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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910818/histomorphometric-and-transcriptome-evaluation-of-early-healing-bone-treated-with-a-novel-human-particulate-dentin-powder
#1
Yu-Chih Huang, Wei-Zhen Lew, Sheng-Wei Feng, Wei-Yi Lai, Yoshimitsu Abiko, Haw-Ming Huang
Human particulate dentin (HPD) shows potential as an alternative bone grafting material. However, the mechanism of bone healing at the molecular level after grafting with HPD is unclear. This study assessed the histological and global gene expression of bone tissues grafted with HPD. The HPD was prepared to 250-500 µm in size. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were performed to confirm the crystal structure, organic compound residues, and surface morphology, respectively...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909444/smallholder-farms-and-the-potential-for-sustainable-intensification
#2
Leah M Mungai, Sieglinde Snapp, Joseph P Messina, Regis Chikowo, Alex Smith, Erin Anders, Robert B Richardson, Guiying Li
The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907898/obstetrical-and-perinatal-outcomes-following-blastocyst-transfer-compared-to-cleavage-transfer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
W P Martins, C O Nastri, L Rienzi, S Z van der Poel, C R Gracia, C Racowsky
STUDY QUESTION: Is blastocyst transfer safe when compared to cleavage stage embryo transfer regarding obstetric and perinatal outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: The clinical equipoise between blastocyst and cleavage stage embryo transfer remains as the evidence associating blastocyst transfer with some adverse perinatal outcomes is of low/very low quality. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Extended embryo culture to the blastocyst stage provides some theoretical advantages and disadvantages...
November 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907846/modelling-life-satisfaction-and-adjustment-to-trauma-in-children-exposed-to-ongoing-military-violence-an-exploratory-study-in-palestine
#4
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Alaa Jaradah, Feda Al Muranak, Husam Hamdouna
Exposure to war and ongoing political violence increases mental health risks among children, especially in terms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depressive or somatic symptoms. However, an exclusive focus on negative functioning can lead to underestimating the coping abilities and natural potential for adjusting to trauma of war-affected children at different developmental phases. Using structural equation modelling, we tested the extent to which data gathered in a predominantly nonclinical sample of Palestinian children (N=1276) living in refugee camps supported a conceptual model in which the relationship between subjective wellbeing and the effects of trauma is mainly top-down in direction...
November 28, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906527/behavioral-epigenetics
#5
David S Moore
Why do we grow up to have the traits we do? Most 20th century scientists answered this question by referring only to our genes and our environments. But recent discoveries in the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics have revealed factors at the interface between genes and environments that also play crucial roles in development. These factors affect how genes work; scientists now know that what matters as much as which genes you have (and what environments you encounter) is how your genes are affected by their contexts...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906523/developmental-evolution
#6
REVIEW
Robert Lickliter
Biologists and psychologists are re-thinking the long-standing premise of genes as the primary cause of development, a view widely embraced in 20th-century biology. This shift in thinking is based in large part on: (1) the growing appreciation of the complex, distributed regulatory dynamics of gene expression; and (2) the growing appreciation of the probabilistic, contingent, and situated nature of development. We now appreciate that what actually unfolds during individual development represents only one of many possibilities...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905999/factors-associated-with-hiv-viral-load-blips-and-the-relationship-between-self-reported-adherence-and-efavirenz-blood-levels-on-blip-occurrence-a-case-control-study
#7
Aaron Farmer, Xun Wang, Anuradha Ganesan, Robert G Deiss, Brian K Agan, Thomas A O'Bryan, Kevin Akers, Jason F Okulicz
BACKGROUND: The uncertain etiology of HIV viral load (VL) blips may lead to increased use of clinical resources. We evaluated the association of self-reported adherence (SRA) and antiretroviral (ART) drug levels on blip occurrence in US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) participants who initiated the single-tablet regimen efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF). METHODS: ART-naïve NHS participants started on EFV/FTC/TDF between 2006 and 2013 who achieved VL suppression (<50 copies/mL) within 12 months and had available SRA and stored plasma samples were included...
