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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735373/systematic-heuristic-evaluation-of-computerized-consultation-order-templates-clinicians-and-human-factors-engineers-perspectives
#1
April Savoy, Himalaya Patel, Mindy E Flanagan, Michael Weiner, Alissa L Russ
We assessed the usability of consultation order templates and identified problems to prioritize in design efforts for improving referral communication. With a sample of 26 consultation order templates, three evaluators performed a usability heuristic evaluation. The evaluation used 14 domain-independent heuristics and the following three supplemental references: 1 new domain-specific heuristic, 6 usability goals, and coded clinicians' statements regarding ease of use for 10 sampled templates. Evaluators found 201 violations, a mean of 7...
August 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730109/human-eye-ocular-component-analysis-for-refractive-state-and-refractive-surgery
#2
Chao-Kai Chang, Jui-Teng Lin, Yong Zhang
AIM: To analyze the clinical factors influencing the human vision corrections via the changing of ocular components of human eye in various applications; and to analyze refractive state via a new effective axial length. METHODS: An effective eye model was introduced by the ocular components of human eye including refractive indexes, surface radius (r1, r2, R1, R2) and thickness (t, T) of the cornea and lens, the anterior chamber depth (S1) and the vitreous length (S2)...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725358/grandparentage-assignments-identify-unexpected-adfluvial-life-history-tactic-contributing-offspring-to-a-reintroduced-population
#3
Nicholas M Sard, Dave P Jacobson, Michael A Banks
Diversity in life history tactics contributes to the persistence of a population because it helps to protect against stochastic environments by varying individuals in space and time. However, some life history tactics may not be accounted for when assessing the demographic viability of a population. One important factor in demographic viability assessments is cohort replacement rate (CRR), which is defined as the number of future adults produced by an adult. We assessed if precocial resident males (<age-3) and adfluvial Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), adults that reside in freshwater their entire lives, contributed offspring to a reintroduced population from 2008 to 2013...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720184/human-performance-time-model-of-spacecraft-control-panel-operation-in-simulated-microgravity
#4
Shi Cao, Yijing Zhang, Yunhuan Guo, Shanguang Chen
BACKGROUND: Human performance modeling plays an important role in the design and management of human spaceflight missions. Previous studies reported that manual control task time increased in microgravity conditions. The current study aimed to find a modeling method that can quantify and predict the task time of spacecraft control panel operation in the simulated microgravity condition. METHODS: We proposed the application of a predetermined elemental task method together with an information processing time model to quantify both physical motion time and cognitive time...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717349/-bad-luck-mutations-dna-mutations-are-not-the-whole-answer-to-understanding-cancer-risk
#5
James E Trosko, Giuseppe Carruba
It has been proposed that many human cancers are generated by intrinsic mechanisms that produce "Bad Luck" mutations by the proliferation of organ-specific adult stem cells. There have been serious challenges to this interpretation, including multiple extrinsic factors thought to be correlated with mutations found in cancers associated with these exposures. While support for both interpretations provides some validity, both interpretations ignore several concepts of the multistage, multimechanism process of carcinogenesis, namely, (1) mutations can be generated by both "errors of DNA repair" and "errors of DNA replication," during the "initiation" process of carcinogenesis; (2) "initiated" stem cells must be clonally amplified by nonmutagenic, intrinsic or extrinsic epigenetic mechanisms; (3) organ-specific stem cell numbers can be modified during in utero development, thereby altering the risk to cancer later in life; and (4) epigenetic tumor promoters are characterized by species, individual genetic-, gender-, developmental state-specificities, and threshold levels to be active; sustained and long-term exposures; and exposures in the absence of antioxidant "antipromoters...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711137/genomics-biology-and%C3%A2-human-illness-advances-in-the-monogenic-autoinflammatory-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Hirotsugu Oda, Daniel L Kastner
The monogenic autoinflammatory diseases are a group of illnesses with prominent rheumatic manifestations that are characterized by genetically determined recurrent sterile inflammation and are thus inborn errors of innate immunity. Molecular targeted therapies against inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor, and intracellular cytokine signaling pathways have proved effective in many cases. Emerging next-generation sequencing technologies have accelerated the identification of previously unreported genes causing autoinflammatory diseases...
