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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079584/the-development-and-implementation-of-cognitive-aids-for-critical-events-in-pediatric-anesthesia-the-society-for-pediatric-anesthesia-critical-events-checklists
#1
Anna Clebone, Barbara K Burian, Scott C Watkins, Jorge A Gálvez, Justin L Lockman, Eugenie S Heitmiller
Cognitive aids such as checklists are commonly used in modern operating rooms for routine processes, and the use of such aids may be even more important during critical events. The Quality and Safety Committee of the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) has developed a set of critical-event checklists and cognitive aids designed for 3 purposes: (1) as a repository of the latest evidence-based and expert opinion-based information to guide response and management of critical events, (2) as a source of just-in-time information during critical events, and (3) as a method to facilitate a shared understanding of required actions among team members during a critical event...
January 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061376/visual-orienting-and-attention-deficits-in-5-and-10-month-old-preterm-infants
#2
Shannon Ross-Sheehy, Sammy Perone, Kelsi L Macek, Bret Eschman
Cognitive outcomes for children born prematurely are well characterized, including increased risk for deficits in memory, attention, processing speed, and executive function. However, little is known about deficits that appear within the first 12 months, and how these early deficits contribute to later outcomes. To probe for functional deficits in visual attention, preterm and full-term infants were tested at 5 and 10 months with the Infant Orienting With Attention task (IOWA; Ross-Sheehy, Schneegans and Spencer, 2015)...
January 3, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050911/caring-for-elder-patients
#3
Karin Nordström, Tenzin Wangmo
BACKGROUND: Neglect and abuse of elders in care institutions is a recurring issue in the media. Elders in care institutions are vulnerable due to their physical, cognitive, and verbal limitations. Such vulnerabilities may make them more susceptible to mistreatment by caregivers on whom they are heavily dependent. OBJECTIVES: The goal was to understand caregivers' concerns about ensuring correct and proper treatment, as well as their experiences with neglect and abuse of older patients...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007750/parent-preferences-for-medical-error-disclosure-a-qualitative-study
#4
Maitreya Coffey, Sherry Espin, Tara Hahmann, Hayyah Clairman, Lisha Lo, Jeremy N Friedman, Anne Matlow
OBJECTIVE: According to disclosure guidelines, patients experiencing adverse events due to medical errors should be offered full disclosure, whereas disclosure of near misses is not traditionally expected. This may conflict with parental expectations; surveys reveal most parents expect full disclosure whether errors resulted in harm or not. Protocols regarding whether to include children in these discussions have not been established. This study explores parent preferences around disclosure and views on including children...
January 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995359/associations-between-disorder-specific-symptoms-of-anxiety-and-error-monitoring-brain-activity-in-young-children
#5
Sharon L Lo, Hans S Schroder, Megan E Fisher, C Emily Durbin, Kate D Fitzgerald, Judith H Danovitch, Jason S Moser
Anxiety disorders are among the earliest emerging disorders and most common mental health problem across the lifespan. A common characteristic of individuals with anxiety is poor attentional and cognitive control. Therefore, researchers are interested in how cognitive functioning relates to anxiety in young children. In particular, research has demonstrated associations between anxiety and electrophysiological markers of cognitive control skills such as the error-related negativity (ERN). The nature of the anxiety-ERN relationship is not well understood, however...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980117/the-caudate-nucleus-mediates-learning-of-stimulus-control-state-associations
#6
Yu-Chin Chiu, Jiefeng Jiang, Tobias Egner
: A longstanding dichotomy in cognitive psychology and neuroscience pits controlled, top-down driven against associative, bottom-up driven behavior, where cognitive control processes allow us to override well-learned stimulus-response (S-R) associations. By contrast, some recent studies have raised the intriguing possibility of an integration between associative and controlled processing in the form of stimulus-control state (S-C) associations, the learned linkage of specific stimuli to particular control states, such as high attentional selectivity...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924116/epistemic-benefits-of-elaborated-and-systematized-delusions-in-schizophrenia
#7
Lisa Bortolotti
In this article I ask whether elaborated and systematized delusions emerging in the context of schizophrenia have the potential for epistemic innocence. Cognitions are epistemically innocent if they have significant epistemic benefits that could not be attained otherwise. In particular, I propose that a cognition is epistemically innocent if it delivers some significant epistemic benefit to a given agent at a given time, and if alternative cognitions delivering the same epistemic benefit are unavailable to that agent at that time...
