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RSV bronchiolitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092107/rsv-associated-hospitalizations-in-children-in-karachi-pakistan-implications-for-vaccine-prevention-strategies
#1
Asad Ali, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rabbia Waris, Fatima Jafri, Fatima Aziz, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Anita Zaidi
Major progress is being made in vaccines against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), with multiple vaccine candidates currently in the clinical phase of development. Making an investment case for public sector financing of RSV vaccine will require estimation of burden, cost-effectiveness and impact. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion, age distribution and clinical spectrum of RSV associated hospitalizations in children in Karachi, Pakistan. A three years prospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University hospital in Karachi, a city of 20 million in south Pakistan, from August 2009 to June 2012...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058797/estimating-the-burden-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-on-respiratory-hospital-admissions-in-children-less-than-five-years-of-age-in-england-2007-2012
#2
R M Reeves, P Hardelid, R Gilbert, F Warburton, J Ellis, R G Pebody
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospital admission in young children. With several RSV vaccines candidates undergoing clinical trials, recent estimates of RSV burden are required to provide a baseline for vaccine impact studies. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the number of RSV-associated hospital admissions in children <5 years old in England over a 5-year period from 2007 using ecological time series modelling of national hospital administrative data...
January 6, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029754/pulmonary-hemorrhage-as-a-complication-of-respiratory-syncyntial-virus-rsv-bronchiolitis
#3
Audrey K S Soo, David P Inwald
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a common cause of bronchiolitis. Although there are a number of recognized complications, pulmonary hemorrhage has not been reported previously. A retrospective case notes review was performed through an electronic search of a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit's medical records. Seven patients with RSV infection and pulmonary hemorrhage were identified and included in this case series. Six of the seven patients were born prematurely (30-36 weeks gestation). All patients required blood transfusion...
December 28, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018859/autophagy-tgf-%C3%AE-and-smad-2-3-signaling-regulates-interferon-%C3%AE-response-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infected-macrophages
#4
Swechha M Pokharel, Niraj K Shil, Santanu Bose
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a lung tropic virus causing severe airway diseases including bronchiolitis and pneumonia among infants, children, and immuno-compromised individuals. RSV triggers transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production from lung epithelial cells and TGF-β facilitates RSV infection of these cells. However, it is still unknown whether RSV infected myeloid cells like macrophages produce TGF-β and the role of TGF-β if any during RSV infection of these cells. Our study revealed that RSV infected macrophages produce TGF-β and as a consequence these cells activate TGF-β dependent SMAD-2/3 signaling pathway...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989226/-after-the-epidemic-before-the-epidemic-incidence-of-bronchiolitis-at-the-pediatric-ward-of-the-b%C3%A3-cs-kiskun-county-hospital
#5
Zsófia Ábel, Bernadett Budinkity, Gábor Svorenj, Gyula Tálosi
INTRODUCTION: Bronchiolitis may cause severe respiratory insufficiency in infants and toddlers. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is its most frequent infective agent. AIM AND METHOD: The authors surveyed the incidence of bronchiolitis during the last 6 seasons, examined the epidemic of the 2014/15 season and compared the groups of RSV positive and negative patients. RSV was tested with a quick essay. Anamnestic data, clinical and laboratory parameters were compared...
December 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940684/cytokine-elevation-in-sudden-death-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-case-report-of-2-children
#6
Yu Kakimoto, Yoshihisa Seto, Eriko Ochiai, Fumiko Satoh, Motoki Osawa
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children worldwide. Premature birth, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, and Down syndrome are risk factors for high mortality and prolonged morbidity after RSV infection. Conversely, many previously healthy, full-term children are also admitted to the hospital because of RSV, and some of them experience severe sequelae or die due to the virus. Various complications of RSV infection have been reported, such as encephalopathy, encephalitis, and cardiomyopathy...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940177/-use-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-in-infants-with-bronchiolitis-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#7
M Guimaraes, M Pomedio, M Viprey, L Kanagaratnam, K Bessaci
High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) is a technique for noninvasive ventilation commonly used in pediatric intensive care units for respiratory distress, particularly in acute bronchiolitis. HFNC was introduced in the pediatric emergency department of the Reims university hospital for the treatment of infants with moderate to severe acute viral bronchiolitis. This retrospective observational study aimed to investigate the use of HFNC in a pediatric emergency ward, describing the groups of infants with acute viral bronchiolitis to be treated either with conventional oxygen therapy or with HFNC therapy...
