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Human factors error

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100725/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-mapt-locus-influencing-human-plasma-tau-levels
#1
Jason Chen, Jin-Tai Yu, Kevin Wojta, Hui-Fu Wang, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Jennifer S Yokoyama, Michael W Weiner, Joel H Kramer, Howard Rosen, Bruce L Miller, Giovanni Coppola, Adam L Boxer
OBJECTIVE: To identify genetic loci associated with plasma tau concentrations in healthy elders and individuals with Alzheimer disease. METHODS: Four hundred sixty-three non-Hispanic white individuals exceeding quality control criteria were included from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI-1) cohort. Association of plasma tau with genetic polymorphisms was performed with a linear regression model. Significant associations were validated in an independent replication cohort consisting of 431 healthy elders or individuals with mild cognitive impairment recruited from the University of California, San Francisco Memory and Aging Center...
January 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100597/investigation-of-a-candida-guilliermondii-pseudo-outbreak-reveals-a-novel-source-of-laboratory-contamination
#2
James E Kirby, Westyn Branch-Elliman, Mary T LaSalvia, Lorinda Longhi, Matthew MacKechnie, Grigoriy Urman, Linda M Baldini, Fatima R Muriel, Bernadette Sullivan, David S Yassa, Howard S Gold, Trevor K Wagner, Daniel J Diekema, Sharon B Wright
Candida guilliermondii was isolated from sterile specimens with increasing frequency over a several-month period despite a paucity of clinical evidence suggesting true Candida infections. However, a healthcare-associated outbreak was strongly considered due to growth patterns in the microbiology laboratory more consistent with true infection than environmental contamination. Therefore, an extensive investigation was performed to identify its cause. With the exception of one case, patient clinical courses were not consistent with true invasive fungal infections...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098238/expression-of-the-novel-maternal-centrosome-assembly-factor-wdr8-is-required-for-vertebrate-embryonic-mitoses
#3
Daigo Inoue, Manuel Stemmer, Thomas Thumberger, Thomas Ruppert, Felix Bärenz, Joachim Wittbrodt, Oliver J Gruss
The assembly of the first centrosome occurs upon fertilisation when male centrioles recruit pericentriolar material (PCM) from the egg cytoplasm. The mechanisms underlying the proper assembly of centrosomes during early embryogenesis remain obscure. We identify Wdr8 as a novel maternally essential protein that is required for centrosome assembly during embryonic mitoses of medaka (Oryzias latipes). By CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout, maternal/zygotic Wdr8-null (m/zWdr8(-/-)) blastomeres exhibit severe defects in centrosome structure that lead to asymmetric division, multipolar mitotic spindles and chromosome alignment errors...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092200/the-challenges-surrounding-preclinical-testing-in-transcatheter-device-development-and-the-implications-on-the-clinic
#4
Ralf Holzer, Jake Goble, Ziyad Hijazi
Transcatheter devices have contributed significantly to the advances achieved in treating many cardiovascular conditions over the last few decades. Sophisticated and detailed preclinical testing is not only a regulatory requirement to support an investigational device exemption (IDE) application, but more crucially its success and accuracy is needed to safeguard patients during the subsequent clinical testing stages. Areas Covered: This article covers the regulatory background as well as specific considerations related to pre-clinical testing of transcatheter devices...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089602/particle-swarm-optimizer-for-weighting-factor-selection-in-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-optimization-algorithms
#5
Jie Yang, Pengcheng Zhang, Liyuan Zhang, Huazhong Shu, Baosheng Li, Zhiguo Gui
In inverse treatment planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the objective function is typically the sum of the weighted sub-scores, where the weights indicate the importance of the sub-scores. To obtain a high-quality treatment plan, the planner manually adjusts the objective weights using a trial-and-error procedure until an acceptable plan is reached. In this work, a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) method which can adjust the weighting factors automatically was investigated to overcome the requirement of manual adjustment, thereby reducing the workload of the human planner and contributing to the development of a fully automated planning process...
January 12, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079584/the-development-and-implementation-of-cognitive-aids-for-critical-events-in-pediatric-anesthesia-the-society-for-pediatric-anesthesia-critical-events-checklists
#6
Anna Clebone, Barbara K Burian, Scott C Watkins, Jorge A Gálvez, Justin L Lockman, Eugenie S Heitmiller
Cognitive aids such as checklists are commonly used in modern operating rooms for routine processes, and the use of such aids may be even more important during critical events. The Quality and Safety Committee of the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) has developed a set of critical-event checklists and cognitive aids designed for 3 purposes: (1) as a repository of the latest evidence-based and expert opinion-based information to guide response and management of critical events, (2) as a source of just-in-time information during critical events, and (3) as a method to facilitate a shared understanding of required actions among team members during a critical event...
