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RSV bronchiolitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424887/a-metagenomics-study-for-the-identification-of-respiratory-viruses-in-mixed-clinical-specimens-an-application-of-the-iterative-mapping-approach
#1
Yu-Nong Gong, Shu-Li Yang, Guang-Wu Chen, Yu-Wen Chen, Yhu-Chering Huang, Hsiao-Chen Ning, Kuo-Chien Tsao
Metagenomic approaches to detect viral genomes and variants in clinical samples have various challenges, including low viral titers and bacterial and human genome contamination. To address these limitations, we examined a next-generation sequencing (NGS) and iterative mapping approach for virus detection in clinical samples. We analyzed 40 clinical specimens from hospitalized children diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis, croup, or respiratory tract infections in which virus identification by viral culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was unsuccessful...
April 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423465/febrile-status-epilepticus-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#2
Kazuhiro Uda, Katsuhiko Kitazawa
BACKGROUND: Febrile status epilepticus can have neurological sequelae. The type of sequelae, however, may depend on the etiology, including infections by viral agents such as the influenza virus. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in childhood suggests a similar role for this pathogen. The aim of this study was to characterize febrile status epilepticus associated with RSV infection, and to determine whether this type of infection is a risk factor for neurological sequelae with febrile status epilepticus...
April 19, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395629/a-clinical-companion-to-the-nice-guide-on-bronchiolitis
#3
Eleanor Rogers, Karen Greaves, Siba Prosad Paul
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) ( 2015 ) defines bronchiolitis as a lower respiratory tract infection affecting children under two years, peaking between three and six months. It affects about one in three infants in the first year of life, making it the most common respiratory infection in infants ( NICE 2015 , 2016 ). Of these infants, 2-3% will require admission to hospital ( NICE 2016 ). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common organism detected in the nasopharyngeal aspirate in hospitalised infants, although other viruses such as rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, influenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus are increasingly being recognised ( Paul et al 2016 )...
April 11, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389622/il-4r%C3%AE-on-dendritic-cells-in-neonates-and-th2-immunopathology-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#4
Bishwas Shrestha, Dahui You, Jordy Saravia, David T Siefker, Sridhar Jaligama, Greg I Lee, Asmaa A Sallam, Jeffrey N Harding, Stephania A Cormier
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of bronchiolitis in children, and severe RSV infection early in life has been associated with asthma development. Using a neonatal mouse model, we have shown that down-regulation of IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) with antisense oligonucleotides in the lung during neonatal infection protected from RSV immunopathophysiology. Significant down-regulation of IL-4Rα was observed on pulmonary CD11b(+) myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) suggesting a role for IL-4Rα on mDCs in the immunopathogenesis of neonatal RSV infection...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384954/bronchiolitis-comparative-study-between-respiratory-synctial-virus-rsv-and-non-rsv-aetiology
#5
Anirban Mandal, Amitabh Singh, Puneet Kaur Sahi, Bhavika Rishi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383391/clinical-profiles-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-subtypes-a-and-b-among-children-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis
#6
Federico R Laham, Jonathan M Mansbach, Pedro A Piedra, Kohei Hasegawa, Ashley F Sullivan, Janice A Espinola, Carlos A Camargo
In this analysis of a prospective, multicenter study of children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, 925 had RSV-A and 649 had RSV-B. Overall, bronchiolitis severity did not differ by RSV subtype. However, among children with RSV-only bronchiolitis, those children with RSV-A had higher risk of intensive care treatment (OR, 1.31; 95%CI, 1.00-1.71; P=0.048) when compared with those having RSV-B.
April 5, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368490/nasosorption-is-a-minimally-invasive-diagnostic-procedure-for-measurement-of-viral-load-and-markers-of-mucosal-inflammation-in-rsv-bronchiolitis
#7
Ryan S Thwaites, Kazuhiro Ito, Jasmine M S Chingono, Matthew Coates, Hannah C Jarvis, Tanushree Tunstall, Lauren Anderson-Dring, Lindsey Cass, Garth Rapeport, Peter J Openshaw, Simon Nadel, Trevor T Hansel
Background: Existing respiratory mucosal sampling methods are flawed, particularly in a paediatric bronchiolitis setting. Methods: Twenty-four infants with bronchiolitis were recruited: 12 were Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)+, 12 were RSV-. Infants were sampled by nasosorption (NS) and nasopharyngeal-aspiration (NPA). Results: NS was well tolerated and identified all RSV+ samples. RSV load measured by NS (but not NPA) correlated with length of hospital stay (P=0...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339145/respiratory-syncytial-virus-host-interaction-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bronchiolitis-and-its-impact-on-respiratory-morbidity-in-later-life
#8
REVIEW
Giovanni A Rossi, Andrew A Colin
Rossi GA, Colin AA(.) Respiratory syncytial virus - host interaction in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis and its impact on respiratory morbidity in later life. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common agent of severe airway disease in infants and young children. Large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between RSV infection and subsequent recurrent wheezing and asthma into childhood, thought to be predominantly related to long-term changes in neuroimmune control of airway tone rather than to allergic sensitization...
