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Severe malaria anemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111186/plasmodium-falciparum-found-in-the-bone-marrow-of-a-child-in-manado-city-east-indonesia-a-case-report
#1
Suryadi N N Tatura, Stefanus Gunawan, Janno Bernadus, Sianne Sandjoto
In Indonesia, there are at least 1.3 million cases of malaria each year and Plasmodium falciparum appears to be the most common Plasmodium. The finding of Plasmodium is important for the diagnosis and management of malaria. This is a case of a 4-year-and-9-month-old male who lived in Manado, East Indonesia. He presented with a prolonged fever, was pale in appearance, and was easily fatigued over the last 3 weeks. Hepato-splenomegaly was found on the initial physical examination. Preliminary laboratory findings found pancytopenia and severe anemia...
October 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075500/prevalence-and-determinants-of-anemia-among-pregnant-women-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Getachew Mullu Kassa, Achenef Asmamaw Muche, Abadi Kidanemariam Berhe, Gedefaw Abeje Fekadu
BACKGROUND: Anemia during pregnancy is one of the most common indirect obstetric cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. It is responsible for poor maternal and fetal outcomes. A limited number of studies were conducted on anemia during pregnancy in Ethiopia, and they present inconsistent findings. Therefore, this review was undertaken to summarize the findings conducted in several parts of the country and present the national level of anemia among pregnant women in Ethiopia...
2017: BMC Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051184/novel-use-of-hydroxyurea-in-an-african-region-with-malaria-noharm-a-trial-for-children-with-sickle-cell-anemia
#3
Robert O Opoka, Christopher M Ndugwa, Teresa S Latham, Adam Lane, Heather A Hume, Phillip Kasirye, James S Hodges, Russell E Ware, Chandy C John
Hydroxyurea treatment is recommended for children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) living in high-resource malaria-free regions, but its safety and efficacy in malaria-endemic sub-Saharan Africa, where the greatest sickle cell burden exists, remain unknown. In vitro studies suggest hydroxyurea could increase malaria severity, and hydroxyurea-associated neutropenia could worsen infections. NOHARM was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial conducted in malaria-endemic Uganda, comparing hydroxyurea to placebo at 20 ± 2...
October 19, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025399/plasmodium-falciparum-epcr-binding-pfemp1-expression-increases-with-malaria-disease-severity-and-is-elevated-in-retinopathy-negative-cerebral-malaria
#4
Estela Shabani, Benjamin Hanisch, Robert O Opoka, Thomas Lavstsen, Chandy C John
BACKGROUND: Expression of group A and the A-like subset of group B Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is associated with severe malaria (SM). The diversity of var sequences combined with the challenges of distinct classification of patient pathologies has made studying the role of distinct PfEMP1 variants on malaria disease severity challenging. The application of retinopathy in the recent years has provided a further method to clinically evaluate children with cerebral malaria (CM)...
October 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017588/morbidity-and-mortality-of-children-aged-2-59%C3%A2-months-admitted-in-the-tanzania-lake-zone-s-public-hospitals-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Kristina Lugangira, Method Kazaura, Festus Kalokola
BACKGROUND: There is a growing concern about child mortality especially in developing countries. The Government of Tanzania and non-governmental organizations are fighting against diseases like malaria, anaemia, diarrhoea and pneumonia that contribute extensively to child mortality. This was a hospital-based, retrospective cohort study involving 1130 under-fives (excluding neonates) being either discharged from or died in public hospitals of the Lake Zone in Tanzania. We extracted information on symptoms and signs at admission, major diagnoses and causes of death from the medical records...
