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RSV bronchiolitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541502/serum-ll-37-level-is-associated-with-severity-of-bronchiolitis-and-viral-etiology
#1
Jonathan M Mansbach, Kohei Hasegawa, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Pedro A Piedra, Courtney N Tierney, Janice A Espinola, Carlos A Camargo
Background: LL-37 is a host defense peptide with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. We examined the relation of serum LL-37 levels to the severity of bronchiolitis and viral etiology. Methods: We performed a 17-center prospective cohort study of infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis over 3 winters (2011-2014). Site teams collected clinical data, nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and serum. We used real-time PCR to test NPAs for 16 viruses. We tested serum for LL-37...
May 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539639/the-absence-of-interferon-%C3%AE-promotor-stimulator-1-ips-1-predisposes-to-bronchiolitis-and-asthma-like-pathology-in-response-to-pneumoviral-infection-in-mice
#2
Jennifer Simpson, Jason P Lynch, Zhixuan Loh, Vivian Zhang, Rhiannon B Werder, Kirsten Spann, Simon Phipps
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-bronchiolitis is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality and a risk factor for subsequent asthma. We showed previously that toll-like receptor (TLR)7 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is critical for protection against bronchiolitis and asthma in mice infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), the mouse homolog of RSV. This lack of redundancy was unexpected as interferon-β promotor stimulator-1 (IPS-1) signalling, downstream of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and not TLR7 activation, contributes to host defence in hRSV-inoculated adult mice...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506664/heliox-delivered-by-high-flow-nasal-cannula-improves-oxygenation-in-infants-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-acute-bronchiolitis
#3
Wael Seliem, Amira M Sultan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the hypothesis that use of heliox would result in improvement of gas exchange when used with high flow nasal cannula in infants with RSV acute bronchiolitis. METHODS: All patients that met the inclusion criteria were randomized to either heliox (70:30) or air-oxygen mixture 30% via high flow nasal cannula at 8L/min for a continuous 24h. Measurements were taken at baseline, after 2h, and at the end of the 24h...
May 12, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502165/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-inhibits-mucin-synthesis-and-viral-replication-by-suppression-of-ap-1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-via-p38-mapks-jnk-signaling-pathways-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infected-a549-cells
#4
Jin-Woo Lee, Young Il Kim, Chang-Nim Im, Sung Wan Kim, Su Jin Kim, Seoyeon Min, Yong Hoon Joo, Sung-Vin Yim, Namhyun Chung
Airway epithelial cells are often infected by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), one of the most common causes of asthma, bronchiolitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. During the infection process, excessive mucins aggravate airway inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation is poorly understood. Furthermore, no reliable vaccines or drugs for antiviral therapy are available. In this study, the effect of the natural compound grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) on RSV-infected human airway epithelial cells A549 was evaluated...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480848/acute-viral-bronchiolitis-in-infants-review
#5
I Chkhaidze, D Zirakishvili
Bronchiolitis is a common condition in children less than 2 years of age and is a leading cause of infant hospitalization. Acute bronchiolitis is characterized by acute wheezing in infants or children and is associated with signs or symptoms of respiratory infection; the most common etiologic agent is respiratory syncytial virus. There is a lack of consensus regarding the clinical definition of acute viral bronchiolitis in children and hence the management varies across the globe. Usually it does not require investigation, treatment is merely supportive and a conservative approach seems adequate in the majority of children, especially for the youngest ones...
March 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474631/nasopharyngeal-aspirate-blood-cytokine-profile-in-infants-hospitalized-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis-a-pilot-study-from-south-india
#6
Suresh Natarajan, Ganesh Ramasamy, N Pavan Kumar, S Subash Babu, Lalitha Janakiraman
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Following a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, only some infants develop serious illness, and a proportion of them develop recurrent wheeze subsequently. Studies have revealed that cytokine expression following RSV infection may influence the severity and also the risk for subsequent reactive airway disease. This present study was conducted to determine the blood, and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) cytokine profile among infants admitted for RSV bronchiolitis...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471975/thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-il-33-and-periostin-in-hospitalized-infants-with-viral-bronchiolitis
#7
María Luz García-García, Cristina Calvo, Ana Moreira, José Antonio Cañas, Francisco Pozo, Beatriz Sastre, Sergio Quevedo, Inmaculada Casas, Victoria Del Pozo
Much attention has recently been focused on thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-33, and periostin in allergic disease, but less is known about their role in viral bronchiolitis.The aim of the study was to investigate whether infants exhibit enhanced nasal airway secretion of TSLP, IL-33, and periostin during natural respiratory viral bronchiolitis compared to healthy controls.In total, 213 infants < 2 years of age, hospitalized with bronchiolitis from October/2013 to April/2016 were enrolled alongside 45 healthy infants...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424887/a-metagenomics-study-for-the-identification-of-respiratory-viruses-in-mixed-clinical-specimens-an-application-of-the-iterative-mapping-approach
#8
Yu-Nong Gong, Shu-Li Yang, Guang-Wu Chen, Yu-Wen Chen, Yhu-Chering Huang, Hsiao-Chen Ning, Kuo-Chien Tsao
Metagenomic approaches to detect viral genomes and variants in clinical samples have various challenges, including low viral titers and bacterial and human genome contamination. To address these limitations, we examined a next-generation sequencing (NGS) and iterative mapping approach for virus detection in clinical samples. We analyzed 40 clinical specimens from hospitalized children diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis, croup, or respiratory tract infections in which virus identification by viral culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was unsuccessful...
