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Severe malaria anemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920394/blood-transfusion-delay-and-outcome-in-county-hospitals-in-kenya
#1
Julius Thomas, Philip Ayieko, Morris Ogero, Susan Gachau, Boniface Makone, Wycliffe Nyachiro, George Mbevi, Mercy Chepkirui, Lucas Malla, Jacquie Oliwa, Grace Irimu, Mike English
Severe anemia is a leading indication for blood transfusion and a major cause of hospital admission and mortality in African children. Failure to initiate blood transfusion rapidly enough contributes to anemia deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. This article examines delays in accessing blood and outcomes in transfused children in Kenyan hospitals. Children admitted with nonsurgical conditions in 10 Kenyan county hospitals participating in the Clinical Information Network who had blood transfusion ordered from September 2013 to March 2016 were studied...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905971/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#2
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
November 14, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895843/severe-anemia-in-malawian-children
#3
Job Cj Calis, Kamija S Phiri, E Brian Faragher, Bernard J Brabin, Imelda Bates, Luis E Cuevas, Rob J de Haan, Ajib I Phiri, Pelani Malange, Mirriam Khoka, Paul Jm Hulshof, Lisette van Lieshout, Marcel Ghm Beld, Yik Y Teo, Kirk A Rockett, Anna Richardson, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Malcolm E Molyneux, Michaël Boele van Hensbroek
BACKGROUND: Severe anemia is a major cause of sickness and death in African children, yet the causes of anemia in this population have been inadequately studied. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 381 preschool children with severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration, <5.0 g per deciliter) and 757 preschool children without severe anemia in urban and rural settings in Malawi. Causal factors previously associated with severe anemia were studied. The data were examined by multivariate analysis and structural equation modeling...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891065/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#4
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872735/fetal-hemoglobin-modifies-the-disease-manifestation-of-severe-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-adult-patients-with-sickle-cell-anemia
#5
Prasanta Purohit, Siris Patel, Pradeep Kumar Mohanty, Padmalaya Das, Jogeswar Panigrahi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855617/eryptosis-ally-or-enemy
#6
Marilena Briglia, Maria Antonia Rossi, Caterina Faggio
Prior to senescence, erythrocytes may, experience injury which compromises their integrity and thus triggers suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis. This mechanism is characterised by cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and cell membrane phospholipid scrambling after phosphatidylserine exposure on the cell surface that is identified by macrophages which engulf and degrade the eryptotic cells. The term eryptosis also includes typical mechanisms, which contribute to the triggering of this process. Among them: oxidative stress, Ca2+ entry with an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca ]i) and the activation of p38 kinase, which is a kinase expressed in human erythrocytes and activated after hyperosmotic shock...
November 18, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852523/anemia-offers-stronger-protection-than-sickle-cell-trait-against-the-erythrocytic-stage-of-falciparum-malaria-and-this-protection-is-reversed-by-iron-supplementation
#7
M M Goheen, R Wegmüller, A Bah, B Darboe, E Danso, M Affara, D Gardner, J C Patel, A M Prentice, C Cerami
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency causes long-term adverse consequences for children and is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. Observational studies suggest that iron deficiency anemia protects against Plasmodiumfalciparum malaria and several intervention trials have indicated that iron supplementation increases malaria risk through unknown mechanism(s). This poses a major challenge for health policy. We investigated how anemia inhibits blood stage malaria infection and how iron supplementation abrogates this protection...
November 9, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835682/cytoadhesion-to-gc1qr-through-plasmodium-falciparum-erythrocyte-membrane-protein-1-in-severe-malaria
#8
Ariel Magallón-Tejada, Sónia Machevo, Pau Cisteró, Thomas Lavstsen, Pedro Aide, Mercedes Rubio, Alfons Jiménez, Louise Turner, Aida Valmaseda, Himanshu Gupta, Briegel De Las Salas, Inacio Mandomando, Christian W Wang, Jens E V Petersen, Jose Muñoz, Joaquim Gascón, Eusebio Macete, Pedro L Alonso, Chetan E Chitnis, Quique Bassat, Alfredo Mayor
Cytoadhesion of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes to gC1qR has been associated with severe malaria, but the parasite ligand involved is currently unknown. To assess if binding to gC1qR is mediated through the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, we analyzed by static binding assays and qPCR the cytoadhesion and var gene transcriptional profile of 86 P. falciparum isolates from Mozambican children with severe and uncomplicated malaria, as well as of a P. falciparum 3D7 line selected for binding to gC1qR (Pf3D7gC1qR)...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818359/delayed-haemolysis-secondary-to-treatment-of-severe-malaria-with-intravenous-artesunate-report-on-the-experience-of-a-referral-centre-for-tropical-infections-in-spain
#9
Teresa Aldámiz-Echevarría Lois, Ana López-Polín, Francesca F Norman, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Rogelio López-Vélez, Jose Antonio Pérez-Molina
BACKGROUND: Post-artesunate delayed haemolysis is described as hemolytic anemia presenting days after malaria treatment in hyperparasitemic patients. Physiopathological mechanisms and clinical manifestations have not been thoroughly characterised. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of hospitalised malaria patients who received artemisinin derivatives from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015. RESULTS: 21 patients were included in the study: 11 travellers, 8 travellers visiting friends and relatives and 2 immigrants...