October 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016324/hemoglobin-levels-and-the-risk-of-malaria-in-papua-new-guinean-infants-a-nested-cohort-study
#6
Patrick Lombardo, Paul Vaucher, Patricia Rarau, Ivo Mueller, Bernard Favrat, Nicolas Senn
Studies are available that assess the risk of malaria in accordance to the body's iron store and the systematic iron supplementation of preschool children. However, only a few studies evaluated the temporal association between hemoglobin and malaria and their results are opposing. A total of 1,650 3-month-old Papua New Guinean infants were enrolled in this study and followed-up for 12 months. The risk of malaria was assessed in all children every 3 months and with each episode of fever. The incidence of clinical malaria between 3 and 15 months of age was 249 cases per 1,000 infants per year...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016322/demographic-socioeconomic-and-geographic-factors-leading-to-severe-malaria-and-delayed-care-seeking-in-ugandan-children-a-case-control-study
#7
Arthur Mpimbaza, Grace Ndeezi, Anne Katahoire, Philip J Rosenthal, Charles Karamagi
We studied associations between delayed care seeking, demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic factors and likelihood of severe malaria in Ugandan children. The study was based at Jinja Hospital, Uganda. We enrolled 325 severe malaria cases and 325 uncomplicated malaria controls matched by age and residence. Patient details, an itinerary of events in response to illness, household information, and location of participants' residences were captured. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for severe malaria and delayed care seeking...
September 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990920/malaria-control-interventions-contributed-to-declines-in-malaria-parasitemia-severe-anemia-and-all-cause-mortality-in-children-less-than-5-years-of-age-in-malawi-2000-2010
#8
Christine L Hershey, Lia S Florey, Doreen Ali, Adam Bennett, Misheck Luhanga, Don P Mathanga, S René Salgado, Carrie F Nielsen, Peter Troell, Gomezgani Jenda, Yazoume Yé, Achuyt Bhattarai
Malaria control intervention coverage increased nationwide in Malawi during 2000-2010. Trends in intervention coverage were assessed against trends in malaria parasite prevalence, severe anemia (hemoglobin < 8 g/dL), and all-cause mortality in children under 5 years of age (ACCM) using nationally representative household surveys. Associations between insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership, malaria morbidity, and ACCM were also assessed. Household ITN ownership increased from 27.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 25...
September 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990918/impact-evaluation-of-malaria-control-interventions-on-morbidity-and-all-cause-child-mortality-in-rwanda-2000-2010
#9
Erin Eckert, Lia S Florey, Jon Eric Tongren, S René Salgado, Alphonse Rukundo, Jean Pierre Habimana, Emmanuel Hakizimana, Kaendi Munguti, Noella Umulisa, Monique Mulindahabi, Corine Karema
The impressive decline in child mortality that occurred in Rwanda from 1996-2000 to 2006-2010 coincided with a period of rapid increase of malaria control interventions such as indoor residual spraying (IRS); insecticide-treated net (ITN) distribution and use, and improved malaria case management. The impact of these interventions was examined through ecological correlation analysis, and robust decomposition analysis of contextual factors on all-cause child mortality. Child mortality fell 61% during the evaluation period and prevalence of severe anemia in children 6-23 months declined 71% between 2005 and 2010...
September 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970738/genetic-diversity-of-cd14-promoter-gene-polymorphism-rs2569190-is-associated-with-regulation-of-malaria-parasitemia-and-susceptibility-to-plasmodium-falciparum-infection
#10
Olusola Ojurongbe, Roland I Funwei, Tara J Snyder, Najihah Aziz, Yi Li, Catherine O Falade, Bolaji N Thomas
CD14 is a multifunctional receptor expressed on many cell types and has been shown to mediate immune response resulting in the activation of an inflammatory cascade, with polymorphism of its promoter (rs2569190) found to be associated with susceptibility to several diseases. In malaria infection, the CD14 gene demonstrated a pathogenic profile in regulating experimental cerebral malaria, with reports of elevated levels of soluble CD14 in serum of patients but no definitive conclusion. We present a detailed analysis of genetic diversity of CD14 promoter gene (snp -159 C/T; rs2519190) polymorphism between a malaria-infected group and uninfected controls and its association with clinical parameters of disease...