April 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423465/febrile-status-epilepticus-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#9
Kazuhiro Uda, Katsuhiko Kitazawa
BACKGROUND: Febrile status epilepticus can have neurological sequelae. The type of sequelae, however, may depend on the etiology, including infections by viral agents such as the influenza virus. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in childhood suggests a similar role for this pathogen. The aim of this study was to characterize febrile status epilepticus associated with RSV infection, and to determine whether this type of infection is a risk factor for neurological sequelae with febrile status epilepticus...
April 19, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395629/a-clinical-companion-to-the-nice-guide-on-bronchiolitis
#10
Eleanor Rogers, Karen Greaves, Siba Prosad Paul
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) ( 2015 ) defines bronchiolitis as a lower respiratory tract infection affecting children under two years, peaking between three and six months. It affects about one in three infants in the first year of life, making it the most common respiratory infection in infants ( NICE 2015 , 2016 ). Of these infants, 2-3% will require admission to hospital ( NICE 2016 ). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common organism detected in the nasopharyngeal aspirate in hospitalised infants, although other viruses such as rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, influenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus are increasingly being recognised ( Paul et al 2016 )...
April 11, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389622/il-4r%C3%AE-on-dendritic-cells-in-neonates-and-th2-immunopathology-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#11
Bishwas Shrestha, Dahui You, Jordy Saravia, David T Siefker, Sridhar Jaligama, Greg I Lee, Asmaa A Sallam, Jeffrey N Harding, Stephania A Cormier
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of bronchiolitis in children, and severe RSV infection early in life has been associated with asthma development. Using a neonatal mouse model, we have shown that down-regulation of IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) with antisense oligonucleotides in the lung during neonatal infection protected from RSV immunopathophysiology. Significant down-regulation of IL-4Rα was observed on pulmonary CD11b(+) myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) suggesting a role for IL-4Rα on mDCs in the immunopathogenesis of neonatal RSV infection...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384954/bronchiolitis-comparative-study-between-respiratory-synctial-virus-rsv-and-non-rsv-aetiology
#12
Anirban Mandal, Amitabh Singh, Puneet Kaur Sahi, Bhavika Rishi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383391/clinical-profiles-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-subtypes-a-and-b-among-children-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis
#13
Federico R Laham, Jonathan M Mansbach, Pedro A Piedra, Kohei Hasegawa, Ashley F Sullivan, Janice A Espinola, Carlos A Camargo
In this analysis of a prospective, multicenter study of children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, 925 had RSV-A and 649 had RSV-B. Overall, bronchiolitis severity did not differ by RSV subtype. However, among children with RSV-only bronchiolitis, those children with RSV-A had higher risk of intensive care treatment (OR, 1.31; 95%CI, 1.00-1.71; P=0.048) when compared with those having RSV-B.
