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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933366/the-role-of-the-mapk-signaling-topoisomerase-and-dietary-bioactives-in-controlling-cancer-incidence
#1
REVIEW
Khaled A Selim, Hend Abdelrasoul, Mohamed Aboelmagd, Ahmed M Tawila
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, xenobiotics metabolism and are generated in response to several environmental stress conditions. Some of them play important biochemical roles in cellular signal transduction and gene transcription. On the other hand, ROS are known to be involved in a wide range of human diseases, including cancer. The excessive production of such ROS together with disruption of homeostasis detoxifying mechanisms can mediate a series of cellular oxidative stresses...
April 26, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912144/androgen-and-estrogen-receptor-imaging-in-metastatic-breast-cancer-patients-as-a-surrogate-for-tissue-biopsies
#2
Clasina M Venema, Lemonitsa H Mammatas, Carolina P Schröder, Michel van Kruchten, Giulia Apollonio, Andor W J M Glaudemans, A H H Bongaerts, Otto S Hoekstra, Henk M W Verheul, Epie Boven, Bert van der Vegt, Erik F de Vries, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Ronald Boellaard, Catharina Willemien Menke-van der Houven van Oordt, Geke Ap Hospers
In addition to the well-known estrogen receptor (ER) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), the androgen receptor (AR) is also a potential drug target in breast cancer treatment. Whole body imaging can provide information across lesions within a patient. ER expression in tumor lesions can be visualized by (18)F-fluoroestradiol (FES) PET, and AR expression has been visualized in prostate cancer patients with (18)F-fluorodihydrotestosterone (FDHT) PET. Our aim was to assess the concordance between FDHT- and FES-PET and tumor AR- and ER-expression measured immunohistochemically (IHC) in patients with metastatic breast cancer...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910694/an-epidemiologic-perspective-on-the-stem-cell-hypothesis-in-human-carcinogenesis
#3
REVIEW
David Schottenfeld
BACKGROUND: Tomasetti and Vogelstein have hypothesized that the patterns of cancer incidence in various cells and tissues are highly correlated with the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors reviewed the risks in tissues of 17 types of cancer from the United States and 69 additional countries. Positive correlations were observed consistently between the tissue - specific cancer incidence and the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors concluded that approximately two-thirds of global cancer incidence may be attributed to random DNA replication errors...
September 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891524/semantic-category-based-decoding-of-human-brain-activity-using-a-gabor-based-model-by-estimating-intracranial-field-potential-range-in-temporal-cortex
#4
Fateme Zareayan Jahromy, Mohammed Reza Daliri
Predicting and decoding the recorded neural activity for visual stimuli is the topic of many studies. This prediction can be made by comparing the model's responses to different stimuli with the available recorded brain signal. The neural activities can be decoded then by finding the stimulus which has generated the nearest model's response to the recorded signal. In this study, a model is proposed which can estimate the response of human brain to images from different conceptual categories by inserting the visual stimuli as the model input after filtering by Gabor wavelets...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887292/protocol-for-usability-testing-and-validation-of-the-iso-draft-international-standard-19223-for-lung-ventilators
#5
Dev Minotra, Steven L Dain, Catherine M Burns
BACKGROUND: Clinicians, such as respiratory therapists and physicians, are often required to set up pieces of medical equipment that use inconsistent terminology. Current lung ventilator terminology that is used by different manufacturers contributes to the risk of usage errors, and in turn the risk of ventilator-associated lung injuries and other conditions. Human factors and communication issues are often associated with ventilator-related sentinel events, and inconsistent ventilator terminology compounds these issues...
September 8, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883183/cognitive-performance-of-users-is-affected-by-electronic-handovers-depending-on-role-task-and-human-factors
#6
Mareike Przysucha, Daniel Flemming, Georg Schulte, Ursula Hübner
Patient handovers are cognitively demanding, crucial for information continuity and patient safety, but error prone. This study investigated the effect of an electronic handover tool, i.e. the handoverEHR, on the memory and care planning performance of nurse students (n=32) in a randomised, controlled cross-over design with the factors handover task and handover role. On a descriptive level, handover recipients could improve their memory performance with electronic support, handover givers their performance of writing care plans...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879495/a-quantum-theory-account-of-order-effects-and-conjunction-fallacies-in-political-judgments
#7
James M Yearsley, Jennifer S Trueblood
Are our everyday judgments about the world around us normative? Decades of research in the judgment and decision-making literature suggest the answer is no. If people's judgments do not follow normative rules, then what rules if any do they follow? Quantum probability theory is a promising new approach to modeling human behavior that is at odds with normative, classical rules. One key advantage of using quantum theory is that it explains multiple types of judgment errors using the same basic machinery, unifying what have previously been thought of as disparate phenomena...