September 2016: British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922569/mode-of-information-delivery-does-not-effect-anesthesia-trainee-performance-during-simulated-perioperative-pediatric-critical-events-a-trial-of-paper-versus-electronic-cognitive-aids
#8
Scott C Watkins, Shilo Anders, Anna Clebone, Elisabeth Hughes, Vikram Patel, Laura Zeigler, Yaping Shi, Matthew S Shotwell, Matthew D McEvoy, Matthew B Weinger
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive aids (CAs), including emergency manuals and checklists, have been recommended as a means to address the failure of healthcare providers to adhere to evidence-based standards of treatment during crisis situations. Unfortunately, users of CAs still commit errors, omit critical steps, fail to achieve perfect adherence to guidelines, and frequently choose to not use CA during both simulated and real crisis events. We sought to evaluate whether the mode in which a CA presents information (ie, paper vs...
December 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902662/surveillance-a-nursing-intervention-for-improving-patient-safety-in-critical-care-environment
#9
Dale M Pfrimmer, Maren R Johnson, Martha L Guthmiller, Joanna L Lehman, Vickie K Ernste, Lori M Rhudy
BACKGROUND: Nursing surveillance has been identified as a key intervention in early recognition and prevention of errors/adverse events. Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC) defines surveillance as "the purposeful and ongoing acquisition, interpretation, and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision making." Because nurses are the main staffing constant in the critical care environment, the importance of surveillance as an intervention is fundamental. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore how surveillance is expressed by critical care nurses...
January 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897988/reciprocally-benefited-secure-transmission-for-spectrum-sensing-based-cognitive-radio-sensor-networks
#10
Dawei Wang, Pinyi Ren, Qinghe Du, Li Sun, Yichen Wang
The rapid proliferation of independently-designed and -deployed wireless sensor networks extremely crowds the wireless spectrum and promotes the emergence of cognitive radio sensor networks (CRSN). In CRSN, the sensor node (SN) can make full use of the unutilized licensed spectrum, and the spectrum efficiency is greatly improved. However, inevitable spectrum sensing errors will adversely interfere with the primary transmission, which may result in primary transmission outage. To compensate the adverse effect of spectrum sensing errors, we propose a reciprocally-benefited secure transmission strategy, in which SN's interference to the eavesdropper is employed to protect the primary confidential messages while the CRSN is also rewarded with a loose spectrum sensing error probability constraint...
November 25, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893500/the-effect-of-reported-sleep-perceived-fatigue-and-sleepiness-on-cognitive-performance-in-a-sample-of-emergency-nurses
#11
Lisa A Wolf, Cydne Perhats, Altair Delao, Zoran Martinovich
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between reported sleep, perceived fatigue and sleepiness, and cognitive performance. BACKGROUND: Although evidence suggests that fatigue and sleepiness affect the provision of care in inpatient units, there is a lack of research on the sleep patterns of emergency nurses and the effects of disturbed sleep and fatigue on their cognitive abilities and susceptibility to medical errors. METHODS: A quantitative correlational design was used in this study; in each of 7 different statistical models, zero-order relationships between predictors and the dependent variable were examined with appropriate inferential tests...
January 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890805/predicting-brain-age-from-multimodal-imaging-data-captures-cognitive-impairment
#12
Franziskus Liem, Gaël Varoquaux, Jana Kynast, Frauke Beyer, Shahrzad Kharabian Masouleh, Julia M Huntenburg, Leonie Lampe, Mehdi Rahim, Alexandre Abraham, R Cameron Craddock, Steffi Riedel-Heller, Tobias Luck, Markus Loeffler, Matthias L Schroeter, Anja Veronica Witte, Daniel S Margulies
The disparity between the chronological age of an individual and their brain-age measured based on biological information has the potential to offer clinically-relevant biomarkers of neurological syndromes that emerge late in the lifespan. While prior brain-age prediction studies have relied exclusively on either structural or functional brain data, here we investigate how multimodal brain-imaging data improves age prediction. Using cortical anatomy and whole-brain functional connectivity on a large adult lifespan sample (N=2354, age 19-82), we found that multimodal data improves brain-based age prediction, resulting in a mean absolute prediction error of 4...
November 23, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884632/strategies-for-improving-the-value-of-the-radiology-report-a-retrospective-analysis-of%C3%A2-errors-in-formally-over-read-studies
#13
Suraj Jay Kabadi, Arun Krishnaraj
PURPOSE: The radiology report is a critical component of the Imaging Value Chain. Unfortunately, the quality of this aspect of a radiologist's work is often heterogeneous and fails to add significant value to the referring provider and, ultimately, the patient. Gauging what defines quality can be elusive; however, we elucidate techniques that can be employed to ensure that reports are more comprehensible, actionable, and useful to our customers. METHODS: Four hundred consecutive studies (July-August 2015) submitted to our institution with request for a formal over-read were reviewed retrospectively, specifically focused on analyzing differences in language, organization, and impression between the outside reports and the formal over-reads performed at our institution...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867102/neural-correlates-of-response-inhibition-in-current-and-former-smokers
#14
Christina R Weywadt, Kent A Kiehl, Eric D Claus
Loss of behavioral control is a hallmark of addiction. Individual differences in basic cognitive processes such as response inhibition may be important for interrupting automatic behaviors associated with smoking and supporting prolonged abstinence. To examine how response inhibition and error monitoring processes differ as a function of smoking status, current smokers, former smokers and never smokers (N=126) completed a simple Go/No-Go task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. All groups performed similarly on the task and similarly engaged the inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, regions traditionally associated with response inhibition and error monitoring, respectively...