March 24, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336364/mechanisms-and-roles-by-which-irf-3-mediates-the-regulation-of-ormdl3-transcription-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#9
Xiao-Hua Wang, Jin Shu, Chun-Ming Jiang, Li-Li Zhuang, Wei-Xia Yang, Hui-Weng Zhang, Lu-Lu Wang, Lin Li, Xiao-Qing Chen, Rui Jin, Guo-Ping Zhou
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis in infancy, which is a major risk factor for recurrent wheezing and asthma. Orosomucoid 1-like protein 3 (ORMDL3) has been reported to associate with virus-triggered recurrent wheezing and asthma in children. However, little is known about how ORMDL3 is involved into RSV infection. In this study, we showed that the mRNA expression of ORMDL3 is significantly increased in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of infants with RSV-induced bronchiolitis compared with uninfected controls, also increased in bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts following RSV infection in vitro...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335547/genomic-loads-and-genotypes-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-viral-factors-during-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-chilean-hospitalized-infants
#10
Yazmín Espinosa, Camila San Martín, Alejandro A Torres, Mauricio J Farfán, Juan P Torres, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Pedro A Piedra, Lorena I Tapia
The clinical impact of viral factors (types and viral loads) during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is still controversial, especially regarding newly described genotypes. In this study, infants with RSV bronchiolitis were recruited to describe the association of these viral factors with severity of infection. RSV antigenic types, genotypes, and viral loads were determined from hospitalized patients at Hospital Roberto del Río, Santiago, Chile. Cases were characterized by demographic and clinical information, including days of lower respiratory symptoms and severity...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285184/the-impact-of-temperature-and-relative-humidity-on-spatiotemporal-patterns-of-infant-bronchiolitis-epidemics-in-the-contiguous-united-states
#11
Chantel Sloan, Matthew Heaton, Sorah Kang, Candace Berrett, Pingsheng Wu, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Nicholas Sicignano, Amber Evans, Rees Lee, Tina Hartert
Infant bronchiolitis is primarily due to infection by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is highly seasonal. The goal of the study is to understand how circulation of RSV is impacted by fluctuations in temperature and humidity in order to inform prevention efforts. Using data from the Military Health System (MHS) Data Repository (MDR), we calculated rates of infant bronchiolitis for the contiguous US from July 2004 to June 2013. Monthly temperature and relative humidity were extracted from the National Climate Data Center...
March 9, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273842/immunological-features-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-caused-pneumonia-implications-for-vaccine-design
#12
REVIEW
Emma Rey-Jurado, Alexis M Kalergis
The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the causative agent for high rates of hospitalizations due to viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia worldwide. Such a disease is characterized by an infection of epithelial cells of the distal airways that leads to inflammation and subsequently to respiratory failure. Upon infection, different pattern recognition receptors recognize the virus and trigger the innate immune response against the hRSV. Further, T cell immunity plays an important role for virus clearance...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267794/the-interdependencies-of-viral-load-the-innate-immune-response-and-clinical-outcome-in-children-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-bronchiolitis
#13
Felipe-Andrés Piedra, Minghua Mei, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Reena Mehta, Letisha Aideyan, Roberto P Garofalo, Pedro A Piedra
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes significant infant morbidity and mortality. For decades severe RSV-induced disease was thought to result from an uncontrolled host response to viral replication, but recent work suggests that a strong innate immune response early in infection is protective. To shed light on host-virus interactions and the viral determinants of disease, copy numbers of five RSV genes (NS1, NS2, N, G, F) were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in nasal wash samples from children with RSV-associated bronchiolitis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261214/the-influence-of-the-microbiome-on-early-life-severe-viral-lower-respiratory-infections-and-asthma-food-for-thought
#14
REVIEW
Jason P Lynch, Md Al Amin Sikder, Bodie F Curren, Rhiannon B Werder, Jennifer Simpson, Páraic Ó Cuív, Paul G Dennis, Mark L Everard, Simon Phipps
Severe viral lower respiratory infections are a major cause of infant morbidity. In developing countries, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-bronchiolitis induces significant mortality, whereas in developed nations the disease represents a major risk factor for subsequent asthma. Susceptibility to severe RSV-bronchiolitis is governed by gene-environmental interactions that affect the host response to RSV infection. Emerging evidence suggests that the excessive inflammatory response and ensuing immunopathology, typically as a consequence of insufficient immunoregulation, leads to long-term changes in immune cells and structural cells that render the host susceptible to subsequent environmental incursions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258195/systematic-analysis-of-cell-type-differences-in-the-epithelial-secretome-reveals-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-induced-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#15
Yingxin Zhao, Mohammad Jamaluddin, Yueqing Zhang, Hong Sun, Teodora Ivanciuc, Roberto P Garofalo, Allan R Brasier
Lower respiratory tract infections from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are due, in part, to secreted signals from lower airway cells that modify the immune response and trigger airway remodeling. To understand this process, we applied an unbiased quantitative proteomics analysis of the RSV-induced epithelial secretory response in cells representative of the trachea versus small airway bronchiolar cells. A workflow was established using telomerase-immortalized human epithelial cells that revealed highly reproducible cell type-specific differences in secreted proteins and nanoparticles (exosomes)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253869/reduced-prf1-enhancer-methylation-in-children-with-a-history-of-severe-rsv-bronchiolitis-in-infancy-an-association-study
#16
Magdeldin Elgizouli, Chad Logan, Ruth Grychtol, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Alexandra Nieters, Andrea Heinzmann
BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory tract infection is the commonest disease affecting children under five worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is among the most common causative pathogens. Epidemiological data suggest an association between severe viral respiratory infections in infancy and increased incidence of childhood wheeze and asthma. DNA methylation is involved in immune cell differentiation and identity. It provides an avenue for environmental influences on the genome and therefore has potential as a marker for sustained effects of infectious insults...