January 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077981/dna-polymerase-kappa-protects-human-cells-against-mmc-induced-genotoxicity-through-error-free-translesion-dna-synthesis
#7
Yuki Kanemaru, Tetsuya Suzuki, Akira Sassa, Kyomu Matsumoto, Noritaka Adachi, Masamitsu Honma, Satoshi Numazawa, Takehiko Nohmi
BACKGROUND: Interactions between genes and environment are critical factors for causing cancer in humans. The genotoxicity of environmental chemicals can be enhanced via the modulation of susceptible genes in host human cells. DNA polymerase kappa (Pol κ) is a specialized DNA polymerase that plays an important role in DNA damage tolerance through translesion DNA synthesis. To better understand the protective roles of Pol κ, we previously engineered two human cell lines either deficient in expression of Pol κ (KO) or expressing catalytically dead Pol κ (CD) in Nalm-6-MSH+ cells and examined cytotoxic sensitivity against various genotoxins...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076342/knowledge-beliefs-and-attitudes-report-on-patient-care-and-safety-in-undergraduate-students-validating-the-modified-apsq-iii-questionnaire
#8
Ezequiel García Elorrio, Dolores Macchiavello, Viviana Rodriguez, Yael Catalano, Giuliana Corna, Josefina Dahinten, Marina Ontivero
INTRODUCTION: Patient safety aims to achieve healthcare free of damage. The World Health Organization indicates that this objective is achieved through communication, analysis, and prevention of adverse events in patients. Organizational culture has been identified as one of the main factors for interventions aimed to reduce medical errors; and an essential component of safety culture is the attitude of health professionals towards medical error. Attitudes can be improved through appropriate education in biomedical careers but its inclusion in Argentina is scarce...
December 20, 2016: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073949/the-effects-of-feedback-and-incentive-based-insurance-on-driving-behaviours-study-approach-and-protocols
#9
Mark Stevenson, Anthony Harris, Duncan Mortimer, Jasper S Wijnands, Alan Tapp, Frank Peppard, Samantha Buckis
BACKGROUND: Road injury is the leading cause of death for young people, with human error a contributing factor in many crash events. This research is the first experimental study to examine the extent to which direct feedback and incentive-based insurance modifies a driver's behaviour. The study applies in-vehicle telematics and will link the information obtained from the technology directly to personalised safety messaging and personal injury and property damage insurance premiums. METHODS: The study has two stages...
January 10, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070607/-human-factors-in-medicine
#10
M Lazarovici, H Trentzsch, S Prückner
The concept of human factors is commonly used in the context of patient safety and medical errors, all too often ambiguously. In actual fact, the term comprises a wide range of meanings from human-machine interfaces through human performance and limitations up to the point of working process design; however, human factors prevail as a substantial cause of error in complex systems. This article presents the full range of the term human factors from the (emergency) medical perspective. Based on the so-called Swiss cheese model by Reason, we explain the different types of error, what promotes their emergence and on which level of the model error prevention can be initiated...
January 9, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069517/fast-estimation-of-colles-fracture-load-of-the-distal-section-of-the-radius-by-homogenized-finite-element-analysis-based-on-hr-pqct
#11
Hadi S Hosseini, Andreas Dünki, Jonas Fabech, Martin Stauber, Nicolas Vilayphiou, Dieter Pahr, Michael Pretterklieber, Jasmin Wandel, Bert van Rietbergen, Philippe K Zysset
Fractures of the distal section of the radius (Colles' fractures) occur earlier in life than other osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, they can be interpreted as a warning signal for later, more deleterious fractures of vertebral bodies or the femoral neck. In the past decade, the advent of HR-pQCT allowed a detailed architectural analysis of the distal radius and an automated but time-consuming estimation of its strength with linear micro-finite element (μFE) analysis. Recently, a second generation of HR-pQCT scanner (XtremeCT II, SCANCO Medical, Switzerland) with a resolution beyond 61 μm became available for even more refined biomechanical investigations in vivo...
January 7, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067682/utilizing-a-human-factors-nursing-worksystem-improvement-framework-to-increase-nurses-time-at-the-bedside-and-enhance-safety
#12
C Adam Probst, Megan Carter, Caton Cadigan, Cortney Dalcour, Cindy Cassity, Penny Quinn, Tiana Williams, Donna Cook Montgomery, Claudia Wilder, Yan Xiao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to increase nurses' time for direct patient care and improve safety via a novel human factors framework for nursing worksystem improvement. BACKGROUND: Time available for direct patient care influences outcomes, yet worksystem barriers prevent nurses adequate time at the bedside. METHODS: A novel human factors framework was developed for worksystem improvement in 3 units at 2 facilities. Objectives included improving nurse efficiency as measured by time-and-motion studies, reducing missing medications and subsequent trips to medication rooms and improving medication safety...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067340/ultra-filtration-of-human-serum-for-improved-quantitative-analysis-of-low-molecular-weight-biomarkers-using-atr-ir-spectroscopy
#13
Franck Bonnier, Hélène Blasco, Clément Wasselet, Guillaume Brachet, Renaud Respaud, Luis Felipe C S Carvalho, Dominique Bertrand, Matthew J Baker, Hugh J Byrne, Igor Chourpa
Infrared spectroscopy is a reliable, rapid and cost effective characterisation technique, delivering a molecular finger print of the sample. It is expected that its sensitivity would enable detection of small chemical variations in biological samples associated with disease. ATR-IR is particularly suitable for liquid sample analysis and, although air drying is commonly performed before data collection, just a drop of human serum is enough for screening and early diagnosis. However, the dynamic range of constituent biochemical concentrations in the serum composition remains a limiting factor to the reliability of the technique...