January 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885562/respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-influenza-are-the-key-viral-pathogens-in-children-2%C3%A2-years-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis-and-pneumonia-in-islamabad-pakistan
#8
Uzma Bashir, Nadia Nisar, Yasir Arshad, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Asiya Ashraf, Hajra Sadia, Birjees Mazher Kazi, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Comprehensive surveillance data are needed to review the prevention and control strategies. We conducted active surveillance of acute lower respiratory infections among children aged <2 years hospitalized at two hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan. Viral etiology was determined using real-time PCR on respiratory specimens collected during March 2011-April 2012. The overall mean age was 7.83 ± 5.25 months while no statistical difference between age or sex distribution of patients with positive and negative viral etiology (p > 0...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873511/human-coronavirus-in-the-2014-winter-season-as-a-cause-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#9
Kyu Yeun Kim, Song Yi Han, Ho Seong Kim, Hyang Min Cheong, Sung Soon Kim, Dong Soo Kim
PURPOSE: During the late autumn to winter season (October to December) in the Republic of Korea, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common pathogen causing lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Interestingly, in 2014, human coronavirus (HCoV) caused not only upper respiratory infections but also LRTIs more commonly than in other years. Therefore, we sought to determine the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and severity of illnesses associated with HCoV infections at a single center in Korea...
January 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850571/933-associations-between-pneumonia-and-clinical-outcomes-in-picu-patients-with-rsv-bronchiolitis
#10
Steven Shein, Michele Kong, Bryan McKee, Maryann O'Riordan, Adrienne Randolph
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805553/-monoinfection-of-human-metapneumovirus-in-cordoba-first-clinical-and-epidemiological-research-in-children-with-respiratory-infection-in-2011
#11
Pamela Elizabeth Rodriguez, María Pilar Adamo, María Gabriela Paglini, Laura Moreno, Jorge Augusto Camara, Alicia Camara
: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) RNA virus discovered in 2001, is a pathogen associated with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under 5 years; its prevalence ranges from 5-15%. In Córdoba, it is not integrated into the viral research in patients with low IRA (LARI). OBJECTIVE: Detect hMPV in children under 5 years hospitalized for LARI in the Children's Hospital "Santísima Trinidad" of Cordoba (HNC) in 2011 and describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of monoinfecciones without comorbidity...
2016: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798551/risk-factors-for-virus-induced-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-younger-than-3-years-and-recurrent-wheezing-at-36-months-follow-up-after-discharge
#12
Ambra Nicolai, Antonella Frassanito, Raffaella Nenna, Giulia Cangiano, Laura Petrarca, Paola Papoff, Alessandra Pierangeli, Carolina Scagnolari, Corrado Moretti, Fabio Midulla
BACKGROUND: We sought to know more about how 14 common respiratory viruses manifest clinically, and to identify risk factors for specific virus-induced acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in children younger than 3 years and for wheezing at 36-months follow-up. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the clinical records for 273 full-term children (median age, 2.9 months, range 0.26-39, boys 61.2%) hospitalized for ARTIs whose nasopharyngeal specimen tested positive for a respiratory virus and 101 children with no history of respiratory diseases (median age, 8 months, range: 0...
October 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793398/novel-expression-of-a-functional-trimeric-fragment-of-human-sp-a-with-efficacy-in-neutralisation-of-rsv
#13
Alastair Watson, Nina Kronqvist, C Mirella Spalluto, Mark Griffiths, Karl J Staples, Tom Wilkinson, Uffe Holmskov, Grith L Sorensen, Anna Rising, Jan Johansson, Jens Madsen, Howard Clark
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and hospitalisation of infants in developed countries. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an important innate immune molecule, localized in pulmonary surfactant. SP-A binds to carbohydrates on the surface of pathogens in a calcium-dependent manner to enable neutralisation, agglutination and clearance of pathogens including RSV. SP-A forms trimeric units and further oligomerises through interactions between its N-terminal domains. Whilst a recombinant trimeric fragment of the closely related molecule (surfactant protein D) has been shown to retain many of the native protein's functions, the importance of the SP-A oligomeric structure in its interaction with RSV has not been determined...
February 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764220/epidemiology-and-clinical-presentations-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-subgroups-a-and-b-detected-with-multiplex-real-time-pcr
#14
Wenkuan Liu, Dehui Chen, Weiping Tan, Duo Xu, Shuyan Qiu, Zhiqi Zeng, Xiao Li, Rong Zhou
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogenic infections of children and requires in-depth research worldwide, and especially in developing countries. We used a novel multiplex real-time PCR to test 5483 patients (≤ 14 years old) hospitalized with respiratory illness in Guangzhou, China, over a 3-year period. Of these patients, 729 were positive for RSV-A (51.2%, 373/729) or RSV-B (48.8%, 356/729), but none was infected with both viruses. Two seasonal peaks in total RSV were detected at the changes from winter to spring and from summer to autumn...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721865/retrospective-multicenter-study-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-prophylaxis-in-korean-children-with-congenital-heart-diseases
#15
Ah Young Kim, Se Yong Jung, Jae Young Choi, Gi Beom Kim, Young-Hwue Kim, Woo Sup Shim, I-Seok Kang, Jo Won Jung
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of current data on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis with palivizumab, in Korean children with congenital heart diseases (CHD). In 2009, the Korean guideline for RSV prophylaxis had established up to five shots monthly per RSV season, only for children <1 year of age with hemodynamic significance CHD (HS-CHD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: During the RSV seasons in 2009-2015, we performed a retrospective review of data for 466 infants with CHD, examined at six centers in Korea...