August 2017: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706499/valence-dependent-belief-updating-computational-validation
#7
Bojana Kuzmanovic, Lionel Rigoux
People tend to update beliefs about their future outcomes in a valence-dependent way: they are likely to incorporate good news and to neglect bad news. However, belief formation is a complex process which depends not only on motivational factors such as the desire for favorable conclusions, but also on multiple cognitive variables such as prior beliefs, knowledge about personal vulnerabilities and resources, and the size of the probabilities and estimation errors. Thus, we applied computational modeling in order to test for valence-induced biases in updating while formally controlling for relevant cognitive factors...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702971/history-of-venous-leg-ulcers
#8
S Gianfaldoni, U Wollina, J Lotti, R Gianfaldoni, T Lotti, M G Roccia
To retrieve the history of venous ulcers and of skin lesions in general, we must go back to the appearance of human beings on earth. It is interesting to note that cutaneous injuries evolved parallel to human society. An essential first step in the pathogenesis of ulcers was represented by the transition of the quadruped man to Homo Erectus. This condition was characterized by a greater gravitational pressure on the lower limbs, with consequences on the peripheral venous system. Furthermore, human evolution was characterized by an increased risk of traumatic injuries, secondary to his natural need to create fire and hunt (e...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692286/methylated-cytosine-maintains-g-quadruplex-structures-during-polymerase-chain-reaction-and-contributes-to-allelic-dropout
#9
Aaron J Stevens, Martin A Kennedy
The promoter of the human imprinted gene MEST is differentially methylated with respect to the parent of origin and contains several non B-DNA motifs that are capable of forming G-quadruplexes. These factors can contribute to a consistent allelic dropout (ADO) of the maternally methylated DNA during polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of such gene regions. Here, we directly investigate the cause of allelic dropout by applying fluorescent techniques to visualize polymerase amplification and arrest during PCR of differentially methylated DNA templates...
July 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691756/surgical-specimen-handover-from-the-operating-theatre-to-laboratory-can-we-improve-patient-safety-by-learning-from-aviation-and-other-high-risk-organisations
#10
Peter A Brennan, Marieke T Brands, Lucy Caldwell, Felipe Paiva Fonseca, Nic Turley, Susie Foley, Siavash Rahimi
Essential communication between healthcare staff is considered one of the key requirements for both safety and quality care when patients are handed over from one clinical area to other. This is particularly important in environments such as the operating theatre and intensive care where mistakes can be devastating. Healthcare has learned from other high-risk organisations (HRO) such aviation where the use of checklists and human factors awareness has virtually eliminated human error and mistakes. To our knowledge, little has been published around ways to improve pathology specimen handover following surgery, with pathology request forms often conveying the bare minimum of information to assist the laboratory staff...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688909/are-we-making-an-impact-with-incident-learning-systems-analysis-of-quality-improvement-interventions-using-total-body-irradiation-as-a-model-system
#11
Aileen Kim, Eric Ford, Matthew Spraker, Jing Zeng, Ralph Ermoian, Loucille Jordan, Gabrielle Kane, Matthew Nyflot
PURPOSE: Despite increasing interest in incident learning systems (ILS) to improve safety and quality in radiation oncology, little is known about interventions developed in response to safety data. We used total body irradiation (TBI) as a model system to study the effectiveness of interventions from our institutional ILS. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Near-miss event reports specific to TBI were identified from a departmental ILS from March 2012 to December 2015. The near-miss risk index was rated at multidisciplinary review from 0 (no potential harm) to 4 (critical potential harm)...
June 6, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678115/a-theoretical-model-of-flow-disruptions-for-the-anesthesia-team-during-cardiovascular-surgery
#12
Albert Boquet, Tara Cohen, Fawaaz Diljohn, Jennifer Cabrera, Scott Reeves, Scott Shappell
OBJECTIVES: This investigation explores flow disruptions observed during cardiothoracic surgery and how they serve to disconnect anesthesia providers from their primary task. We can improve our understanding of this disengagement by exploring what we call the error space or the accumulated time required to resolve disruptions. METHODS: Trained human factors students observed 10 cardiac procedures for disruptions impacting the anesthesia team and recorded the time required to resolve these events...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678068/anesthesia-adverse-events-voluntarily-reported-in-the-veterans-health-administration-and-lessons-learned
#13
Julia Neily, Elda S Silla, Sam John T Sum-Ping, Roberta Reedy, Douglas E Paull, Lisa Mazzia, Peter D Mills, Robin R Hemphill
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia providers have long been pioneers in patient safety. Despite remarkable efforts, anesthesia errors still occur, resulting in complications, injuries, and even death. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) National Center of Patient Safety uses root cause analysis (RCA) to examine why system-related adverse events occur and how to prevent future similar events. This study describes the types of anesthesia adverse events reported in VHA hospitals and their root causes and preventative actions...
