keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cognitive error emergency

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748284/efficient-coding-explains-the-universal-law-of-generalization-in-human-perception
#1
Chris R Sims
Perceptual generalization and discrimination are fundamental cognitive abilities. For example, if a bird eats a poisonous butterfly, it will learn to avoid preying on that species again by generalizing its past experience to new perceptual stimuli. In cognitive science, the "universal law of generalization" seeks to explain this ability and states that generalization between stimuli will follow an exponential function of their distance in "psychological space." Here, I challenge existing theoretical explanations for the universal law and offer an alternative account based on the principle of efficient coding...
May 11, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614188/diagnostic-reasoning-and-cognitive-biases-of-nurse-practitioners
#2
Thomas N Lawson
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic reasoning is often used colloquially to describe the process by which nurse practitioners and physicians come to the correct diagnosis, but a rich definition and description of this process has been lacking in the nursing literature. METHOD: A literature review was conducted with theoretical sampling seeking conceptual insight into diagnostic reasoning. RESULTS: Four common themes emerged: Cognitive Biases and Debiasing Strategies, the Dual Process Theory, Diagnostic Error, and Patient Harm...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593519/evolving-simple-models-of-diverse-intrinsic-dynamics-in-hippocampal-neuron-types
#3
Siva Venkadesh, Alexander O Komendantov, Stanislav Listopad, Eric O Scott, Kenneth De Jong, Jeffrey L Krichmar, Giorgio A Ascoli
The diversity of intrinsic dynamics observed in neurons may enhance the computations implemented in the circuit by enriching network-level emergent properties such as synchronization and phase locking. Large-scale spiking network models of entire brain regions offer a platform to test theories of neural computation and cognitive function, providing useful insights on information processing in the nervous system. However, a systematic in-depth investigation requires network simulations to capture the biological intrinsic diversity of individual neurons at a sufficient level of accuracy...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579160/data-driven-models-of-dominantly-inherited-alzheimer-s-disease-progression
#4
Neil P Oxtoby, Alexandra L Young, David M Cash, Tammie L S Benzinger, Anne M Fagan, John C Morris, Randall J Bateman, Nick C Fox, Jonathan M Schott, Daniel C Alexander
See Li and Donohue (doi:10.1093/brain/awy089) for a scientific commentary on this article.Dominantly-inherited Alzheimer's disease is widely hoped to hold the key to developing interventions for sporadic late onset Alzheimer's disease. We use emerging techniques in generative data-driven disease progression modelling to characterize dominantly-inherited Alzheimer's disease progression with unprecedented resolution, and without relying upon familial estimates of years until symptom onset. We retrospectively analysed biomarker data from the sixth data freeze of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study, including measures of amyloid proteins and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, regional brain volumes and cortical thicknesses, brain glucose hypometabolism, and cognitive performance from the Mini-Mental State Examination (all adjusted for age, years of education, sex, and head size, as appropriate)...
May 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514852/focused-training-for-the-handover-of-critical-patient-information-during-simulated-pediatric-emergencies
#5
Andrew J Lautz, Kelly C Martin, Akira Nishisaki, Christopher P Bonafide, Roberta L Hales, Elizabeth A Hunt, Vinay M Nadkarni, Robert M Sutton, Donald L Boyer
OBJECTIVES: Miscommunication has been implicated as a leading cause of medical errors, and standardized handover programs have been associated with improved patient outcomes. However, the role of structured handovers in pediatric emergencies remains unclear. We sought to determine if training with an airway, breathing, circulation, situation, background, assessment, recommendation handover tool could improve the transmission of essential patient information during multidisciplinary simulations of critically ill children...
April 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502459/variation-of-temporal-order-reveals-deficits-in-categorisation-of-facial-expressions-in-patients-afflicted-with-depression
#6
Pegah Sarkheil, Niclas Kilian-Hütten, Kristina Mickartz, Thomas Vornholt, Klaus Mathiak
INTRODUCTION: It is well established that depressive disorders are associated with abnormalities in the processing of affective information. However, type of stimuli, perceptual complexity and cognitive demand are important factors in evaluating these findings. In particular, processing mechanisms of perceptual boundaries in ecologically valid face stimuli are largely unknown in depression. METHODS: In the current study, intensity-ordered frame sequences provided a dynamic visualisation of happy or sad facial expressions fading from or to neutral expressions...
