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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644905/a-realistic-phantom-for-validating-mri-based-synthetic-ct-images-of-the-human-skull
#1
Abraam S Soliman, Levi Burns, Amir Owrangi, Young Lee, William Y Song, Greg Stanisz, Brige P Chugh
PURPOSE: To introduce a new realistic human skull phantom for the validation of synthetic CT images of cortical bone from ultra-short echo-time (UTE) sequences. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A human skull of an adult female was utilized as a realistic representation of skull cortical bone. The skull was stabilized in a special acrylic container and was filled with contrast agents that have T1 and T2 relaxation times similar to human brain. The phantom was MR scanned at 3T with UTE and T2 -weighted sequences, followed by CT...
June 23, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643113/-safety-culture-in-orthopedics-and-trauma-surgery-course-concept-interpersonal-competence-by-the-german-society-for-orthopaedics-and-trauma-dgou-and-lufthansa-aviation-training
#2
REVIEW
A-K Doepfer, R Seemann, D Merschin, R Stange, M Egerth, M Münzberg, M Mutschler, B Bouillon, R Hoffmann
Patient safety has become a central and measurable key factor in the routine daily medical practice. The human factor plays a decisive role in safety culture and has moved into focus regarding the reduction of treatment errors and undesired critical incidents. Nonetheless, the systematic training in communication and interpersonal competences has so far only played a minor role. The German Society of Orthopaedics and Trauma (DGOU) in cooperation with the Lufthansa Aviation Training initiated a course system for interpersonal competence...
June 22, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642169/a-novel-method-to-quantify-base-substitution-mutations-at-the-10-6-per-bp-level-in-dna-samples
#3
Satoshi Yamashita, Naoko Iida, Hideyuki Takeshima, Naoko Hattori, Maeda Masahiro, Takayoshi Kishino, Reiko Nagano, Taichi Shimazu, Shoichiro Tsugane, Toshikazu Ushijima
Somatic base substitution mutations of frequencies at the 10(-6)/bp level are expected to be present in many biomedical samples, such as tissues exposed to carcinogenic factors and exhausted stem cells. However, measurement of such rare mutations has been very difficult in human DNA samples. Here, we invented the use of 100 copies of genomic DNA as a template for amplicon deep sequencing so that a real mutation in a single DNA molecule would be detected at a variant allele frequency of 1% while sequencing errors have less frequency...
June 19, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641666/-rare-blood-group-and-its-progress-of-research-in-transfusion-medicine-review
#4
Qing-Sheng Cao, Tao Yang, Ming-Hui Wang
As one of key factors for transfusion reaction, rare blood group has attached lots of attention for a long time. The proportion of the people population with rare blood group is actually low, however, the improper disposition caused by human error always leads to severe medical accident, showing its undoubted importance in transfusion medicine. Recently, more research about rare blood group are reported. Therefore, this review summarizes the development of this aspect, including mainly rare blood group, the detection of blood group phenotype, and the way of transfusion for rare blood group...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636482/impact-of-freeway-weaving-segment-design-on-light-duty-vehicle-exhaust-emissions
#5
Qing Li, Fengxiang Qiao, Lei Yu, Shuyan Chen, Tiezhu Li
In United States, 26% of greenhouse gas emissions is emitted from the transportation sector, which meanwhile accompanies with enormous toxic emissions to humans, such as CO, NOx, and HC, approximately 2.5% and 2.44% of a total exhaust emission for a petrol and diesel engine, respectively. These exhaust emissions are typically subject to vehicles' intermittent operations, such as hard acceleration and hard braking. In practice, drivers are inclined to operate intermittently while driving through a weaving segment, due to complex vehicle maneuvering for weaving...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621460/older-adults-display-diminished-error-processing-and-response-in-a-continuous-tracking-task
#6
Francisco L Colino, Harvey Howse, Angela Norton, Robert Trska, Anthony Pluta, Stephen J C Luehr, Todd C Handy, Olave E Krigolson
Advancing age is often accompanied by a decline in motor control that results in a decreased ability to successfully perform motor tasks. While there are multiple factors that contribute to age-related deficits in motor control, one unexplored possibility is that age-related deficits in our ability to evaluate motor output result in an increase in motor errors. In line with this, previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that motor errors evoked an error-related negativity (ERN)-a component of the human ERP associated with error evaluation originating within the human medial-frontal cortex...
