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Toxocara canis

Agnieszka Antonowicz, Piotr Skrzypczyk, Beata Kępa, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
: Toxocariasis is a common zoonosis caused by infection with Toxocara canis or cati larvae. Ocular toxocariasis is one of the forms of infestation found in 1/1,000 - 1/10,000 children. Children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) are at high risk of infections, also parasitic infestations, which can, in turn, cause relapses of the disease. A CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 6-year-old boy with steroiddependent nephrotic syndrome. The disease started at age of 2, the boy had 9 relapses of INS, and was treated with oral prednisone, levamisole, and cyclophosphamide...
October 19, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Ricardo da Silva Raposo, Vamilton Alvares Santarém, Yslla Fernanda Fitz Balo Merigueti, Guita Rubinsky-Elefant, Letícia Maria de Lima Cerazo, Ludimilla Pereira, Bianca Pelegi Zampieri, Aristeu Vieira da Silva, Cecília Braga Laposy
Toxocariasis is a geohelminth zoonosis with worldwide distribution, mainly transmitted through the ingestion of embryonated eggs of nematodes of the Toxocara genus. The disease can also be transmitted to humans as a result of eating raw or undercooked meat of paratenic hosts, such as chickens. Here, we standardized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for evaluating experimentally the kinetic and avidity index (AI) of IgY in broiler chickens infected with different doses of Toxocara canis eggs (G1:100; G2: 1000; and G3: 5000; n = 12 per group)...
October 13, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Whitni K Redman, Jay E Bryant, Gul Ahmad
AIM: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Brian Lassen, Marilin Janson, Arvo Viltrop, Kädi Neare, Pirje Hütt, Irina Golovljova, Lea Tummeleht, Pikka Jokelainen
We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14-18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T...
2016: PloS One
Rolf Nijsse, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Jaap A Wagenaar, Harm W Ploeger
BACKGROUND: To reduce environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs, the current general advice is to deworm all dogs older than six months on average four times a year. However, only a small proportion of non-juvenile household dogs actually shed T. canis eggs, and some dogs shed eggs more frequently than others. The identification of these frequent shedders and the associated risk factors is an important cornerstone for constructing evidence-based deworming regimens. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors associated with recurrence of periods of shedding Toxocara eggs in a cohort of household dogs older than six months...
October 4, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Gabriela Torres Mattos, Paula Costa Dos Santos, Paula de Lima Telmo, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Carlos James Scaini
Human toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic disease worldwide. Researchers studying this disease use infectious strains of Toxocara for experiments. Health workers are at risk in the course of their daily routine and must adhere to biosafety standards while carrying out the activities. Researchers on biosafety concerning working with these parasites are insufficient. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of seroprevalence of Toxocara species among health-care research laboratory workers (professors, technicians, and students), and to investigate the risk factors of Toxocara infection associated with laboratory practices...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jolanta Zdybel, Jacek Karamon, Mirosław Różycki, Ewa Bilska-Zając, Teresa Kłapeć, Tomasz Cencek
Because traditional methods used for sewage sludge parasitological examinations have low sensitivity, a new, highly effective method (own method - OM) was devised. The principle of this method is to eliminate the flocculent effect on the structure of sewage sludge by mechanically damaging floccules in the presence of surfactants and to increase the effectiveness of egg isolation processes in large volumes of liquids. The objective of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of the OM in detecting nematode eggs in sewage sludge samples containing flocculants...
September 28, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Catalina Vargas, Patricio Torres, María Isabel Jercic, Marta Lobos, Alan Oyarce, Juan Carlos Miranda, Salvador Ayala
The frequency of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in individuals attended by the Centro de Salud Familiar in the coastal Niebla town, Chile, was related to the host and to environmental factors. IgG anti- Toxocara antibodies were detected with a commercial ELISA kit (SCIMEDX Corporation, USA). Samples with undetermined absorbance values were subjected to an additional ELISA standardized by the Instituto de Salud Pública, Chilean Health Ministry, a commercial ELISA (NOVATEC, Germany), and a commercial Western blot kit (LDBio Diagnostics, France)...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Rita Leal Sperotto, Frederico Schmitt Kremer, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Luciana F Costa de Avila, Luciano da Silva Pinto, Karina Mariante Monteiro, Karin Silva Caumo, Henrique Bunselmeyer Ferreira, Natália Berne, Sibele Borsuk
Toxocariasis is a neglected disease, and its main etiological agent is the nematode Toxocara canis. Serological diagnosis is performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using T. canis excretory and secretory (TES) antigens produced by in vitro cultivation of larvae. Identification of TES proteins can be useful for the development of new diagnostic strategies since few TES components have been described so far. Herein, we report the results obtained by proteomic analysis of TES proteins using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach...