March 4, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497060/frontal-cortex-function-as-derived-from-hierarchical-predictive-coding
#7
William H Alexander, Joshua W Brown
The frontal lobes are essential for human volition and goal-directed behavior, yet their function remains unclear. While various models have highlighted working memory, reinforcement learning, and cognitive control as key functions, a single framework for interpreting the range of effects observed in prefrontal cortex has yet to emerge. Here we show that a simple computational motif based on predictive coding can be stacked hierarchically to learn and perform arbitrarily complex goal-directed behavior. The resulting Hierarchical Error Representation (HER) model simulates a wide array of findings from fMRI, ERP, single-units, and neuropsychological studies of both lateral and medial prefrontal cortex...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494861/impairment-of-memory-generalization-in-preclinical-autosomal-dominant-alzheimer-s-disease-mutation-carriers
#8
Jessica R Petok, Catherine E Myers, Judy Pa, Zachary Hobel, David M Wharton, Luis D Medina, Maria Casado, Giovanni Coppola, Mark A Gluck, John M Ringman
Fast, inexpensive, and noninvasive identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) before clinical symptoms emerge would augment our ability to intervene early in the disease. Individuals with fully penetrant genetic mutations causing autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) are essentially certain to develop the disease, providing a unique opportunity to examine biomarkers during the preclinical stage. Using a generalization task that has previously shown to be sensitive to medial temporal lobe pathology, we compared preclinical individuals carrying ADAD mutations to noncarrying kin to determine whether generalization (the ability to transfer previous learning to novel but familiar recombinations) is vulnerable early, before overt cognitive decline...
May 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455866/cognition-action-trade-offs-reflect-organization-of-attention-in-infancy
#9
Sarah E Berger, Regina T Harbourne, Melissa N Horger
This chapter discusses what cognition-action trade-offs in infancy reveal about the organization and developmental trajectory of attention. We focus on internal attention because this aspect is most relevant to the immediate concerns of infancy, such as fluctuating levels of expertise, balancing multiple taxing skills simultaneously, learning how to control attention under variable conditions, and coordinating distinct psychological domains. Cognition-action trade-offs observed across the life span include perseveration during skill emergence, errors and inefficient strategies during decision making, and the allocation of resources when attention is taxed...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431647/neural-mechanisms-for-adaptive-learned-avoidance-of-mental-effort
#10
Asako Mitsuto Nagase, Keiichi Onoda, Jerome Clifford Foo, Tomoki Haji, Rei Akaishi, Shuhei Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki Sakai, Kenji Morita
Humans tend to avoid mental effort. Previous studies have demonstrated this tendency using various demand-selection tasks; participants generally avoid options associated with higher cognitive demand. However, it remains unclear whether humans avoid mental effort adaptively in uncertain and non-stationary environments, and if so, what neural mechanisms underlie this learned avoidance and whether they remain the same irrespective of cognitive-demand types. We addressed these issues by developing novel demand-selection tasks where associations between choice options and cognitive-demand levels change over time, with two variations using mental arithmetic and spatial reasoning problems (29:4 and 18:2 males:females)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333611/cognitive-dysfunction-after-generalized-tonic-clonic-status-epilepticus-in-adults
#11
K N Power, A Gramstad, N E Gilhus, K O Hufthammer, B A Engelsen
OBJECTIVES: Generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus (GTC-SE) is considered a risk for cognitive impairment. Research with standardized tools is scarce and non-conclusive. We systematically assessed short-term and long-term cognitive function after GTC-SE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients were tested after the clinical post-ictal phase of GTC-SE (timepoint 1) and again after 1 year (timepoint 2). Twenty controls were examined with the same tests...
April 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331842/predicting-1-year-disability-and-mortality-of-injured-older-adults
#12
Alvin D Jeffery, Mary S Dietrich, Cathy A Maxwell
PURPOSE: The growing incidence of elderly patients injured from falls, combined with a growing understanding of the contribution of cognition and frailty to mortality, prompted this work. Our objective was to develop a clinical risk prediction model for prognosticating disability and mortality among injured older adults 1 year after hospitalization. METHODS: Secondary analysis of prospective longitudinal data from an urban Level 1 trauma center. A proportional odds regression model was used to model mortality and functional status as ordinal outcomes...
March 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317467/evaluating-team-decision-making-as-an-emergent-phenomenon
#13
John Kinnear, Nick Wilson, Anthony O'Dwyer
BACKGROUND: The complexity of modern clinical practice has highlighted the fallibility of individual clinicians' decision-making, with effective teamwork emerging as a key to patient safety. Dual process theory is widely accepted as a framework for individual decision-making, with type 1 processes responsible for fast, intuitive and automatic decisions and type 2 processes for slow, analytical decisions. However, dual process theory does not explain cognition at the group level, when individuals act in teams...
April 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283079/differential-contributions-of-selective-attention-and-sensory-integration-to-driving-performance-in-healthy-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Umesh M Venkatesan, Elena K Festa, Brian R Ott, William C Heindel
OBJECTIVES: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) demonstrate deficits in cross-cortical feature binding distinct from age-related changes in selective attention. This may have consequences for driving performance given its demands on multisensory integration. We examined the relationship of visuospatial search and binding to driving in patients with early AD and elderly controls (EC). METHODS: Participants (42 AD; 37 EC) completed search tasks requiring either luminance-motion (L-M) or color-motion (C-M) binding, analogs of within and across visual processing stream binding, respectively...