2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962616/statistical-prediction-of-immunity-to-placental-malaria-based-on-multi-assay-antibody-data-for-malarial-antigens
#11
Chathura Siriwardhana, Rui Fang, Ali Salanti, Rose G F Leke, Naveen Bobbili, Diane Wallace Taylor, John J Chen
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum infections are especially severe in pregnant women because infected erythrocytes (IE) express VAR2CSA, a ligand that binds to placental trophoblasts, causing IE to accumulate in the placenta. Resulting inflammation and pathology increases a woman's risk of anemia, miscarriage, premature deliveries, and having low birthweight (LBW) babies. Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA reduce placental parasitaemia and improve pregnancy outcomes. Currently, no single assay is able to predict if a woman has adequate immunity to prevent placental malaria (PM)...
September 29, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948179/plasmodium-falciparum-histidine-rich-protein-2-plasma-concentrations-are-higher-in-retinopathy-negative-cerebral-malaria-than-in-severe-malarial-anemia
#12
Gregory S Park, Robert O Opoka, Estela Shabani, Alexis Wypyszynski, Benjamin Hanisch, Chandy C John
BACKGROUND: Malaria retinopathy has been proposed as marker of "true" cerebral malaria (CM), ie, coma due to Plasmodium falciparum vs coma due to other causes, with incidental P falciparum parasitemia. Plasma P falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) concentrations distinguish retinopathy-positive (RP) from retinopathy-negative (RN) CM but have not been compared between RN CM and other forms of severe malaria or asymptomatic parasitemia (AP). METHODS: We compared plasma PfHRP2 concentrations in 260 children with CM (247 examined for retinopathy), 228 children with severe malarial anemia (SMA), and 30 community children with AP...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927555/comparative-study-of-clinical-presentation-and-hematological-indices-in-hospitalized-sickle-cell-patients-with-severe-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria
#13
Prasanta Purohit, Pradeep Kumar Mohanty, Siris Patel, Padmalaya Das, Jogeswar Panigrahi, Kishalaya Das
BACKGROUND: Sickle-cell-gene has a high frequency in malaria endemic regions. In India, though the prevalence of both sickle-cell-gene and malaria are high, no study has been carried out. This study aims to find out the possible differences in hematological and clinical parameters in severe falciparum malaria with respect to sickle cell genotypes. METHODS: Five hundred fourteen adults with severe falciparum malaria hospitalized in Department of Medicine, Veer Surendra Sai Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Burla, between August, 2010 to December, 2014 were included and categorized on the basis of sickle cell genotypes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926409/effects-of-concurrent-exposure-to-antiretrovirals-and-cotrimoxazole-prophylaxis-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#14
Alexander C Ewing, Caroline C King, Jeffrey B Wiener, Charles S Chasela, Michael G Hudgens, Debbie Kamwendo, Gerald Tegha, Mina C Hosseinipour, Denise J Jamieson, Charles Van der Horst, Athena P Kourtis
BACKGROUND: Given the potential of cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) to prevent bacterial and malarial infections in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants, it is important to evaluate the effects of its concurrent use with antiretroviral agents that have overlapping toxicity profiles. METHODS: We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study (2004-2010) to evaluate the association of CPT and antiretrovirals with hematologic measures (hemoglobin, neutrophil, and alanine aminotransferase levels) from 6 to 48 weeks of age in 2006 HEU infants in Lilongwe, Malawi...
November 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893687/genetic-analysis-of-id1-dbl2x-predicts-its-validity-as-a-vaccine-candidate-in-colombia-and-supports-at-least-two-independently-introduced-plasmodium-falciparum-populations-in-the-region
#15
J Rajwani, C M Klinger, E Arango, M I Arroyo, A Sabbagh, A Maestre, J B Dacks, S Gnidehou, S K Yanow
Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) poses a threat to both the mother and fetus, increasing the risk of severe maternal anemia, fetal growth restriction and low birth weight infants. Two vaccines are currently in development to protect women from Plasmodium falciparum in pregnancy. Both vaccine constructs target the ID1-DBL2X domain of VAR2CSA, a protein expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IEs) that mediates parasite sequestration in the placenta. Although development of an effective vaccine may be hampered by ID1-DBL2X polymorphisms expressed by field isolates, a recent study showed that genetic variation of this domain in South American parasite populations is much lower than in other geographical locations...