September 13, 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Ana M Olave, Jairo A Mesa, Jorge H Botero, Edwin B Patiño, Gisela M García, Juan F Alzate
INTRODUCTION: Toxocara canis is a pathogenic nematode of canines which can be accidentally transmitted to humans. Although serology is the most important diagnostic tool for this zoonosis, diagnostic kits use crude excretion/secretion antigens, most of them being glycoproteins which are not species-specific and may cross-react with antibodies generated against other parasites.  OBJECTIVES: To produce the rTES-30 recombinant antigen of Toxocara canis and evaluate it in the immunodiagnosis of toxocariasis...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Divyamol Thomas, N Jeyathilakan, S Abdul Basith, T M A Senthilkumar
Toxocara canis is a widespread gastrointestinal nematode parasite of dogs and cause Toxocara larva migrans, an important zoonotic disease in humans on ingestion of infective eggs. Toxocarosis is one of the few human parasitic diseases whose serodiagnosis uses a standardized antigen, T. canis excretory secretory antigen (TES). The present study describes collection of T. canis adult worm, collection and embryonation of T. canis eggs, hatching and separation of T. canis larvae, in vitro maintenance of T. canis second stage larvae for production of TES, concentration of culture fluid TES and yield of TES in correlation with various methods cited in literature...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Shahabeddin Sarvi, Ahmad Daryani, Mahdi Sharif, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Davood Azami, Zahra Marhaba, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Azadeh Mizani
An epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminthic parasites of domestic dogs using stool samples in north of Iran in 2013. Stool samples (n = 100) were collected from domestic dogs of different ages and genders. Different techniques including wet smear, formalin-ether sedimentation method and flotation technique in saturated zinc chloride solution were performed on collected stools to detect eggs and larval stage of helminthes parasites. The overall prevalence of helminthic parasites of examined stools of dogs was 57 %...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Ayako Yoshida, Taisei Kikuchi, Shiori Nakagaki, Haruhiko Maruyama
Ascarid nematodes, Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, are the most important causative species of larva migrans syndrome (LMS) in humans. Although the diagnosis of ascarid LMS is generally based on serological tests, specific serological tests for A. suum infection have not been fully developed. In the present study, the sensitivity and specificity of three A. suum antigen preparations, i.e., the somatic adult worm antigen (As-SWAP), larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens derived from infective L3 (AsiL3-ES) and larval ES from tissue migratory L3 (AsmL3-ES), were evaluated for the serodiagnosis of A...
September 8, 2016: Parasitology Research
Katherina A Vizcaychipi, Miguel Rinas, Lucia Irazu, Adriana Miyagi, Carina F Argüelles, Karen E DeMatteo
Wildlife remains an important source of zoonotic diseases for the most vulnerable groups of humans, primarily those living in rural areas or coexisting with forest. The Upper Paraná Atlantic forest of Misiones, Argentina is facing ongoing environmental and anthropogenic changes, which affect the local biodiversity, including the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), a small canid considered Near Threatened globally and Endangered locally. This project aimed to expand the knowledge of zoonotic parasites present in the bush dog and the potential implications for human health and conservation medicine...
October 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Alparslan Merdin, Emine Ogur, Çiğdem Çiçek Kolak, Fatma Avcı Merdin
Toxocariasis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of Toxocara cati and T. canis, which live in the intestinal system of cats (T. cati) and dogs (T. canis). Infective eggs can enter the gastrointestinal system by the oral route via foods contaminated with feces of dogs or cats or via dirty contaminated hands. The larvae penetrate the small intestine and migrate to visceral organs by systemic circulation. Hypereosinophilia is a common finding in the tissue invasion of parasites. Serological methods are the principle diagnostic methods for toxocariasis...
June 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
M Zibaei, S M Sadjjadi, S Maraghi
Consuming raw and undercooked meat is known to enhance the risk of human toxocariasis because Toxocara species have a wide range of paratenic hosts, including chickens. The aim of this study was to identify species of Toxocara in naturally infected broiler chickens using molecular approaches. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the differentiation of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati larvae recovered from tissues and organs, and identified by microscopic observations. Thirty-three 35- to 47-day-old broiler chickens were used for examination of Toxocara larvae...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Karin Alvåsen, Sandra M Johansson, Johan Höglund, Richard Ssuna, Ulf Emanuelson
The aim of this study was to screen for selected parasites and antibody levels against vectorborne pathogens in owned dogs in Lilongwe, Malawi. The study population consisted of 100 dogs; 80 participating in vaccination-spaying campaigns and 20 visiting a veterinary clinic as paying clients. All dogs went through a general physical examination including visual examination for signs of ectoparasites. A total of 100 blood samples were analysed using commercial snap tests and 40 faecal samples by egg flotation in saturated sodium chloride...
2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Serap Ural, Behiye Özer, Fazıl Gelal, Derya Dirim Erdoğan, Nurbanu Sezak, Recep Balık, Tuna Demirdal, Metin Korkmaz
Toxocariasis caused by Toxocara canis or less frequently by T.catis is a common parasitic infection worldwide. Clinical spectrum in humans can vary from asymptomatic infection to serious organ disfunction depending on the load of parasite, migration target of the larva and the inflammatory response of the host. Transverse myelitis (TM) due to toxocariasis is an uncommon illness identified mainly as case reports in literature. In this report, a case of TM who was diagnosed as neurotoxocariasis by serological findings has been presented...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Annika Kleine, Elisabeth Janecek, Patrick Waindok, Christina Strube
Toxocara canis and T. cati are worldwide distributed intestinal nematodes of canids and felids and pose a threat to public health due to possible clinical manifestations in humans. Different methods for detection of Toxocara eggs in soil have been described, but conducted studies deal with egg recovery rates of T. canis or "Toxocara spp." only whereas T. cati egg recovery has not been taken into consideration. Thus, flotation properties in sodium chloride solution and adherence characteristics to different substrates possibly coming into contact with Toxocara eggs before or during purification from soil were evaluated for both, T...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Mohammad Zibaei
Toxocariasis is the clinical term used to describe human infection with either the dog ascarid Toxocara canis or the feline ascarid Toxocara cati. As with other helminths zoonoses, the infective larvae of these Toxocara species cannot mature into adults in the human host. Instead, the worms wander through organs and tissues, mainly the liver, lungs, myocardium, kidney and central nervous system, in a vain attempt to find that, which they need to mature into adults. The migration of these immature nematode larvae causes local and systemic inflammation, resulting in the "larva migrans" syndrome...
August 3, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
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