks factors. To evaluate risk factors, multivariable analysis with logistic regression and univariable analysis with a Chi square test and a Fischer's exact test were performed...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Elena Chiappini, Mauro Zaffaroni, Martina Bianconi, Giuseppina Veneruso, Nicolino Grasso, Silvia Garazzino, Rosangela Arancio, Piero Valentini, Anna Ficcadenti, Maria Rosalia Da Riol, Simona La Placa, Luisa Galli, Maurizio de Martino, Gianni Bona
AIM: This study evaluated the prevalence of infectious diseases and immunisation status of children adopted from Africa METHODS: We studied 762 African children referred to 11 Italian paediatric centres in 2009-2015. Clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected and analysed. RESULTS: The median age of the children (60.3% males) was 3.6 years, 52.6% came from Ethiopia and 50.1% had at least one infectious disease. Parasitic infections accounted for the majority of the infectious diseases (409/715) and the most common were Giardia lamblia (n=239), Toxocara canis (n=65) and skin infections (n=205), notably Tinea capitis/corporis (n=134) and Molluscum contagiosum (n=56) Active tuberculosis (TB) was diagnosed in nine children (1...
January 24, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Claudio De Liberato, Federica Berrilli, Livio Odorizi, Roberto Scarcella, Marco Barni, Cristina Amoruso, Alessia Scarito, Margherita Montalbano Di Filippo, Andrea Carvelli, Francesca Iacoponi, Paola Scaramozzino
Parasites are among the most common pathogens recorded in dogs. High prevalence rates are usually reported in stray and shelter dogs, as these animals are less likely to be tested and treated. In this study a survey was carried out on intestinal and lung parasites of stray dogs at the moment of the admission in a shelter in Central Italy. In the period June 2014-June 2015, 262 individual faecal samples were examined. Twelve parasitic taxa were detected. Helminths were more prevalent than protozoa (61.8% and 25...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
Barbara Paoletti, Raffaella Iorio, Donato Traversa, Cristina E Di Francesco, Leonardo Gentile, Simone Angelucci, Cristina Amicucci, Roberto Bartolini, Marianna Marangi, Angela Di Cesare
This article reports the results of a copromicroscopic and molecular investigation carried out on faecal samples of wolves (n=37) and brown bears (n=80) collected in two protected national parks of central Italy (Abruzzo Region). Twenty-three (62.2%) samples from wolves were positive for parasite eggs. Eight (34.78%) samples scored positive for single infections, i.e. E. aerophilus (21.74%), Ancylostoma/Uncinaria (4.34%), Trichuris vulpis (4.34%), T. canis (4.34%). Polyspecific infections were found in 15 samples (65...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
Chia-Mei Chou, Yueh-Lun Lee, Chien-Wei Liao, Ying-Chieh Huang, Chia-Kwung Fan
BACKGROUND: Toxocariasis is a worldwide zoonotic parasitic disease mainly caused by Toxocara canis. Humans can be infected by accidental ingestion of T. canis embryonated ovum-contaminated food, water, or encapsulated larvae in paratenic hosts' viscera or meat. Since humans and mice are paratenic hosts of T. canis, the wandering larvae might cause mechanical tissue damage and excretory-secretory antigens may trigger inflammatory injuries to local organs. Long-term residence of T. canis larvae in a paratenic host's brain may cause cerebral toxocariasis (CT) that contributes to cerebral damage, neuroinflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders in mice and clinical patients...
December 22, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Débora Liliane Walcher, Luis Augusto Xavier Cruz, Paula de Lima Telmo, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues Martins, Luciana Farias da Costa de Avila, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Carlos James Scaini
Human toxocariasis is a neglected global parasitic zoonosis. The efficacy of drug treatment for this disease has been hindered by the biological complexity of the main etiological agent, the nematode Toxocara canis. Experimental studies have shown the potential of probiotics to promote a reduction in the parasite load of T. canis larvae. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 on the parasite load of BALB/c mice with acute toxocariasis and evaluate the direct effect of this probiotic on T...
February 2018: Parasitology Research
María V Bojanich, Juan A Basualdo, Gustavo Giusiano
The degree of antagonism exercised by fungi on geohelminth development varies according to the morphological alterations caused by different fungal species. Saprophytic fungi may exert ovicidal or ovistatic effects. The aim of this study was to apply scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the action of two soil saprophytic species of Chrysosporium (C. indicum and C. keratinophylum) on Toxocara canis eggs. The fungal strains to be tested were incubated for 28 days at 28°C in 2% water agar with a suspension of unembryonated T...