December 28, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194059/self-reported-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-relation-to-rumination-and-depressive-symptoms-moderating-role-of-sex-differences-and-a-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-polymorphism
#15
Robert L Gabrys, Kaylyn Dixon, Matthew R Holahan, Hymie Anisman
OBJECTIVE: Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) have frequently been associated with the emergence and persistence of depressive symptoms. However, the factors which contribute to the increased risk for depression after these head injuries remain unclear. Accordingly, we examined the relationship between frequency of self-reported mTBIs and current symptoms of depression and the mediating role of rumination and cognitive flexibility. We also examined whether these relations were moderated by sex differences and the presence of the Val66Met polymorphism in a gene coding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174830/influence-of-shift-duration-on-cognitive-performance-of-emergency-physicians-a-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#16
Nicolas Persico, François Maltese, Cécile Ferrigno, Amandine Bablon, Cécile Marmillot, Laurent Papazian, Antoine Roch
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The relationship between tiredness and medical errors is now commonly accepted. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the cognitive performance of emergency physicians after a night shift of 14 hours (H14) and after a work shift of 24 hours (H24) and to compare it with tests performed after a rest night at home (H0). METHODS: Forty emergency physicians (19 staff physicians and 21 residents) were randomly evaluated at H0, H14, and H24. Four cognitive abilities (processing speed, working memory capacity, perceptual reasoning, and cognitive flexibility) were tested according to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test...
November 23, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173201/duration-of-untreated-psychosis-and-neurocognitive-functioning-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
K Allott, D Fraguas, C F Bartholomeusz, C M Díaz-Caneja, C Wannan, E M Parrish, G P Amminger, C Pantelis, C Arango, P D McGorry, M Rapado-Castro
BACKGROUND: Previous reviews suggest there is minimal evidence for an association between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and neurocognition. This is based on tallied findings of studies with small samples and neurocognition viewed as a single construct. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the association between DUP and individual neurocognitive domains and tests in first-episode psychosis (FEP). METHOD: MOOSE and PRISMA guidelines were followed...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136642/common-and-distinct-structural-features-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-the-european-network-on-psychosis-affective-disorders-and-cognitive-trajectory-enpact-study
#18
Eleonora Maggioni, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Igor Nenadic, Francesco Benedetti, Christian Gaser, Heinrich Sauer, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Sara Poletti, Veronica Marinelli, Marcella Bellani, Cinzia Perlini, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Paolo Brambilla
INTRODUCTION: Although schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share elements of pathology, their neural underpinnings are still under investigation. Here, structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data collected from a large sample of BD and SCZ patients and healthy controls (HC) were analyzed in terms of gray matter volume (GMV) using both voxel based morphometry (VBM) and a region of interest (ROI) approach. METHODS: The analysis was conducted on two datasets, Dataset1 (802 subjects: 243 SCZ, 176 BD, 383 HC) and Dataset2, a homogeneous subset of Dataset1 (301 subjects: 107 HC, 85 BD and 109 SCZ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113027/detect-correct-retract-how-to-manage-incorrect-structural-models
#19
REVIEW
Alexander Wlodawer, Zbigniew Dauter, Przemyslaw J Porebski, Wladek Minor, Robyn Stanfield, Mariusz Jaskolski, Edwin Pozharski, Christian X Weichenberger, Bernhard Rupp
The massive technical and computational progress of biomolecular crystallography has generated some adverse side effects. Most crystal structure models, produced by crystallographers or well-trained structural biologists, constitute useful sources of information, but occasional extreme outliers remind us that the process of structure determination is not fail-safe. The occurrence of severe errors or gross misinterpretations raises fundamental questions: Why do such aberrations emerge in the first place? How did they evade the sophisticated validation procedures which often produce clear and dire warnings, and why were severe errors not noticed by the depositors themselves, their supervisors, referees and editors? Once detected, what can be done to either correct, improve or eliminate such models? How do incorrect models affect the underlying claims or biomedical hypotheses they were intended, but failed, to support? What is the long-range effect of the propagation of such errors? And finally, what mechanisms can be envisioned to restore the validity of the scientific record and, if necessary, retract publications that are clearly invalidated by the lack of experimental evidence? We suggest that cognitive bias and flawed epistemology are likely at the root of the problem...
February 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045451/getting-to-the-heart-of-the-matter-does-aberrant-interoceptive-processing-contribute-towards-emotional-eating
#20
Hayley A Young, Claire Williams, Aimee E Pink, Gary Freegard, Amy Owens, David Benton
According to estimates from Public Health England, by 2034 70% of adults are expected to be overweight or obese, therefore understanding the underpinning aetiology is a priority. Eating in response to negative affect contributes towards obesity, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Evidence that visceral afferent signals contribute towards the experience of emotion is accumulating rapidly, with the emergence of new influential models of 'active inference'. No longer viewed as a 'bottom up' process, new interoceptive facets based on 'top down' predictions have been proposed, although at present it is unclear which aspects of interoception contribute to aberrant eating behaviour and obesity...
2017: PloS One
keyword
keyword
63907
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"