July 1, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676750/multi-trial-gait-adaptation-of-healthy-individuals-during-visual-kinematic-perturbations
#14
Trieu Phat Luu, Yongtian He, Sho Nakagome, Kevin Nathan, Samuel Brown, Jeffrey Gorges, Jose L Contreras-Vidal
Optimizing rehabilitation strategies requires understanding the effects of contextual cues on adaptation learning. Prior studies have examined these effects on the specificity of split-belt walking adaptation, showing that contextual visual cues can be manipulated to modulate the magnitude, transfer, and washout of split-belt-induced learning in humans. Specifically, manipulating the availability of vision during training or testing phases of learning resulted in differences in adaptive mechanisms for temporal and spatial features of walking...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675553/a-combined-intervention-to-reduce-interruptions-during-medication-preparation-and-double-checking-a-pilot-study-evaluating-the-impact-of-staff-training-and-safety-vests
#15
Saskia Huckels-Baumgart, Milena Niederberger, Tanja Manser, Christoph R Meier, Carla Meyer-Massetti
AIM: The aim was to evaluate the impact of staff training and wearing safety vests as a combined intervention on interruptions during medication preparation and double-checking. BACKGROUND: Interruptions and errors during the medication process are common and an important issue for patient safety in the hospital setting. METHODS: We performed a pre- and post-intervention pilot-study using direct structured observation of 26 nurses preparing and double-checking 431 medication doses (225 pre-intervention and 206 post-intervention) for 36 patients (21 pre-intervention and 15 post-intervention)...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668911/recognizing-the-ordinary-as-extraordinary-insight-into-the-way-we-work-to-improve-patient-safety-outcomes
#16
Elizabeth A Henneman
The Institute of Medicine (now National Academy of Medicine) reports "To Err is Human" and "Crossing the Chasm" made explicit 3 previously unappreciated realities: (1) Medical errors are common and result in serious, preventable adverse events; (2) The majority of medical errors are the result of system versus human failures; and (3) It would be impossible for any system to prevent all errors. With these realities, the role of the nurse in the "near miss" process and as the final safety net for the patient is of paramount importance...
July 2017: American Journal of Critical Care: An Official Publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665833/why-an-open-disclosure-procedure-is-and-is-not-followed-after-an-avoidable-adverse-event
#17
Irene Carrillo, José Joaquín Mira, Mercedes Guilabert, Susana Lorenzo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze the relationships between factors that contribute to healthcare professionals informing and apologizing to a patient after an avoidable adverse event (AAE). METHODS: A secondary study based on the analysis of data collected in a cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 in Spain was performed. Health professionals from hospitals and primary care completed an online survey. RESULTS: The responses from 1087 front-line healthcare professionals were analyzed...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663845/reduction-of-frame-rate-in-full-field-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-by-numerical-motion-correction-invited
#18
Clara Pfäffle, Hendrik Spahr, Dierck Hillmann, Helge Sudkamp, Gesa Franke, Peter Koch, Gereon Hüttmann
Full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (FF-SS-OCT) was recently shown to allow new and exciting applications for imaging the human eye that were previously not possible using current scanning OCT systems. However, especially when using cameras that do not acquire data with hundreds of kHz frame rate, uncorrected phase errors due to axial motion of the eye lead to a drastic loss in image quality of the reconstructed volumes. Here we first give a short overview of recent advances in techniques and applications of parallelized OCT and finally present an iterative and statistical algorithm that estimates and corrects motion-induced phase errors in the FF-SS-OCT data...
March 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659868/issues-in-continuous-24-h-core-body-temperature-monitoring-in-humans-using-an-ingestible-capsule-telemetric-sensor
#19
Cathriona R Monnard, Elie-Jacques Fares, Julie Calonne, Jennifer L Miles-Chan, Jean-Pierre Montani, Dominique Durrer, Yves Schutz, Abdul G Dulloo
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the use of pill-sized ingestible capsule telemetric sensors for assessing core body temperature (Tc) as a potential indicator of variability in metabolic efficiency and thrifty metabolic traits. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of measuring Tc using the CorTemp(®) system. METHODS: Tc was measured over an average of 20 h in 27 human subjects, with measurements of energy expenditure made in the overnight fasted state at rest, during standardized low-intensity physical activity and after a 600 kcal mixed meal...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658939/use-of-stereovision-for-intraoperative-coregistration-of-a-spinal-surgical-field-a-human-feasibility-study
#20
S Scott Lollis, Xiaoyao Fan, Linton Evans, Jonathan D Olson, Keith D Paulsen, David W Roberts, Sohail K Mirza, Songbai Ji
BACKGROUND: The use of image guidance during spinal surgery has been limited by several anatomic factors such as intervertebral segment motion and ineffective spine immobilization. In its current form, the surgical field is coregistered with a preoperative computed tomography (CT), often obtained in a different spinal confirmation, or with intraoperative cross-sectional imaging. Stereovision offers an alternative method of registration. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of stereovision-mediated coregistration of a human spinal surgical field using a proof-of-principle study, and to provide preliminary assessments of the technique's accuracy...
June 27, 2017: Neurosurgery
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