February 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824937/gazing-into-thin-air-the-dual-task-costs-of-movement-planning-and-execution-during-adaptive-gait
#15
Toby J Ellmers, Adam J Cocks, Michail Doumas, A Mark Williams, William R Young
We examined the effect of increased cognitive load on visual search behavior and measures of gait performance during locomotion. Also, we investigated how personality traits, specifically the propensity to consciously control or monitor movements (trait movement 'reinvestment'), impacted the ability to maintain effective gaze under conditions of cognitive load. Healthy young adults traversed a novel adaptive walking path while performing a secondary serial subtraction task. Performance was assessed using correct responses to the cognitive task, gaze behavior, stepping accuracy, and time to complete the walking task...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777275/human-error-as-an-emergent-property-of-action-selection-and-task-place-holding
#16
Franklin P Tamborello, J Gregory Trafton
OBJECTIVE: A computational process model could explain how the dynamic interaction of human cognitive mechanisms produces each of multiple error types. BACKGROUND: With increasing capability and complexity of technological systems, the potential severity of consequences of human error is magnified. Interruption greatly increases people's error rates, as does the presence of other information to maintain in an active state. METHOD: The model executed as a software-instantiated Monte Carlo simulation...
October 1, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766587/brain-injury-in-women-experiencing-intimate-partner-violence-neural-mechanistic-evidence-of-an-invisible-trauma
#17
Eve Valera, Aaron Kucyi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in women experiencing intimate-partner violence (IPV) is common, and IPV afflicts 30 % of women worldwide. However, the neurobiology and related sequelae of these TBIs have never been systematically examined. Consequently, TBI treatments are typically absent and IPV interventions are inadequate. There has been a call for a comprehensive assessment of IPV-related TBIs and their relationship to aspects of women's cognitive and neural functioning. In response, we examined brain-network organization associated with TBI and its cognitive effects using clinical interviews and neuropsychological measures as well as structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in women experiencing IPV-related TBI...
October 20, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751195/longitudinal-executive-function-and-episodic-memory-profiles-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Siddharth Ramanan, Maxime Bertoux, Emma Flanagan, Muireann Irish, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, Michael Hornberger
OBJECTIVES: With comparable baseline performance on executive functions (EF) and memory between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), it is currently unclear if both diseases can be distinguished longitudinally on these measures reliably. METHODS: A total of 111 participants (33 AD, 31 bvFTD, and 47 controls) were followed-up annually over a 4-year period and tested on measures of EF, memory, and orientation. Linear mixed-effect models were constructed using disease severity as a nuisance variable to examine profiles of neuropsychological performance decline...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720794/mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-in-post-treatment-breast-cancer-patients-immediate-and-sustained-effects-across-multiple-symptom-clusters
#19
Richard R Reich, Cecile A Lengacher, Carissa B Alinat, Kevin E Kip, Carly Paterson, Sophia Ramesar, Heather S Han, Roohi Ismail-Khan, Versie Johnson-Mallard, Manolete Moscoso, Pinky Budhrani-Shani, Steve Shivers, Charles E Cox, Matthew Goodman, Jong Park
CONTEXT: Breast cancer survivors (BCS) face adverse physical and psychological symptoms, often co-occurring. Biologic and psychological factors may link symptoms within clusters, distinguishable by prevalence and/or severity. Few studies have examined the effects of behavioral interventions or treatment of symptom clusters. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify symptom clusters among post-treatment BCS and determine symptom cluster improvement following the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Breast Cancer (MBSR(BC)) program...
January 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711982/association-of-anticholinergic-burden-with-cognitive-impairment-and-health-care-utilization-among-a-diverse-ambulatory-older-adult-population
#20
Noll L Campbell, Anthony J Perkins, Pamela Bradt, Sinem Perk, Ronald C Wielage, Malaz A Boustani, Daniel B Ng
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) score and both cognitive impairment and health care utilization among a diverse ambulatory older adult population. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. DATA SOURCE: Medication exposure and other clinical data were extracted from the Regenstrief Medical Record System (RMRS), and cognitive diagnosis derived from a dementia screening and diagnosis study...
October 6, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
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