September 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872271/to-err-is-human-to-correct-is-public-health-a-systematic-review-examining-poor-quality-testing-and-misdiagnosis-of-hiv-status
#8
Cheryl C Johnson, Virginia Fonner, Anita Sands, Nathan Ford, Carla Mahklouf Obermeyer, Sharon Tsui, Vincent Wong, Rachel Baggaley
INTRODUCTION: In accordance with global testing and treatment targets, many countries are seeking ways to reach the "90-90-90" goals, starting with diagnosing 90% of all people with HIV. Quality HIV testing services are needed to enable people with HIV to be diagnosed and linked to treatment as early as possible. It is essential that opportunities to reach people with undiagnosed HIV are not missed, diagnoses are correct and HIV-negative individuals are not inadvertently initiated on life-long treatment...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867669/constrained-data-extrapolation-code-a-new-approach-for-high-definition-vascular-imaging-from-low-resolution-data
#9
Yang Song, Ehsan Hamtaei, Sean K Sethi, Guang Yang, Haibin Xie, E Mark Haacke
PURPOSE: To introduce a new approach to reconstruct high definition vascular images using COnstrained Data Extrapolation (CODE) and evaluate its capability in estimating vessel area and stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CODE is based on the constraint that the full width half maximum of a vessel can be accurately estimated and, since it represents the best estimate for the width of the object, higher k-space data can be generated from this information. To demonstrate the potential of extracting high definition vessel edges using low resolution data, both simulated and human data were analyzed to better visualize the vessels and to quantify both area and stenosis measurements...
September 1, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865855/could-predicting-fatty-acid-profile-by-mid-infrared-reflectance-spectroscopy-be-used-as-a-method-to-increase-the-value-added-by-milk-production-chains
#10
M Coppa, A Revello-Chion, D Giaccone, E Tabacco, G Borreani
The aims of this work were (1) to develop prediction equations from mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) to establish a detailed fatty acid (FA) composition of milk; (2) to propose a milk FA index, utilizing MIRS-developed equations, in which the precision of the FA-prediction equations is taken into account to increase the value of milk; and (3) to show application examples. A total of 651 bulk cow milk samples were collected from 245 commercial farms in northwest Italy. The results of the 651 gas chromatography analyses were used to establish (421 samples) and to validate (230 samples) the outcomes of the FA composition prediction that had been obtained by MIRS...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865683/evaluation-of-near-miss-and-adverse-events-in-radiation-oncology-using-a-comprehensive-causal-factor-taxonomy
#11
Matthew B Spraker, Robert Fain, Olga Gopan, Jing Zeng, Matthew Nyflot, Loucille Jordan, Gabrielle Kane, Eric Ford
PURPOSE: Incident learning systems (ILSs) are a popular strategy for improving safety in radiation oncology (RO) clinics, but few reports focus on the causes of errors in RO. The goal of this study was to test a causal factor taxonomy developed in 2012 by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and adopted for use in the RO: Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Three hundred event reports were randomly selected from an institutional ILS database and Safety in Radiation Oncology (SAFRON), an international ILS...
September 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860081/clinical-decision-making-heuristics-and-cognitive-biases-for-the-ophthalmologist
#12
REVIEW
Ahsen Hussain, James Oestreicher
Diagnostic errors have a significant impact on healthcare outcomes and patient care. The underlying causes and development of diagnostic error is complex with flaws in healthcare systems, as well as human error, playing a role. Cognitive biases and a failure of decision-making shortcuts (heuristics) are human factors that can compromise the diagnostic process. We describe these mechanisms, their role with the clinician and provide clinical scenarios to highlight the various points at which biases may emerge...