January 9, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060320/mass-histology-to-quantify-neurodegeneration-in-drosophila
#14
Elizabeth R Sunderhaus, Doris Kretzschmar
Progressive neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PD) are an increasing threat to human health worldwide. Although mammalian models have provided important insights into the underlying mechanisms of pathogenicity, the complexity of mammalian systems together with their high costs are limiting their use. Therefore, the simple but well-established Drosophila model-system provides an alternative for investigating the molecular pathways that are affected in these diseases...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059473/striosomal-dysfunction-affects-behavioral-adaptation-but-not-impulsivity-evidence-from-x-linked-dystonia-parkinsonism
#15
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Raymond Rosales, Aloysius Domingo, Lillian Lee, Arlene Ng, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau
BACKGROUND: Executive functions including behavioral adaptation and impulse control are commonly impaired in movement disorders caused by striatal pathology. However, as yet it is unclear what aspects of behavioral abnormalities are related to pathology in which striatal subcomponent, that is, the matrix and the striosomes. We therefore studied cognitive control in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, a model disease of striosomal degeneration, using behavioral paradigms and EEG. METHODS: We studied genetically confirmed X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism patients (N = 21) in their early disease stages and healthy matched controls...
January 6, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058456/-human-factors-in-medicine
#16
M Lazarovici, H Trentzsch, S Prückner
The concept of human factors is commonly used in the context of patient safety and medical errors, all too often ambiguously. In actual fact, the term comprises a wide range of meanings from human-machine interfaces through human performance and limitations up to the point of working process design; however, human factors prevail as a substantial cause of error in complex systems. This article presents the full range of the term human factors from the (emergency) medical perspective. Based on the so-called Swiss cheese model by Reason, we explain the different types of error, what promotes their emergence and on which level of the model error prevention can be initiated...
January 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055864/a-sub-nyquist-variable-sampling-high-frequency-phased-array-beamformer
#17
Christopher A Samson, Andre Bezanson, Jeremy A Brown
A digital receive beamformer implementing a 'one sample per pixel' variable sampling technique is described. The sampling method reduces the required sampling rates by a factor of 3, and reduces the data capture rate by a factor of 2, in comparison to previous systems based on variable sampling. The sampling method is capable of estimating broadband pulse envelopes accurate for bandwidths up to 83.0%. This beamforming method has been implemented on an FPGA with maximum transmit and receive delay errors measured to be less than ± 1...
December 30, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050213/auditory-alterations-in-children-infected-by-human-immunodeficiency-virus-verified-through-auditory-processing-test
#18
Ana Carla Leite Romero, Lívia Marangoni Alfaya, Alina Sanches Gonçales, Ana Claudia Figueiredo Frizzo, Myriam de Lima Isaac
Introduction The auditory system of HIV-positive children may have deficits at various levels, such as the high incidence of problems in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss. Objective The objective of this study is to characterize the development of children infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Simplified Auditory Processing Test (SAPT) and the Staggered Spondaic Word Test. Methods We performed behavioral tests composed of the Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW)...
January 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048782/su-g-brb-04-automated-output-factor-measurements-using-continuous-data-logging-for-linac-commissioning
#19
X Zhu, S Li, D Zheng, S Wang, Y Lei, M Zhang, R Ma, Q Fan, X Wang, X Li, V Verma, C Enke, S Zhou
PURPOSE: Linac commissioning is a time consuming and labor intensive process, the streamline of which is highly desirable. In particular, manual measurement of output factors for a variety of field sizes and energy greatly hinders the commissioning efficiency. In this study, automated measurement of output factors was demonstrated as 'one-click' using data logging of an electrometer. METHODS: Beams to be measured were created in the recording and verifying (R&V) system and configured for continuous delivery...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047931/su-f-t-249-application-of-human-factors-methods-usability-testing-in-the-radiation-oncology-environment
#20
H Warkentin, K Bubric, H Giovannetti, G Graham, C Clay
PURPOSE: As a quality improvement measure, we undertook this work to incorporate usability testing into the implementation procedures for new electronic documents and forms used by four affiliated radiation therapy centers. METHODS: A human factors specialist provided training in usability testing for a team of medical physicists, radiation therapists, and radiation oncologists from four radiotherapy centers. A usability testing plan was then developed that included controlled scenarios and standardized forms for qualitative and quantitative feedback from participants, including patients...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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