March 3, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253361/respiratory-syncytial-virus-hospitalization-risk-in-the-second-year-of-life-by-specific-congenital-heart-disease-diagnoses
#17
Deborah Friedman, Jon Fryzek, Xiaohui Jiang, Adam Bloomfield, Christopher S Ambrose, Pierre C Wong
Children with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease (CHD) are at elevated risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease compared to their healthy peers. Previous studies have demonstrated lower RSV hospitalization risk among all children with CHD at 12-23 months of age versus 0-11 months of age. However, RSV hospitalization risk at 12-23 months of age by specific CHD diagnosis has not been characterized. Both case-control and cohort studies were conducted using data from the US National Inpatient Sample from 1997 to 2013 to characterize relative risk of RSV hospitalization among children 12-23 months of age with CHD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228284/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infects-regulatory-b-cells-in-human-neonates-via-chemokine-receptor-cx3cr1-and-promotes-lung-disease-severity
#18
Dania Zhivaki, Sébastien Lemoine, Annick Lim, Ahsen Morva, Pierre-Olivier Vidalain, Liliane Schandene, Nicoletta Casartelli, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Pierre-Louis Hervé, Edith Dériaud, Benoit Beitz, Maryline Ripaux-Lefevre, Jordi Miatello, Brigitte Lemercier, Valerie Lorin, Delphyne Descamps, Jenna Fix, Jean-François Eléouët, Sabine Riffault, Olivier Schwartz, Fabrice Porcheray, Françoise Mascart, Hugo Mouquet, Xiaoming Zhang, Pierre Tissières, Richard Lo-Man
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and is characterized by pulmonary infiltration of B cells in fatal cases. We analyzed the B cell compartment in human newborns and identified a population of neonatal regulatory B lymphocytes (nBreg cells) that produced interleukin 10 (IL-10) in response to RSV infection. The polyreactive B cell receptor of nBreg cells interacted with RSV protein F and induced upregulation of chemokine receptor CX3CR1. CX3CR1 interacted with RSV glycoprotein G, leading to nBreg cell infection and IL-10 production that dampened T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine production...
February 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193180/viral-aetiology-of-bronchiolitis-in-hospitalised-children-in-qatar
#19
Ibrahim Janahi, Anas Abdulkayoum, Fawziya Almeshwesh, Mohamed Alkuwari, Ahmed Al Hammadi, Marwah Alameri
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is considered one of the earliest and most common causes of hospitalisation in young children. Development of molecular technologies allowed a better understanding of bronchiolitis aetiology. Results from cohort studies evaluating the association between single, multiple viral infections and clinical outcomes are conflicting. Data on viral bronchiolitis in children were found to be limited in Qatar. This study aimed to determine frequency and seasonal trends of viral pathogens causing acute bronchiolitis, and to explore association between viral pathogens, disease severity and length of stay (LOS)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134915/structural-basis-for-antibody-cross-neutralization-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus
#20
Xiaolin Wen, Jarrod J Mousa, John T Bates, Robert A Lamb, James E Crowe, Theodore S Jardetzky
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two closely related viruses that cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and the elderly(1), with a significant health burden(2-6). There are no licensed vaccines or small-molecule antiviral treatments specific to these two viruses at present. A humanized murine monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) is approved to treat high-risk infants for RSV infection(7,8), but other treatments, as well as vaccines, for both viruses are still in development...
January 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
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