April 5, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368490/nasosorption-as-a-minimally-invasive-sampling-procedure-mucosal-viral-load-and-inflammation-in-primary-rsv-bronchiolitis
#14
Ryan S Thwaites, Kazuhiro Ito, Jasmine M S Chingono, Matthew Coates, Hannah C Jarvis, Tanushree Tunstall, Lauren Anderson-Dring, Lindsey Cass, Garth Rapeport, Peter J Openshaw, Simon Nadel, Trevor T Hansel
Background.: Existing respiratory mucosal sampling methods are flawed, particularly in a pediatric bronchiolitis setting. Methods.: Twenty-four infants with bronchiolitis were recruited: 12 were respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-positive, 12 were RSV-negative. Infants were sampled by nasosorption and nasopharyngeal aspiration (NPA). Results.: Nasosorption was well tolerated and identified all RSV+ samples. RSV load measured by nasosorption (but not NPA) correlated with length of hospital stay (P = ...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339145/respiratory-syncytial-virus-host-interaction-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bronchiolitis-and-its-impact-on-respiratory-morbidity-in-later-life
#15
REVIEW
Giovanni A Rossi, Andrew A Colin
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common agent of severe airway disease in infants and young children. Large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between RSV infection and subsequent recurrent wheezing and asthma into childhood, thought to be predominantly related to long-term changes in neuroimmune control of airway tone rather than to allergic sensitization. These changes appear to be governed by the severity of the first RSV infection in infancy which in term depends on viral characteristics and load, but perhaps as importantly, on the genetic susceptibility and on the constitutional characteristic of the host...
March 24, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336364/mechanisms-and-roles-by-which-irf-3-mediates-the-regulation-of-ormdl3-transcription-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#16
Xiao-Hua Wang, Jin Shu, Chun-Ming Jiang, Li-Li Zhuang, Wei-Xia Yang, Hui-Weng Zhang, Lu-Lu Wang, Lin Li, Xiao-Qing Chen, Rui Jin, Guo-Ping Zhou
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis in infancy, which is a major risk factor for recurrent wheezing and asthma. Orosomucoid 1-like protein 3 (ORMDL3) has been reported to associate with virus-triggered recurrent wheezing and asthma in children. However, little is known about how ORMDL3 is involved into RSV infection. In this study, we showed that the mRNA expression of ORMDL3 is significantly increased in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of infants with RSV-induced bronchiolitis compared with uninfected controls, also increased in bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts following RSV infection in vitro...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335547/genomic-loads-and-genotypes-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-viral-factors-during-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-chilean-hospitalized-infants
#17
Yazmín Espinosa, Camila San Martín, Alejandro A Torres, Mauricio J Farfán, Juan P Torres, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Pedro A Piedra, Lorena I Tapia
The clinical impact of viral factors (types and viral loads) during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is still controversial, especially regarding newly described genotypes. In this study, infants with RSV bronchiolitis were recruited to describe the association of these viral factors with severity of infection. RSV antigenic types, genotypes, and viral loads were determined from hospitalized patients at Hospital Roberto del Río, Santiago, Chile. Cases were characterized by demographic and clinical information, including days of lower respiratory symptoms and severity...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285184/the-impact-of-temperature-and-relative-humidity-on-spatiotemporal-patterns-of-infant-bronchiolitis-epidemics-in-the-contiguous-united-states
#18
Chantel Sloan, Matthew Heaton, Sorah Kang, Candace Berrett, Pingsheng Wu, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Nicholas Sicignano, Amber Evans, Rees Lee, Tina Hartert
Infant bronchiolitis is primarily due to infection by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is highly seasonal. The goal of the study is to understand how circulation of RSV is impacted by fluctuations in temperature and humidity in order to inform prevention efforts. Using data from the Military Health System (MHS) Data Repository (MDR), we calculated rates of infant bronchiolitis for the contiguous US from July 2004 to June 2013. Monthly temperature and relative humidity were extracted from the National Climate Data Center...
May 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273842/immunological-features-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-caused-pneumonia-implications-for-vaccine-design
#19
REVIEW
Emma Rey-Jurado, Alexis M Kalergis
The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the causative agent for high rates of hospitalizations due to viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia worldwide. Such a disease is characterized by an infection of epithelial cells of the distal airways that leads to inflammation and subsequently to respiratory failure. Upon infection, different pattern recognition receptors recognize the virus and trigger the innate immune response against the hRSV. Further, T cell immunity plays an important role for virus clearance...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267794/the-interdependencies-of-viral-load-the-innate-immune-response-and-clinical-outcome-in-children-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-bronchiolitis
#20
Felipe-Andrés Piedra, Minghua Mei, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Reena Mehta, Letisha Aideyan, Roberto P Garofalo, Pedro A Piedra
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes significant infant morbidity and mortality. For decades severe RSV-induced disease was thought to result from an uncontrolled host response to viral replication, but recent work suggests that a strong innate immune response early in infection is protective. To shed light on host-virus interactions and the viral determinants of disease, copy numbers of five RSV genes (NS1, NS2, N, G, F) were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in nasal wash samples from children with RSV-associated bronchiolitis...
2017: PloS One
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