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Pulmonary thrombolysis

Evangelos Giannitsis, Hugo A Katus
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high all-cause and PE-related mortality and requires individualized management. After confirmation of PE, a refined risk stratification is particularly warranted among normotensive patients. Previous prognostic models favored combinations of echocardiography or computed tomography suggestive of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction together with biomarkers of RV dysfunction (natriuretic peptides) or myocardial injury (cardiac troponins) to identify candidates for thrombolysis or embolectomy...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Jose F Condado, Vasilis Babaliaros, Travis S Henry, Brian Kaebnick, Dennis Kim, Gerald W Staton
BACKGROUND: The best treatment of patients with external pulmonary vascular compression due to advanced sarcoidosis is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To report a single-center experience of percutaneous treatment for pulmonary vascular stenosis caused by external compression due to advanced sarcoidosis. METHODS: We report a case series of 5 patients with biopsy confirmed advanced sarcoidosis, seen at our academic institution with worsening dyspnea despite increase of immunosuppressive therapy...
October 7, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
Daniel Corrigan, Christiana Prucnal, Christopher Kabrhel
The diagnosis or exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE) remains challenging for emergency physicians. Symptoms can be vague or non-existent, and the clinical presentation shares features with many other common diagnoses. Diagnostic testing is complicated, as biomarkers, like the D-dimer, are frequently false positive, and imaging, like computed tomography pulmonary angiography, carries risks of radiation and contrast dye exposure. It is therefore incumbent on emergency physicians to be both vigilant and thoughtful about this diagnosis...
September 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Marco Zuin, Gianluca Rigatelli, Stefano Ferraresi, Pietro Zonzin, Loris Roncon
We report the case of a 35-year-old man who developed a massive pulmonary embolism (PE) after spine surgery. After an accidental axial fall, the patient developed a spinal epidural hematoma (SHE). Because major trauma, recent surgery and known bleeding risk are considered absolute contraindications to systemic thrombolysis, the patient was treated with catheter-directed therapy (CDT). CDT remains a useful treatment in massive PE, especially when systemic thrombolysis is contraindicated or has failed.
September 30, 2016: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Ajay U Mahajan, Deepak S Laddhad, Deepak Bohara, Sangeeta D Laddhad, Yogita T Dinde, Sachin S Bhabad
A 32 yrs old man presented with shortness of breath and syncopal episode with preceding history of DVT 15days above. Patient has tachycardia hypoxia and hypotension, on evaluation ECG Showed S1 Q3 T3 Pattern, bedside Echo Showed visible thrombus of 3cm in pulmonary artery, successfully thrombolysed with tenecteplase and streptokinase. This case study is presented to stress importance of urgent bedside echo in all sudden onset dysponea and hypoxia to rule out pulmonary Embolism which can be successfully thrombolysed without delay...
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
D Dubinski, S-Y Won, M Bruder, M-T Forster, V Seifert, C Senft, J Berkefeld, J Mersmann
In the fulminant VTE form with cardiac arrest, systemic thrombolysis remains the most effective therapy. However, several contraindications restrict the use such as intracranial neoplasm or a recent history of intracranial surgery. Here, we report the case of a 59-year-old man who underwent glioblastoma resection and suffered from a fulminant pulmonary embolism with cardiac arrest. After CPR, continuous tPA infusion via an endovascularly placed pulmonary catheter was maintained over a period of 8 h. In this case, we report on our decision-making process and the use of local thrombolysis as a successful therapy in a patient with multiple contraindications...
October 14, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Hyoung Soo Choi, Chang Won Choi, Heon Min Kim, Hye Won Park
BACKGROUND: While venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uncommon, its incidence is increasing in children. We aimed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, treatment, and outcome of pediatric VTE cases at a single tertiary hospital in Korea. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of consecutive pediatric VTE patients admitted to the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between April 2003 and March 2016. RESULTS: Among 70,462 hospitalizations, 25 pediatric VTE cases were identified (3...
September 2016: Blood Research
Akhilesh K Sista, Larry E Miller, Susan R Kahn, Jeffrey A Kline
Long-term right ventricular (RV) function, functional capacity, exercise capacity, and quality of life following pulmonary embolism (PE), and the impact of thrombolysis, are unclear. A systematic review of studies that evaluated these outcomes with ⩾ 3-month mean follow-up after PE diagnosis was performed. For each outcome, random effects meta-analyses were performed. Twenty-six studies (3671 patients) with 18-month median follow-up were included. The pooled prevalence of RV dysfunction was 18.1%. Patients treated with thrombolysis had a lower, but not statistically significant, risk of RV dysfunction versus those treated with anticoagulation (odds ratio: 0...
October 5, 2016: Vascular Medicine
Timothy J Fuller, Christopher M Paprzycki, Muhammad H Zubair, Lala R Hussain, Brian A Kuhn, Matthew H Recht, Patrick E Muck
BACKGROUND: Interventional strategies for massive and submassive Pulmonary Embolism (smPE) have historically included either systematic intravenous thrombolytic alteplase (IV TPA) or surgical embolectomy, both of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, with the advent of endovascular techniques, recent studies have suggested that an endovascular approach to the treatment of acute smPE may be both safe and effective with excellent outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients who have undergone catheter directed thrombolysis (CDT) for smPE at our institution in an effort to determine the safety of the procedure...