August 28, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854629/position-matters-network-centrality-considerably-impacts-rates-of-protein-evolution-in-the-human-protein-protein-interaction-network
#13
David Alvarez-Ponce, Felix Feyertag, Sandip Chakraborty
The proteins of any organism evolve at disparate rates. A long list of factors affecting rates of protein evolution have been identified. However, the relative importance of each factor in determining rates of protein evolution remains unresolved. The prevailing view is that evolutionary rates are dominantly determined by gene expression, and that other factors such as network centrality have only a marginal effect, if any. However, this view is largely based on analyses in yeasts, and accurately measuring the importance of the determinants of rates of protein evolution is complicated by the fact that the different factors are often correlated with each other, and by the relatively poor quality of available functional genomics data sets...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846692/gyri-of-the-human-parietal-lobe-volumes-spatial-extents-automatic-labelling-and-probabilistic-atlases
#14
Heather M Wild, Rolf A Heckemann, Colin Studholme, Alexander Hammers
Accurately describing the anatomy of individual brains enables interlaboratory communication of functional and developmental studies and is crucial for possible surgical interventions. The human parietal lobe participates in multimodal sensory integration including language processing and also contains the primary somatosensory area. We describe detailed protocols to subdivide the parietal lobe, analyze morphological and volumetric characteristics, and create probabilistic atlases in MNI152 stereotaxic space...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841059/the-role-of-interpersonal-relations-in-healthcare-team-communication-and-patient-safety-a-proposed-model-of-interpersonal-process-in-teamwork
#15
Charlotte Tsz-Sum Lee, Diane Marie Doran
Patient safety is compromised by medical errors and adverse events related to miscommunications among healthcare providers. Communication among healthcare providers is affected by human factors, such as interpersonal relations. Yet, discussions of interpersonal relations and communication are lacking in healthcare team literature. This paper proposes a theoretical framework that explains how interpersonal relations among healthcare team members affect communication and team performance, such as patient safety...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche en Sciences Infirmières
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837585/a-two-dimensional-electromechanical-model-of-a-cardiomyocyte-to-assess-intra-cellular-regional-mechanical-heterogeneities
#16
Patricia Garcia-Canadilla, Jose F Rodriguez, Maria J Palazzi, Anna Gonzalez-Tendero, Patrick Schönleitner, Vedrana Balicevic, Sven Loncaric, Joost J F P Luiken, Mario Ceresa, Oscar Camara, Gudrun Antoons, Fatima Crispi, Eduard Gratacos, Bart Bijnens
Experimental studies on isolated cardiomyocytes from different animal species and human hearts have demonstrated that there are regional differences in the Ca2+ release, Ca2+ decay and sarcomere deformation. Local deformation heterogeneities can occur due to a combination of factors: regional/local differences in Ca2+ release and/or re-uptake, intra-cellular material properties, sarcomere proteins and distribution of the intracellular organelles. To investigate the possible causes of these heterogeneities, we developed a two-dimensional finite-element electromechanical model of a cardiomyocyte that takes into account the experimentally measured local deformation and cytosolic [Ca2+] to locally define the different variables of the constitutive equations describing the electro/mechanical behaviour of the cell...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834551/risk-assessment-of-a-new-acceptance-testing-procedure-for-conventional-linear-accelerators
#17
Taylor Harry, Sridhar Yaddanapudi, Bin Cai, Keith Stinson, S Murty Goddu, Camille Noel, Sasa Mutic, Todd Pawlicki
PURPOSE: New techniques and materials have recently been developed to expedite the conventional linac acceptance testing procedure(1) which use the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for data collection. This new procedure is designed to be more efficient and robust than the conventional approach. The purpose of this work is to perform a comparative risk assessment of the two acceptance testing procedures (ATPs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis was used to assess risks for both ATP approaches...
August 23, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831043/the-influence-of-attention-and-reward-on-the-learning-of-stimulus-response-associations
#18
Devavrat Vartak, Danique Jeurissen, Matthew W Self, Pieter R Roelfsema
We can learn new tasks by listening to a teacher, but we can also learn by trial-and-error. Here, we investigate the factors that determine how participants learn new stimulus-response mappings by trial-and-error. Does learning in human observers comply with reinforcement learning theories, which describe how subjects learn from rewards and punishments? If yes, what is the influence of selective attention in the learning process? We developed a novel redundant-relevant learning paradigm to examine the conjoint influence of attention and reward feedback...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826922/underestimation-of-chemical-contamination-in-marine-fish-muscle-tissue-can-be-reduced-by-considering-variable-wet-dry-weight-ratios
#19
Pierre Cresson, Morgane Travers-Trolet, Manuel Rouquette, Charles-André Timmerman, Carolina Giraldo, Sébastien Lefebvre, Bruno Ernande
Whether considered as a risk for human health or as ecological tracers, contaminants' concentrations measured in fish muscles are commonly expressed relative to wet or dry mass. Comparison of results required conversion factors (CF) but accurate values are scarce and case-specific. The present paper is aimed at investigating errors linked with the use of the theoretical value. Muscles dry and wet masses were measured in 15 fish species to determine the actual CF. Most CF were lower than the theoretical wet:dry ratio of 5 classically used, with variations at individual and species level...
August 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821242/methodological-factors-affecting-joint-moments-estimation-in-clinical-gait-analysis-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Valentina Camomilla, Andrea Cereatti, Andrea Giovanni Cutti, Silvia Fantozzi, Rita Stagni, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Quantitative gait analysis can provide a description of joint kinematics and dynamics, and it is recognized as a clinically useful tool for functional assessment, diagnosis and intervention planning. Clinically interpretable parameters are estimated from quantitative measures (i.e. ground reaction forces, skin marker trajectories, etc.) through biomechanical modelling. In particular, the estimation of joint moments during motion is grounded on several modelling assumptions: (1) body segmental and joint kinematics is derived from the trajectories of markers and by modelling the human body as a kinematic chain; (2) joint resultant (net) loads are, usually, derived from force plate measurements through a model of segmental dynamics...
August 18, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
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