March 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905974/dynamic-denominators-the-impact-of-seasonally-varying-population-numbers-on-disease-incidence-estimates
#8
Elisabeth Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Victor A Alegana, Alessandro Sorichetta, Catherine Linard, Christoper Lourenço, Nick W Ruktanonchai, Bonita Graupe, Tomas J Bird, Carla Pezzulo, Amy Wesolowski, Andrew J Tatem
BACKGROUND: Reliable health metrics are crucial for accurately assessing disease burden and planning interventions. Many health indicators are measured through passive surveillance systems and are reliant on accurate estimates of denominators to transform case counts into incidence measures. These denominator estimates generally come from national censuses and use large area growth rates to estimate annual changes. Typically, they do not account for any seasonal fluctuations and thus assume a static denominator population...
October 12, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905873/comparative-genomics-of-beauveria-bassiana-uncovering-signatures-of-virulence-against-mosquitoes
#9
Claudio A Valero-Jiménez, Luigi Faino, Daphne Spring In't Veld, Sandra Smit, Bas J Zwaan, Jan A L van Kan
BACKGROUND: Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are promising biological agents for control of malaria mosquitoes. Indeed, infection with B. bassiana reduces the lifespan of mosquitoes in the laboratory and in the field. Natural isolates of B. bassiana show up to 10-fold differences in virulence between the most and the least virulent isolate. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of five isolates representing the extremes of low/high virulence and three RNA libraries, and applied a genome comparison approach to uncover genetic mechanisms underpinning virulence...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905533/five-key-attributes-can-increase-marine-protected-areas-performance-for-small-scale-fisheries-management
#10
Antonio Di Franco, Pierre Thiriet, Giuseppe Di Carlo, Charalampos Dimitriadis, Patrice Francour, Nicolas L Gutiérrez, Alain Jeudy de Grissac, Drosos Koutsoubas, Marco Milazzo, María Del Mar Otero, Catherine Piante, Jeremiah Plass-Johnson, Susana Sainz-Trapaga, Luca Santarossa, Sergi Tudela, Paolo Guidetti
Marine protected areas (MPAs) have largely proven to be effective tools for conserving marine ecosystem, while socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs to fisheries are still under debate. Many MPAs embed a no-take zone, aiming to preserve natural populations and ecosystems, within a buffer zone where potentially sustainable activities are allowed. Small-scale fisheries (SSF) within buffer zones can be highly beneficial by promoting local socio-economies. However, guidelines to successfully manage SSFs within MPAs, ensuring both conservation and fisheries goals, and reaching a win-win scenario, are largely unavailable...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905281/identification-of-acanthamoeba-genotypes-in-pools-and-stagnant-water-in-ponds-in-sistan-region-in-southeast-iran
#11
Ali Aghajani, Mansour Dabirzadeh, Yahya Maroufi, Hossein Hooshyar
OBJECTIVE: Acanthamoeba is one of the most abundant free-living amoebas that is widely distributed in natural and artificial environment resources. Acanthamoeba pathogenic genotypes cause chronic human diseases including amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine and identify Acanthamoeba genotypes residing in pools and stagnant water in ponds in Sistan region in southeast Iran. This descriptive study was conducted at the Parasitology Laboratory, School of Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904924/sequential-lignin-depolymerization-by-combination-of-biocatalytic-and-formic-acid-formate-treatment-steps
#12
Christoph A Gasser, Monika Čvančarová, Erik M Ammann, Andreas Schäffer, Patrick Shahgaldian, Philippe F-X Corvini
Lignin, a complex three-dimensional amorphous polymer, is considered to be a potential natural renewable resource for the production of low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds. In the present study, a novel sequential lignin treatment method consisting of a biocatalytic oxidation step followed by a formic acid-induced lignin depolymerization step was developed and optimized using response surface methodology. The biocatalytic step employed a laccase mediator system using the redox mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole...