November 3, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814710/methemoglobin-and-nitric-oxide-therapy-in-ugandan-children-hospitalized-for-febrile-illness-results-from-a-prospective-cohort-study-and-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Andrea L Conroy, Michael Hawkes, Kyla Hayford, Laura Hermann, Chloe R McDonald, Suparna Sharma, Sophie Namasopo, Robert O Opoka, Chandy C John, W Conrad Liles, Christopher Miller, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Exposure of red blood cells to oxidants increases production of methemoglobin (MHb) resulting in impaired oxygen delivery to tissues. There are no reliable estimates of methemoglobinemia in low resource clinical settings. Our objectives were to: i) evaluate risk factors for methemoglobinemia in Ugandan children hospitalized with fever (study 1); and ii) investigate MHb responses in critically ill Ugandan children with severe malaria treated with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), an oxidant that induces MHb in a dose-dependent manner (study 2)...
November 4, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785088/acute-kidney-injury-in-a-shepherd-with-severe-malaria-a-case-report
#11
Boushab Mohamed Boushab, Fatim-Zahra Fall-Malick, Mamoudou Savadogo, Leonardo Kishi Basco
Malaria is one of the main reasons for outpatient consultation and hospitalization in Mauritania. Although four Plasmodium species, ie, Plasmodium (P.) falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale, cause malaria in Mauritania, recent data on their frequency is lacking. Since infections with P. falciparum generally result in serious disease, their identification is important. We report a case of oliguric renal injury associated with malaria in a 65-year-old shepherd. Clinical manifestations included anemia, oliguria, and elevated creatinine and urea...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749907/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-pfs25-epa-alhydrogel%C3%A2-a-transmission-blocking-vaccine-against-plasmodium-falciparum-an-open-label-study-in-malaria-na%C3%A3-ve-adults
#12
Kawsar R Talaat, Ruth D Ellis, Janet Hurd, Autumn Hentrich, Erin Gabriel, Noreen A Hynes, Kelly M Rausch, Daming Zhu, Olga Muratova, Raul Herrera, Charles Anderson, David Jones, Joan Aebig, Sarah Brockley, Nicholas J MacDonald, Xiaowei Wang, Michael P Fay, Sara A Healy, Anna P Durbin, David L Narum, Yimin Wu, Patrick E Duffy
Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) that target sexual stage parasite development could be an integral part of measures for malaria elimination. Pfs25 is a leading TBV candidate, and previous studies conducted in animals demonstrated an improvement of its functional immunogenicity after conjugation to EPA, a recombinant, detoxified ExoProtein A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this report, we describe results of an open-label, dose-escalating Phase 1 trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of Pfs25-EPA conjugates formulated with Alhydrogel®...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708211/can-mutations-in-the-gene-encoding-transcription-factor-eklf-erythroid-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-protect-us-against-infectious-and-parasitic-diseases
#13
Krzysztof Mikołajczyk, Radosław Kaczmarek, Marcin Czerwiński
Transcription factor EKLF (Erythroid Krüppel-Like Factor) belongs to the group of Krüppellike factors, which regulate proliferation, differentiation, development and apoptosis of mammalian cells. EKLF factor is present in erythroid cells, where it participates in regulation of hematopoiesis, expression of genes encoding transmembrane proteins (including blood group antigens), and heme biosynthesis enzymes. It is also a key factor in downregulation of γ-globins and activation of β-globin gene expression...