September 22, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
David M Dudzinski, Praveen Hariharan, Blair A Parry, Yuchiao Chang, Christopher Kabrhel
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular strain (RVS) identifies patients at risk of hemodynamic deterioration from pulmonary embolism (PE). Our hypothesis was that chest computed tomography (CT) can provide information about RVS analogous to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and that RVS on CT is associated with adverse outcomes after PE. METHODS: Consecutive emergency department (ED) patients with acute PE were prospectively enrolled and clinical, biomarker, and imaging data were recorded...
September 24, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Jeffrey Forris Beecham Chick, Shilpa N Reddy, Ruchika D Bhatt, Benjamin J Shin, James N Kirkpatrick, Scott O Trerotola
PURPOSE: To explore significance, management, and outcomes of central venous catheter (CVC) tip-associated thrombi incidentally detected on echocardiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Echocardiogram data from all patients with CVCs from October 2009 to June 2011 were reviewed (N = 170). Patients with CVC tip-associated thrombi were selected (n = 49). Echocardiograms were reviewed for ejection fraction, presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO), presence of other intracardiac shunts, and mean thrombus size...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
Mohamed Shokr, Ramanjit Kaur, Kevin Belgrave, Arshad Javed, Mahir Elder, Shaun Cardozo, Luis Afonso, Amir Kaki
Catheter related thrombosis (CRT) is a commonly encountered entity fraught with substantial risk for mortality secondary to various complications including pulmonary embolism (PE), tricuspid regurgitation, endocarditis, right sided heart failure, and cardiogenic and septic shock. CRT carries a mortality rate of 18% in hemodialysis patients and more than 40% in nonhemodialysis patients. Management strategies include systemic anticoagulation, systemic thrombolysis, surgical evacuation, and percutaneous retrieval with no established guidelines...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
Nathan L Liang, Efthymios D Avgerinos, Luke K Marone, Michael J Singh, Michel S Makaroun, Rabih A Chaer
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients undergoing ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis (USAT) and standard catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: The records of all patients in our institution having undergone CDT or USAT for massive or submassive PE from 2009 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Standard statistical methods were used to compare characteristics and to assess for longitudinal change in outcomes...
August 2016: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Md Shahidul Islam
Clinicians need to make decisions about the use of thrombolytic (fibrinolytic) therapy for pulmonary embolism (PE) after carefully considering the risks of major complications from bleeding, and the benefits of treatment, for each individual patient. They should probably not use systemic thrombolysis for PE patients with normal blood pressure. Treatment by human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), alteplase, saves the lives of high-risk PE patients, that is, those with hypotension or in shock...
September 15, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
N G Khorev, A P Momot, V O Kon'kova
During the last 10 years, several novel direct oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have entered the clinical arena and were registered in the Russian Federation for use in patients presenting with atrial fibrillation, venous thrombosis, and pulmonary artery thromboembolism. NOACs are classified into two groups: direct thrombin inhibitor (notably dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (including rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban). Their disadvantage is lack of specific antidotes in case of an emergency situation (injury, infarction, stroke requiring thrombolysis, urgent operation)...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
A V Pokrovskiĭ, I M Ignat'ev, M Iu Volodiukhin, E G Gradusov
The present study was aimed at assessing initial results of hybrid operations in obstructive lesions of the iliac-femoral veins in patients with post-thrombotic disease (PTD). Hybrid operations [open endovenectomy from the common femoral vein (CFV) with creation of an arteriovenous fistula + stenting of iliac veins] were performed carried out in a total of eleven patients with PTD. Of these, there were 7 men and 4 women aged from 34 to 52 years (mean age - 42.8±7 years). All patients had severe-degree chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Alphonsus Liew, Tamir Malley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Mohamed Teleb, Mateo Porres-Aguilar, Belinda Rivera-Lebron, Kyari Sumayin Ngamdu, Gehan Botrus, Javier E Anaya-Ayala, Debabrata Mukherjee
Intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE), also known as submassive PE, occurs in a substantial group of patients and carries a significant mortality risk. With adequate risk stratification, catheter-directed techniques could be used as a therapeutic approach in the intermediate-risk PE. Ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis (UCDT) represents a novel endovascular technique with good clinical and safety outcomes. Ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis can achieve reduction in the thrombus burden and improvement of pulmonary hemodynamics and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and/or dilatation, without major procedure-related complications, major bleeding, or hemorrhagic strokes...
September 7, 2016: Angiology
Aaron Samuel Weinberg, Suhail Dohad, Danny Ramzy, Hooman Madyoon, Victor F Tapson
Clinical guidelines support the use of systemic thrombolytic therapy for acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE). When anticoagulation and thrombolysis fail or are contraindicated, options become limited. We report an acute PE case in which treatment options were limited, and a novel device, the FlowTriever (Inari Medical, Irvine, California), was successfully used. This is the first case report of the use of this device that we are aware of.
September 6, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Franco Diaz, William C Sasser, Mark A Law, Jeffrey A Alten
Modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (mBTS) obstruction can be life-threatening, especially when it represents the only source of pulmonary blood flow. Current therapeutic options to reverse obstruction include surgical shunt revision/replacement, interventional endovascular procedures including balloon angioplasty and/or stent placement, and a combination of local and systemic thrombolytic therapy. We report two cases of acute mBTS thrombosis successfully treated with systemic recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in infants convalescing after cardiac surgery when the clinical status and resources precluded traditionally described rescue therapies...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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