June 16, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616639/-assessment-of-physicians-results-of-a-sample-analysis-for-the-selection-of-physicians-for-staff-positions
#7
P Anheuser, J Kranz, K P Dieckmann, J Steffens, V Oubaid
As in aviation and other organizations requiring high levels of safety, medical complications and errors can in most cases be traced back to the human factor as a main cause. The correct selection of medical students and physicians is therefore very important, especially in leadership and key positions. This is not only a necessary safety aspect but also the prerequisite for the stipulated efficiency of modern medicine.
June 14, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615495/a-bayesian-approach-to-estimating-hidden-variables-as-well-as-missing-and-wrong-molecular-interactions-in-ordinary-differential-equation-based-mathematical-models
#8
Benjamin Engelhardt, Maik Kschischo, Holger Fröhlich
Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are a popular approach to quantitatively model molecular networks based on biological knowledge. However, such knowledge is typically restricted. Wrongly modelled biological mechanisms as well as relevant external influence factors that are not included into the model are likely to manifest in major discrepancies between model predictions and experimental data. Finding the exact reasons for such observed discrepancies can be quite challenging in practice. In order to address this issue, we suggest a Bayesian approach to estimate hidden influences in ODE-based models...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611015/too-far-to-care-measuring-public-attention-and-fear-for-ebola-using-twitter
#9
Liza Gg van Lent, Hande Sungur, Florian A Kunneman, Bob van de Velde, Enny Das
BACKGROUND: In 2014, the world was startled by a sudden outbreak of Ebola. Although Ebola infections and deaths occurred almost exclusively in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, few potential Western cases, in particular, caused a great stir among the public in Western countries. OBJECTIVE: This study builds on the construal level theory to examine the relationship between psychological distance to an epidemic and public attention and sentiment expressed on Twitter...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609480/an-automated-and-reliable-method-for-breath-detection-during-variable-mask-pressures-in-awake-and-sleeping-humans
#10
Chinh D Nguyen, Jason Amatoury, Jayne C Carberry, Danny J Eckert
Accurate breath detection is crucial in sleep and respiratory physiology research and in several clinical settings. However, this process is technically challenging due to measurement and physiological artifacts and other factors such as variable leaks in the breathing circuit. Recently developed techniques to quantify the multiple causes of obstructive sleep apnea, require intermittent changes in airway pressure applied to a breathing mask. This presents an additional unique challenge for breath detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594533/implementation-of-teamstepps-in-orthopaedic-surgery
#11
Harpal S Khanuja, Zan A Naseer, Lynne C Jones, James R Ficke, Dwight W Burney Iii
An Institute of Medicine report published in 2000 brought attention to the devastating consequences of medical errors. The report estimated that 98,000 deaths occurred in US hospitals each year as a result of medical errors and spawned investigations into factors that are associated with medical errors as well as strategies to avoid them. Taking cues from high-reliability organizations, such as the airline industry, evidence-based tools were developed to minimize human risk factors and foster teamwork, communication, and other skills that are essential to patient safety and quality...
February 15, 2017: Instructional Course Lectures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590422/wearable-sensor-data-classification-for-human-activity-recognition-based-on-an-iterative-learning-framework
#12
Juan Carlos Davila, Ana-Maria Cretu, Marek Zaremba
The design of multiple human activity recognition applications in areas such as healthcare, sports and safety relies on wearable sensor technologies. However, when making decisions based on the data acquired by such sensors in practical situations, several factors related to sensor data alignment, data losses, and noise, among other experimental constraints, deteriorate data quality and model accuracy. To tackle these issues, this paper presents a data-driven iterative learning framework to classify human locomotion activities such as walk, stand, lie, and sit, extracted from the Opportunity dataset...
June 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587377/network-of-microrna-transcription-factors-target-genes-and-host-genes-in-human-mesothelioma
#13
Guanhua Zhang, Zhiwen Xu, Ning Wang
Significant progress has been made into the elucidation of the etiology of mesothelioma at the level of the genes and miRNA. Nevertheless, researchers in this field remain unable to systematically construct a network that demonstrates the specific relationships between genes, miRNA and transcription factors (TFs). TFs are key regulatory elements that control gene expression. In the present study, according to the transcriptional regulatory rule, three regulatory networks were constructed using experimentally validated elements to explore the pathogenesis of mesothelioma...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585511/three-dimensional-ultrasound-elasticity-imaging-on-an-automated-breast-volume-scanning-system
#14
Yuqi Wang, Haidy G Nasief, Sarah Kohn, Andy Milkowski, Tom Clary, Stephen Barnes, Paul E Barbone, Timothy J Hall
Ultrasound elasticity imaging has demonstrated utility in breast imaging, but it is typically performed with handheld transducers and two-dimensional imaging. Two-dimensional (2D) elastography images tissue stiffness of only a plane and hence suffers from errors due to out-of-plane motion, whereas three-dimensional (3D) data acquisition and motion tracking can be used to track out-of-plane motion that is lost in 2D elastography systems. A commercially available automated breast volume scanning system that acquires 3D ultrasound data with precisely controlled elevational movement of the 1D array ultrasound transducer was employed in this study...
