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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529718/recent-advances-in-understanding-hiv-evolution
#1
REVIEW
Sophie M Andrews, Sarah Rowland-Jones
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) evolves rapidly owing to the combined activity of error-prone reverse transcriptase, recombination, and short generation times, leading to extensive viral diversity both within and between hosts. This diversity is a major contributing factor in the failure of the immune system to eradicate the virus and has important implications for the development of suitable drugs and vaccines to combat infection. This review will discuss the recent technological advances that have shed light on HIV evolution and will summarise emerging concepts in this field...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503220/medication-reconciliation-errors-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-saudi-arabia-admission-discrepancies-and-risk-factors
#2
Faizan Mazhar, Shahzad Akram, Yousif A Al-Osaimi, Nafis Haider
BACKGROUND: Medication reconciliation is a major component of safe patient care. One of the main problems in the implementation of a medication reconciliation process is the lack of human resources. With limited resources, it is better to target medication reconciliation resources to patients who will derive the most benefit from it. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency and types of medication reconciliation errors identified by pharmacists performing medication reconciliation at admission...
January 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497559/macromolecular-structures-quality-assessment-and-biological-interpretation
#3
REVIEW
Dinakar M Salunke, Deepak T Nair
Structure determination using X-ray crystallography involves collection of diffraction data, determination of initial phases followed by iterative rounds of model building and crystallographic refinement to improve the phases and minimize the differences between calculated and observed structure factors. At each of these stages, a variety of statistical filters exist to ensure appropriate validation. Biologically important observations often come from interpretations of signals that need to be carefully deciphered from noise, and therefore human intervention is as important as the automated methods and filters...
May 11, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496467/interference-free-determination-of-carbamazepine-in-human-serum-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-a-comprehensive-research-with-three-way-calibration-methods
#4
Shiva Ghafghazi, Taraneh Moini Zanjani, Maryam Vosough, Masoumeh Sabetkasaei
In the present study, a comprehensive and systematic strategy was described to evaluate the performance of several three-way calibration methods on a bio-analytical problem. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD), self-weighted alternating trilinear decomposition (SWATLD), alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD), and unfolded partial least squares combined with the residual bilinearization procedure (U-PLS/RBL) were applied on high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) data to quantify carbamazepine (CBZ) in different serum samples...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493759/-characterizing-autism-relevant-social-behavior-in-poodles-canis-familiaris-via-owner-report-correction-to-zamzow-et-al-2017
#5
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Characterizing Autism-Relevant Social Behavior in Poodles via Owner Report" by Rachel M. Zamzow, Lisa Lit, Shelley Hamilton and David Q. Beversdorf (Journal of Comparative Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Mar 13, 2017, np). In the article, the scientific name for the species was missing in the title. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-11247-001.) Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted, repetitive behaviors...
May 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490186/two-dimensional-quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-study-of-1-4-naphthoquinone-derivatives-tested-against-hl-60-human-promyelocytic-leukaemia-cells
#6
M C A Costa, M M C Ferreira
A series of 50 derivatives of 1,4-naphthoquinone tested against human HL-60 leukaemic cells showed activity at a wide range of concentrations. A multivariate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of 45 compounds was performed through principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. A good PLS regression model was obtained with two factors describing 60.1% of the total variance, and the selected descriptors were partial atomic charge at carbons 1 and 10 (C1 and C10) and total dipole moment (DIP)...
May 11, 2017: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475049/towards-reaching-human-performance-in-pedestrian-detection
#7
Shanshan Zhang, Rodrigo Benenson, Mohamed Omran, Jan Hosang, Bernt Schiele
Encouraged by the recent progress in pedestrian detection, we investigate the gap between current state-of-the-art methods and the "perfect single frame detector". We enable our analysis by creating a human baseline for pedestrian detection (over the Caltech pedestrian dataset). After manually clustering the frequent errors of a top detector, we characterise both localisation and backgroundversus- foreground errors. To address localisation errors we study the impact of training annotation noise on the detector performance, and show that we can improve results even with a small portion of sanitised training data...