October 6, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684745/differing-causes-of-lactic-acidosis-and-deep-breathing-in-cerebral-malaria-and-severe-malarial-anemia-may-explain-differences-in-acidosis-related-mortality
#14
Nathan R Brand, Robert O Opoka, Karen E S Hamre, Chandy C John
Lactic acidosis (LA) is a marker for mortality in severe malaria, but the mechanisms that lead to LA in the different types of severe malaria and the extent to which LA-associated mortality differs by type of severe malaria are not well described. We assessed the frequency of LA in children admitted to Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda with cerebral malaria (CM, n = 193) or severe malarial anemia (SMA, n = 216). LA was compared to mortality and measures of parasite biomass and sequestration (P. falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) concentration, platelet count), and to a measure of systemic tissue oxygen delivery (hemoglobin level)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658439/erythroferrone-contributes-to-hepcidin-repression-in-a-mouse-model-of-malarial-anemia
#15
Chloé Latour, Myriam F Wlodarczyk, Grace Jung, Aurélie Gineste, Nicolas Blanchard, Tomas Ganz, Marie-Paule Roth, Hélène Coppin, Léon Kautz
Malaria, a major global health challenge worldwide, is accompanied by a severe anemia secondary to hemolysis and increased erythrophagocytosis. Iron is an essential functional component of erythrocyte hemoglobin and its availability is controlled by the liver-derived hormone hepcidin. We examined the regulation of hepcidin during malarial infection in mice using the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei K173 (PbK). Mice infected with PbK develop a severe anemia and die after 18 to 22 days without cerebral malaria...
September 22, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579474/reduced-hsp70-and-glutamine-in-pediatric-severe-malaria-anemia-role-of-hemozoin-in-suppressing-hsp70-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#16
Prakasha Kempaiah, Karol Dokladny, Zachary Karim, Evans Raballah, John M Ong'echa, Pope L Moseley, Douglas J Perkins
Severe malarial anemia [SMA, hemoglobin (Hb) <5.0 g/dL] is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality among children residing in Plasmodium falciparum transmission regions. Exploration of molecular pathways through global gene expression profiling revealed that SMA was characterized by decreased HSPA1A, a heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 coding gene. Hsp70 is a ubiquitous chaperone that regulates Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines known to be important in malaria pathogenesis (e...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563638/trend-and-manifestations-of-falciparum-malaria-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-india
#17
Rama Prakasha Saya, Ganesh Kumar Saya, Goswami Debabrata
BACKGROUND: The recent focus is on the increase in the burden of falciparum cases with a varied spectrum of presentation and outcome, especially in developing countries like India. This study was undertaken to analyze the trend and manifestations of falciparum malaria in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out at the Gauhati Government Medical College and Hospital from June 2006 to May 2007. The data were collected on demographic and time characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, the outcome of disease and expressed in proportion or percentages...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549864/complicated-malaria-symptoms-associated-with-plasmodium-vivax-among-patients-visiting-health-facilities-in-mendi-town-northwest-ethiopia
#18
Yohannes Demissie, Tsige Ketema
BACKGROUND: Malaria is still a major health problem in some parts of the world. Plasmodium falciparum is the common pathogenic parasite and is responsible for majority of malaria associated deaths. Recently the other benign parasite, P. vivax, is reported to cause life threatening severe malaria complications. Thus, this study was aimed to assess incidence of severe malaria symptoms caused by P. vivax parasite in some malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Presumptive malaria patients (all age groups) seeking medication at the selected health facilities in Mendi town, Northwest Ethiopia, were recruited for the study...
August 22, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546479/tacrolimus-prevents-murine-cerebral-malaria
#19
Bao Quoc Lam, Nhi My Dang, Nguyen Tien Huy, Shinjiro Hamano, Kenji Hirayama
Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil are immuno-suppressants frequently used in human organ transplantation. Tacrolimus is also reported to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. Here, we report that tacrolimus prevented P. berghei ANKA infected C57BL/6J mice death from cerebral malaria, but not the death from malaria due to the high parasitaemia and severe anemia. The mycophenolate mofetil-treated mice showed higher mortality form cerebral malaria and succumbed to malaria earlier than tacrolimus-treated littermates...
August 22, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533797/retinopathy-of-vivax-malaria-in-adults-and-its-relation-with-severity-parameters
#20
Anju Kochar, Paavan Kalra, Vijeth Sb, Vinayak Ukirade, Anita Chahar, Dhanpat Kumar Kochar, Sanjay Kumar Kochar
Malarial retinopathy is a set of retinal signs in severe malaria due to falciparum malaria. With increased recognition of severe manifestations of vivax malaria, a systematic study to evaluate retinal changes in vivax malaria could elaborate our knowledge about this neglected entity. This observational study included retinal examination of 104 adult patients (>14 years) with varying severity of vivax malaria admitted to a tertiary care center during peak seasons of 2012 and 2013. Thirty-eight percent of severe cases had a retinal sign as compared to 6% of non-severe cases (p < 0...
June 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
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