September 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716828/retrospective-parameter-estimation-and-forecast-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-the-united-states
#16
Julia Reis, Jeffrey Shaman
Recent studies have shown that systems combining mathematical modeling and Bayesian inference methods can be used to generate real-time forecasts of future infectious disease incidence. Here we develop such a system to study and forecast respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). RSV is the most common cause of acute lower respiratory infection and bronchiolitis. Advanced warning of the epidemic timing and volume of RSV patient surges has the potential to reduce well-documented delays of treatment in emergency departments...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696460/genetic-variability-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-in-hospitalized-children-in-the-last-five-consecutive-winter-seasons-in-central-spain
#17
Ana Calderón, Francisco Pozo, Cristina Calvo, Mluz García-García, Mónica González-Esguevillas, Mar Molinero, Inmaculada Casas
Human respiratory syncytial virus group A (RSV-A) was detected in symptomatic hospital attended children in Central Spain for a continuous time period, September 2010 to April 2015. In order to accurately describe the epidemiology of this virus, the genetic diversity of the complete G gene and the clinical manifestations observed were jointly analyzed. Out of 3,011 respiratory specimens taken from 2,308 children, 640 were positive to RSV (21.3%) and 405 were RSV-A (63.2%). Complete G gene sequences of 166 randomly selected RSV-A virus identified NA1 and ON1 genotypes...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694633/a-randomized-controlled-observer-blinded-phase-1-study-of-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccine-with-or-without-alum-adjuvant
#18
Joanne M Langley, Naresh Aggarwal, Azhar Toma, Scott A Halperin, Shelly A McNeil, Laurence Fissette, Walthere Dewé, Maarten Leyssen, Jean-François Toussaint, Ilse Dieussaert
BACKGROUND:  Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of childhood bronchiolitis and pneumonia, particularly in early infancy. Immunization of pregnant women could boost preexisting immune responses, providing passive protection to newborns through placental transfer of anti-RSV antibody. METHODS:  In this first-in-humans clinical trial of a purified recombinant RSV protein F vaccine engineered to preferentially maintain prefusion conformation (RSV-PreF), 128 healthy men 18-44 years old were randomized to one dose of a RSV-PreF vaccine containing 10, 30, or 60 µg of RSV-PreF antigen, with or without alum adjuvant, or control, and followed for one year for safety and immunogenicity outcomes...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632796/clinical-characteristics-and-viral-load-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus-in-children-hospitalized-for-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#19
Xiao-Li Yan, Yu-Ning Li, Yi-Jie Tang, Zhi-Ping Xie, Han-Chun Gao, Xue-Mei Yang, Yu-Mei Li, Li-Jun Liu, Zhao-Jun Duan
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two common viral pathogens in acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI). However, the association of viral load with clinical characteristics is not well-defined in ALRTI. To explore the correlation between viral load and clinical characteristics of RSV and HMPV in children hospitalized for ALRTI in Lanzhou, China. 387 children hospitalized for ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were sampled from each children. Real-time PCR was used to screen RSV, HMPV and twelve additional respiratory viruses...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581977/packaging-and-prefusion-stabilization-separately-and-additively-increase-the-quantity-and-quality-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-neutralizing-antibodies-induced-by-an-rsv-fusion-protein-expressed-by-a-parainfluenza-virus-vector
#20
Bo Liang, Joan O Ngwuta, Richard Herbert, Joanna Swerczek, David W Dorward, Emerito Amaro-Carambot, Natalie Mackow, Barbora Kabatova, Matthias Lingemann, Sonja Surman, Lijuan Yang, Man Chen, Syed M Moin, Azad Kumar, Jason S McLellan, Peter D Kwong, Barney S Graham, Anne Schaap-Nutt, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) are major pediatric respiratory pathogens that lack vaccines. A chimeric bovine/human PIV3 (rB/HPIV3) virus expressing the unmodified, wild-type (wt) RSV fusion (F) protein from an added gene was previously evaluated in seronegative children as a bivalent intranasal RSV/HPIV3 vaccine, and it was well tolerated but insufficiently immunogenic for RSV F. We recently showed that rB/HPIV3 expressing a partially stabilized prefusion form (pre-F) of RSV F efficiently induced "high-quality" RSV-neutralizing antibodies, defined as antibodies that neutralize RSV in vitro without added complement (B...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
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