May 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470132/value-based-hr-practices-i-deals-and-clinical-error-control-with-csr-as-a-moderator
#8
Tuan Luu, Chris Rowley, Sununta Siengthai, Vo Thanh Thao
Purpose Notwithstanding the rising magnitude of system factors in patient safety improvement, "human factors" such as idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) which also contribute to the adjustment of system deficiencies should not be neglected. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of value-based HR practices in catalyzing i-deals, which then influence clinical error control. The research further examines the moderating role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the effect of value-based HR practices on i-deals...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468867/medication-errors-by-caregivers-at-home-in-neonates-discharged-from-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#9
Ritanshu Solanki, Nivedita Mondal, Thulasingam Mahalakshmy, Vishnu Bhat
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of medication errors by caregivers at home in neonates discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit and to identify the associated risk factors. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in the High Risk Newborn Follow-up Clinic of our institute, on a sample of 166 children, <3 months old. The medications prescribed (syrup preparations of vitamin D, multivitamins, calcium, iron and levetiracetam, tablet L-thyroxine and ursodeoxycholic acid and human milk fortifier powder) were noted from the discharge summary...
May 3, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464418/measurement-of-optical-properties-of-pig-esophagus-by-using-a-modified-spectrometer-set-up
#10
Martin Hohmann, B Lengenfelder, R Kanawade, F Klämpfl, A Douplik, H Albrecht
Optical properties (μa , μs and g) of certain human tissue types such as skin and blood have been very well investigated. However until today, for internal body organs such as the esophagus they are not well characterized. For ex-vivo measurements "Inverse Adding Doubling" (IAD) and Inverse Monte-Carlo-Simulation (IMCS) are state of the art. Both methods need the measurement of the collimated transmission. Current methods lack a proper way of measuring the collimated transmission. Hence, this measurement of the g-factor has a systematic error...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464220/human-factors-effecting-forensic-decision-making-workplace-stress-and-well-being
#11
Amy M Jeanguenat, Itiel E Dror
Over the past decade, there has been a growing openness about the importance of human factors in forensic work. However, most of it focused on cognitive bias, and neglected issues of workplace wellness and stress. Forensic scientists work in a dynamic environment that includes common workplace pressures such as workload volume, tight deadlines, lack of advancement, number of working hours, low salary, technology distractions, and fluctuating priorities. However, in addition, forensic scientists also encounter a number of industry-specific pressures, such as technique criticism, repeated exposure to crime scenes or horrific case details, access to funding, working in an adversarial legal system, and zero tolerance for "errors"...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462424/evaluation-of-a-surrogate-contact-model-in-multi-body-dynamic-simulations-of-total-knee-replacement
#12
Marco A Marra, Michael S Andersen, Michael Damsgaard, Bart F J M Koopman, Dennis Janssen, Nico Verdonschot
Knowing the forces in the human body is of great clinical interest and musculoskeletal models are the most commonly used tool to estimate them in vivo. Unfortunately, the process of computing muscle, joint contact and ligament forces simultaneously is computationally highly demanding. The goal of this study was to develop a fast surrogate model of the tibiofemoral (TF) contact in a total knee replacement (TKR) model and apply it to force-dependent kinematic simulations of activities of daily living (ADLs). Multiple domains were populated with sample points from the reference TKR contact model, based on reference simulations and design-of-experiments...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441889/insight-on-the-impacts-of-free-amino-acids-and-their-metabolites-on-the-immune-system-from-a-perspective-of-inborn-errors-of-amino-acid-metabolism
#13
Malgorzata M Pakula, Thorsten J Maier, Thomas Vorup-Jensen
Amino acids (AAs) support a broad range of functions in living organisms, including several that affect the immune system. The functions of the immune system are affected when free AAs are depleted or in excess because of external factors, such as starvation, or because of genetic factors, such as inborn errors of metabolism. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the current insights into how free AAs affect immune responses. When possible, we make comparisons to known disease states resulting from inborn errors of metabolism, in which changed levels of AAs or AA metabolites provide insight into the impact of AAs on the human immune system in vivo...
May 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437161/randomized-phase-iii-trial-of-trastuzumab-plus-capecitabine-with-or-without-pertuzumab-in-patients-with-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer-who-experienced-disease-progression-during-or-after-trastuzumab-based-therapy
#14
Ander Urruticoechea, Mohammed Rizwanullah, Seock-Ah Im, Antonio Carlos Sánchez Ruiz, István Láng, Gianluca Tomasello, Hannah Douthwaite, Tanja Badovinac Crnjevic, Sarah Heeson, Jennifer Eng-Wong, Montserrat Muñoz
Purpose To assess the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab plus capecitabine with or without pertuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer who experienced disease progression during or after trastuzumab-based therapy and received a prior taxane. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned to arm A: trastuzumab 8 mg/kg → 6 mg/kg once every 3 weeks plus capecitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) twice a day (2 weeks on, 1 week off, every 3 weeks); or arm B: pertuzumab 840 mg → 420 mg once every 3 weeks plus trastuzumab at the same dose and schedule as arm A plus capecitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) on the same schedule as arm A...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434044/faulty-rna-splicing-consequences-and-therapeutic-opportunities-in-brain-and-muscle-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Vittoria Pagliarini, Piergiorgio La Rosa, Claudio Sette
Alternative splicing is a powerful mechanism that largely expands the coding potential of eukaryotic genomes. Indeed, its complex and flexible regulation is exploited by cells to adapt to various environmental conditions, through production of protein variants displaying different functions. Such flexibility, however, is accompanied by high risk of errors, and dysregulation of splicing is now recognized as an important factor in human diseases. Notably, the RNA-based nature of splicing, which involves high specificity through base pair recognition, offers a remarkable therapeutic opportunity by allowing design of tools with elevated target selectivity...