December 5, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
I Symeonidou, A Ι Gelasakis, K V Arsenopoulos, R Schaper, E Papadopoulos
Gastrointestinal parasites, protozoa and helminths, remain a common important finding in dogs presented to veterinary medical practices. Moreover, dogs may play an active role in the transmission of enteric parasites to humans, given their cohabitation, making canine gastrointestinal parasitism an issue of major concern for public health. To get an overview of the current state of canine gastrointestinal parasites' prevalence in Greece, a total of 1036 faecal samples were collected from dogs either presented in veterinary clinics or in animal shelters...
December 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Sergio Vieira Dos Santos, Felipe Henrique Yazawa Santos, Susana Angelica Zevallos Lescano, Daniel Maurício Dos Santos, Érico da Silva Tiago, Gabriela Rodrigues E Fonseca, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida Ribeiro, Pedro Paulo Chieffi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Zhongjia Yu, Yang Ruan, Mengjie Zhou, Siyuan Chen, Yinxin Zhang, Liya Wang, Guan Zhu, Yonglan Yu
Companion animals including dogs are one of the important components in One Health. Parasites may cause not only diseases in pet animals but also many zoonotic diseases infecting humans. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in fecal specimens (n = 485) collected from outpatient pet dogs with diarrhea in Beijing, China, for the entire year of 2015 by microscopic examination (all parasites) and SSU rRNA-based nested PCR detection (Giardia and Cryptosporidium). We observed a total of 124 (25...
January 2018: Parasitology Research
Luigi Venco, Simone Manzocchi, Marco Genchi, Laura H Kramer
BACKGROUND: Heartworm antigen testing is considered sensitive and specific. Currently available tests are reported as detecting a glycoprotein found predominantly in the reproductive tract of the female worm and can reach specificity close to 100%. Main concerns regard sensitivity in the case of light infections, the presence of immature females or cases of all-male infections. Research and development have been aimed at increasing sensitivity. Recently, heat treatment of serum prior to antigen testing has been shown to result in an increase in positive antigen test results, presumably due to disruption of natural antigen-antibody complexes...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Muhammad Hafiznur Yunus, Siti Naqiuyah Tan Farrizam, Izzati Zahidah Abdul Karim, Rahmah Noordin
Laboratory diagnosis of toxocariasis is still a challenge especially in developing endemic countries with polyparasitism. In this study, three Toxocara canis recombinant antigens, rTES-26, rTES-30, and rTES-120, were expressed and used to prepare lateral flow immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) dipsticks. The concordance of the results of the rapid test (comprising three dipsticks) with a commercial IgG-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Cypress Diagnostics, Belgium) was compared against the concordance of two other commercial IgG-ELISA kits (Bordier, Switzerland and NovaTec, Germany) with the Cypress kit...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jianbin Wang, Shenghan Gao, Yulia Mostovoy, Yuanyuan Kang, Maxim Zagoskin, Yongqiao Sun, Bing Zhang, Laura K White, Alice Easton, Thomas B Nutman, Pui-Yan Kwok, Songnian Hu, Martin K Nielsen, Richard E Davis
Programmed DNA elimination is a developmentally regulated process leading to the reproducible loss of specific genomic sequences. DNA elimination occurs in unicellular ciliates and a variety of metazoans, including invertebrates and vertebrates. In metazoa, DNA elimination typically occurs in somatic cells during early development, leaving the germline genome intact. Reference genomes for metazoa that undergo DNA elimination are not available. Here, we generated germline and somatic reference genome sequences of the DNA eliminating pig parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and the horse parasite Parascaris univalens...
December 2017: Genome Research
Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed
This study evaluated the effect of Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity Toxocara canis (T. canis) eggs. It was carried out both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiment, unembryonated T. canis eggs were incubated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL Z. officinale extract at 25 °C for 6, 12, and 24 h to assess the effect of Z. officinale on their viability and for two weeks to assess the effect of Z. officinale on their embryogenesis. In vivo experiment was performed to assess the effect of Z...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Khawla B N Al-Jassim, Yasser S Mahmmod, Zainab M Salem, Azmi Al-Jubury
The understanding of the epidemiology of canine parasitic infections is necessary for an efficient control program to minimize the risk of zoonotic transmission. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of canine gastrointestinal helminths and protozoa in Basra province, Southern Iraq, and (2) to identify the association of epidemiological characteristics (age, breed, gender, and feed type) of dogs with the parasitic infections. A total of 93 fecal samples, collected in the period from December 2014 to June 2015, were examined macroscopically and microscopically for the presence of worm eggs and protozoal oocysts, using centrifugal flotation method...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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