September 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834130/lack-of-mortality-in-22-children-with-sickle-cell-anemia-and-severe-malarial-anemia
#16
Robert O Opoka, Paul Bangirana, Richard Idro, Estela Shabani, Ruth Namazzi, Chandy C John
Retrospective studies suggest that there is high mortality in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and severe malaria. We assessed mortality in Ugandan children with severe malarial anemia (SMA, n = 232) or cerebral malaria (CM, n = 267) by sickle cell hemoglobin genotype. Admission and 2-year follow-up mortality did not differ among children with SMA who had homozygous form of sickle cell hemoglobin (HbSS) versus normal form of adult hemoglobin (admission, 0/22, 0%, vs. 1/208, 0.5%; follow-up, 1/22, 4.5%; 7/207, 3...
August 17, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829738/case-report-severe-and-complicated-cynomolgi-malaria-in-a-rhesus-macaque-resulted-in-similar-histopathological-changes-as-those-seen-in-human-malaria
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Chester J Joyner, The MaHPIC Consortium, Jennifer S Wood, Alberto Moreno, Anapatricia Garcia, Mary R Galinski
Histopathological data collected from patients with severe malaria have been instrumental for studying malaria pathogenesis. Animal models of malaria are critical to complement such studies. Here, the histopathological changes observed in a rhesus macaque with severe and complicated Plasmodium cynomolgi malaria are reported. The animal presented with thrombocytopenia, severe anemia, and hyperparasitemia during the acute infection. The macaque was given subcurative antimalarial treatment, fluid support, and a blood transfusion to treat the clinical complications, but at the time of transfusion, kidney function was compromised...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829731/high-prevalence-of-anemia-but-low-level-of-iron-deficiency-in-preschool-children-during-a-low-transmission-period-of-malaria-in-rural-kivu-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#18
Esto Bahizire, Paluku Bahwere, Philippe Donnen, P Lundimu Tugirimana, Serge Balol'ebwami, Michèle Dramaix, Chouchou Nfundiko, Raphaël Chirimwami, Kanigula Mubagwa
Anemia is a worldwide public health concern especially in preschool children in developing countries and iron deficiency (ID) is generally assumed to cause at least 50% of the cases. However, data on this contribution are scarce. To close this gap, we determined in 2013 the contribution of ID in the etiology of anemia and measured others factors associated to noniron deficiency anemia (NIDA) in 900 preschool children randomly selected during a two-stage cluster nutritional survey in the Miti-Murhesa health zone, in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800737/anaemia-in-pregnancy-and-associated-factors-a-cross-sectional-study-of-antenatal-attendants-at-the-sunyani-municipal-hospital-ghana
#19
Peter Anlaakuu, Francis Anto
BACKGROUND: Anaemia in pregnancy is an important health issue resulting in high maternal morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the current study was to identify factors associated with anaemia among pregnant women receiving antenatal care at the Sunyani Municipal Hospital in Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving pregnant women seeking antenatal care at the Sunyani Municipal Hospital was conducted between May and June, 2015. It involved the collection of data on socio demographic and obstetric variables, medical interventions and malaria infection, consumption of iron containing foods and supplements using a case record form and a structured questionnaire...
August 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768513/clinical-and-laboratory-predictors-of-death-in-african-children-with-features-of-severe-malaria-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Paulina Sypniewska, Jose F Duda, Isabella Locatelli, Clotilde Rambaud Althaus, Fabrice Althaus, Blaise Genton
BACKGROUND: The criteria for defining severe malaria have evolved over the last 20 years. We aimed to assess the strength of association of death with features currently characterizing severe malaria through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHOD: Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge) were searched to identify publications including African children with severe malaria. PRISMA guidelines were followed...
August 3, 2017: BMC Medicine
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