April 22, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426715/acute-hypoxia-influences-collagen-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-expression-by-human-keratoconus-cells-in-vitro
#16
Tina B McKay, Jesper Hjortdal, Shrestha Priyadarsini, Dimitrios Karamichos
Keratoconus (KC) is a progressive corneal ectasia linked to thinning of the central cornea. Hard contact lenses, rigid gas permeable lenses, and scleral lenses are the primary treatment modalities for early to mid- stages of KC to correct refractive error and astigmatism that develops as a result of an irregular corneal structure. These treatments are associated with significant drawbacks, including reduced availability of the tear film and oxygen to the corneal epithelium and stroma. However, it remains unknown whether hypoxia affects corneal integrity in the KC pathobiology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418101/effect-of-an-electronic-medication-administration-record-application-on-patient-safety
#17
Noelia Vicente Oliveros, Teresa Gramage Caro, Covadonga Pérez Menendez-Conde, Ana María Álvarez-Díaz, Sagrario Martín-Aragón Álvarez, Teresa Bermejo Vicedo, Eva Delgado Silveira
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of an electronic medication administration record (eMAR) application on the rate of medication errors in medication administration recording (ME-MAR). METHODS: A before-and-after, quasiexperimental study was conducted in a university hospital that implemented the eMAR application in March 2014. Data collection was conducted in April 2012 (pre-) and June 2014 (post-) by two pharmacists. The ME-MARs were analysed by the staff involved to identify their cause...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417303/paediatric-in-patient-prescribing-errors-in-malaysia-a-cross-sectional-multicentre-study
#18
Teik Beng Khoo, Jing Wen Tan, Hoong Phak Ng, Chong Ming Choo, Intan Nor Chahaya Bt Abdul Shukor, Siao Hean Teh
Background There is a lack of large comprehensive studies in developing countries on paediatric in-patient prescribing errors in different settings. Objectives To determine the characteristics of in-patient prescribing errors among paediatric patients. Setting General paediatric wards, neonatal intensive care units and paediatric intensive care units in government hospitals in Malaysia. Methods This is a cross-sectional multicentre study involving 17 participating hospitals. Drug charts were reviewed in each ward to identify the prescribing errors...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416813/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val-66-met-genotype-and-ovarian-steroids-interactively-modulate-working-memory-related-hippocampal-function-in-women-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#19
S-M Wei, E B Baller, P D Kohn, J S Kippenhan, B Kolachana, S J Soldin, D R Rubinow, P J Schmidt, K F Berman
Preclinical evidence suggests that the actions of ovarian steroid hormones and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are highly convergent on brain function. Studies in humanized mice document an interaction between estrus cycle-related changes in estradiol secretion and BDNF Val(66)Met genotype on measures of hippocampal function and anxiety-like behavior. We believe our multimodal imaging data provide the first demonstration in women that the effects of the BDNF Val/Met polymorphism on hippocampal function are selectively modulated by estradiol...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414972/an-lc-ms-ms-method-for-quantification-of-ac0010-a-novel-mutant-selective-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-egfr-inhibitor-and-its-metabolites-in-human-plasma-and-the-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#20
Lu Wang, Xin Zheng, Weicong Wang, Pei Hu, Ji Jiang
AC0010 is an irreversible, mutant-selective EGFR inhibitor that effectively inhibits EGFR active and T790M resistance mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and fully validated for determining AC0010 and its metabolites in human plasma. The samples were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns and separated on a BEH C18 column. Electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) were used to monitor the ion transitions of AC0010 (m/z 488→257) and its metabolites M1 (m/z 474→403), M2 (m/z 504→487), M4 (m/z 434→377), M7 (m/z 490→405), MII-1 (m/z 651→434) and MII-2 (m/z 609→434)...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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