June 1, 2017: Ultrasonic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578757/decision-making-under-pressure-medical-errors-in-uncertain-and-dynamic-environments
#15
Alicia M Zavala, Gary E Day, David Plummer, Anita Bamford-Wade
Objective This paper provides a narrative overview of the literature concerning clinical decision-making processes when staff come under pressure, particularly in uncertain, dynamic and emergency situations.Methods Studies between 1980 and 2015 were analysed using a six-phase thematic analysis framework to achieve an in-depth understanding of the complex origins of medical errors that occur when people and systems are under pressure and how work pressure affects clinical performance and patient outcomes. Literature searches were conducted using a Summons Search Service platform; search criteria included a variety of methodologies, resulting in the identification of 95 papers relevant to the present review...
June 5, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573443/indoor-exposure-to-volatile-organic-compounds-in-children-health-risk-assessment-in-the-context-of-physiological-development
#16
Radoslaw Czernych, Artur J Badyda, Grazyna Gałęzowska, Lidia Wolska, Pawel Zagożdżon
Indoor air quality is strongly affected by the contamination of ambient air and that related to building and finishing materials and to human activity. Poor ventilation of closed spaces facilitates retention of greater quantity of pollutants. Infants and children are at particular risk of exposure to indoor air pollutants as they undergo rapid physiological and biochemical changes and demonstrate activity patterns unlike those in adults. Health risk assessment in children should be carried out with regard to children-specific factors, since these factors may constitute a source of errors...
June 2, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573160/quantification-of-2-hydroxyglutarate-enantiomers-by-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#17
William M Oldham, Joseph Loscalzo
Two enantiomers of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), L (L2HG) and D (D2HG), are metabolites of unknown function in mammalian cells that were initially associated with separate and rare inborn errors of metabolism resulting in increased urinary excretion of 2HG linked to neurological deficits in children (Chalmers et al., 1980; Duran et al., 1980; Kranendijk et al., 2012). More recently, investigators have shown that D2HG is produced by mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase enzymes associated with a variety of human malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia, glioblastoma multiforme, and cholangiocarcinoma (Cairns and Mak, 2013; Dang et al...
August 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558813/genome-annotation-for-clinical-genomic-diagnostics-strengths-and-weaknesses
#18
REVIEW
Charles A Steward, Alasdair P J Parker, Berge A Minassian, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Adam Frankish, Jennifer Harrow
The Human Genome Project and advances in DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the identification of genetic disorders through the use of clinical exome sequencing. However, in a considerable number of patients, the genetic basis remains unclear. As clinicians begin to consider whole-genome sequencing, an understanding of the processes and tools involved and the factors to consider in the annotation of the structure and function of genomic elements that might influence variant identification is crucial...
May 30, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543951/determination-of-genetic-relatedness-from-low-coverage-human-genome-sequences-using-pedigree-simulations
#19
Michael D Martin, Flora Jay, Sergi Castellano, Montgomery Slatkin
We develop and evaluate methods for inferring relatedness among individuals from low-coverage DNA sequences of their genomes, with particular emphasis on sequences obtained from fossil remains. We suggest the major factors complicating the determination of relatedness among ancient individuals are sequencing depth, the number of overlapping sites, the sequencing error rate, and the presence of contamination from present-day genetic sources. We develop a theoretical model that facilitates the exploration of these factors and their relative effects, via measurement of pairwise genetic distances, without calling genotypes, and determine the power to infer relatedness under various scenarios of varying sequencing depth, present-day contamination, and sequencing error...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539717/caspase-mediated-apoptotic-effects-of-ebenus-boissieri-barbey-extracts-on-human-cervical-cancer-cell-line-hela
#20
Ece Simsek, Nilufer Imir, Esra Arslan Aydemir, Ramazan Suleyman Gokturk, Erdem Yesilada, Kayahan Fiskin
BACKGROUND: Ebenus boissieri Barbey is an Antalya, Turkey-endemic plant belonging to Fabaceae family. The aerial parts and the roots of E. boissieri Barbey were used in this study. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we have examined the apoptotic effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of E. boissieri Barbey in human cervical cancer cell line HeLa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine the cytotoxic effect, cells were treated with various concentrations of extracts for 24, 48, and 72 h incubation periods...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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