November 30, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902807/improving-genetic-gain-with-genomic-selection-in-autotetraploid-potato
#13
Anthony T Slater, Noel O I Cogan, John W Forster, Benjamin J Hayes, Hans D Daetwyler
Potato ( L.) breeders consider a large number of traits during cultivar development and progress in conventional breeding can be slow. There is accumulating evidence that some of these traits, such as yield, are affected by a large number of genes with small individual effects. Recently, significant efforts have been applied to the development of genomic resources to improve potato breeding, culminating in a draft genome sequence and the identification of a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902806/orthology-guided-transcriptome-assembly-of-italian-ryegrass-and-meadow-fescue-for-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-discovery
#14
Štěpán Stočes, Tom Ruttink, Jan Bartoš, Bruno Studer, Steven Yates, Zbigniew Zwierzykowski, Michael Abrouk, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz, Tomasz Książczyk, Elodie Rey, Jaroslav Doležel, David Kopecký
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent natural DNA sequence variation. They can be used for various applications including the construction of high-density genetic maps, analysis of genetic variability, genome-wide association studies, and map-based cloning. Here we report on transcriptome sequencing in the two forage grasses, meadow fescue ( Huds.) and Italian ryegrass ( Lam.), and identification of various classes of SNPs. Using the Orthology Guided Assembly (OGA) strategy, we assembled and annotated a total of 18,952 and 19,036 transcripts for Italian ryegrass and meadow fescue, respectively...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902727/hybrid-origins-of-citrus-varieties-inferred-from-dna-marker-analysis-of-nuclear-and-organelle-genomes
#15
Tokurou Shimizu, Akira Kitajima, Keisuke Nonaka, Terutaka Yoshioka, Satoshi Ohta, Shingo Goto, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Takako Mochizuki, Hideki Nagasaki, Eli Kaminuma, Yasukazu Nakamura
Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900850/hybridization-between-pollination-syndromes-as-an-ecological-and-evolutionary-resource
#16
Quentin Cronk, Ji Yong Yang
In plants, pollination syndromes (the correlated presence of many features of relevance to pollination mode, for instance pollination by a particular animal clade) are a striking feature of plant biodiversity, providing great floral phenotypic diversity (Fenster et al. ). Adaptation to a particular animal pollinator provides an explanation for why recently diverged plants can have such extreme differentiation in floral form. One might expect such elaborate adaptations to provide a high degree of pollinator specificity and hence reproductive isolation, but there are many cases where substantial gene flow exists between extreme floral morphs (see Table 1), and the resulting hybrids may be highly fertile...
December 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900659/territorial-rights-and-carbon-sinks
#17
Steve Vanderheiden
Scholars concerned with abuses of the "resource privilege" by the governments of developing states sometimes call for national sovereignty over the natural resources that lie within its borders. While such claims may resist a key driver of the "resource curse" when applied to mineral resources in the ground, and are often recognized as among a people's territorial rights, their implications differ in the context of climate change, where they are invoked on behalf of a right to extract and combust fossil fuels that is set in opposition to global climate change mitigation imperatives...
November 29, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898828/population-structure-in-the-model-grass-is-highly-correlated-with-flowering-differences-across-broad-geographic-areas
#18
Ludmila Tyler, Scott J Lee, Nelson D Young, Gregory A DeIulio, Elena Benavente, Michael Reagon, Jessica Sysopha, Riccardo M Baldini, Angelo Troìa, Samuel P Hazen, Ana L Caicedo
The small, annual grass (L.) Beauv., a close relative of wheat ( L.) and barley ( L.), is a powerful model system for cereals and bioenergy grasses. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of natural variation can elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits but have been so far limited in by the lack of large numbers of well-characterized and sufficiently diverse accessions. Here, we report on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of 84 , seven , and three accessions with diverse geographic origins including Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Italy, Spain, and Turkey...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898308/emerging-biopharmaceuticals-from-marine-actinobacteria
#19
REVIEW
Syed Shams Ul Hassan, Komal Anjum, Syed Qamar Abbas, Najeeb Akhter, Bibi Ibtesam Shagufta, Sayed Asmat Ali Shah, Umber Tasneem
Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others...
November 22, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898265/prospects-for-biological-soil-borne-disease-control-application-of-indigenous-versus-synthetic-microbiomes
#20
Mark Mazzola, Shiri Freilich
Biological disease control of soil-borne plant diseases has traditionally employed the biopesticide approach whereby single strains or strain mixtures are introduced into production systems through inundative/inoculative release. The approach has significant barriers that have long been recognized, including a generally limited spectrum of target pathogens for any given biocontrol agent andinadequate colonization of the host rhizosphere, which can plague progress in the utilization of this resource in commercial field-based crop production systems...
November 29, 2016: Phytopathology
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