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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806822/-multiple-myeloma-current-status-in-diagnostic-testing-and-therapy
#1
Michael Kehrer, Sebastian Koob, Andreas Strauss, Dieter Christian Wirtz, Jan Schmolders
Background Multiple myeloma is a haematological blood cancer of the bone marrow and is classified by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a plasma cell neoplasm. In multiple myeloma, normal plasma cells transform into malignant myeloma cells and produce large quantities of an abnormal immunoglobulin called monoclonal protein or M protein. This ultimately causes multiple myeloma symptoms such as bone damage or kidney problems. The annual worldwide incidence of multiple myeloma is estimated to be 6 - 7/100,000 and accounts for 1% of all cancer...
August 14, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805962/medicago-truncatula-molybdate-transporter-type-1-mtmot1-3-is-a-plasma-membrane-molybdenum-transporter-required-for-nitrogenase-activity-in-root-nodules-under-molybdenum-deficiency
#2
Manuel Tejada-Jiménez, Patricia Gil-Díez, Javier León-Mediavilla, Jiangqi Wen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Juan Imperial, Manuel González-Guerrero
Molybdenum, as a component of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase, is essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This nutrient has to be provided by the host plant through molybdate transporters. Members of the molybdate transporter family Molybdate Transporter type 1 (MOT1) were identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula and their expression in nodules was determined. Yeast toxicity assays, confocal microscopy, and phenotypical characterization of a Transposable Element from Nicotiana tabacum (Tnt1) insertional mutant line were carried out in the one M...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805829/lineage-specific-dynamic-and-pre-established-enhancer-promoter-contacts-cooperate-in-terminal-differentiation
#3
Adam J Rubin, Brook C Barajas, Mayra Furlan-Magaril, Vanessa Lopez-Pajares, Maxwell R Mumbach, Imani Howard, Daniel S Kim, Lisa D Boxer, Jonathan Cairns, Mikhail Spivakov, Steven W Wingett, Minyi Shi, Zhixin Zhao, William J Greenleaf, Anshul Kundaje, Michael Snyder, Howard Y Chang, Peter Fraser, Paul A Khavari
Chromosome conformation is an important feature of metazoan gene regulation; however, enhancer-promoter contact remodeling during cellular differentiation remains poorly understood. To address this, genome-wide promoter capture Hi-C (CHi-C) was performed during epidermal differentiation. Two classes of enhancer-promoter contacts associated with differentiation-induced genes were identified. The first class ('gained') increased in contact strength during differentiation in concert with enhancer acquisition of the H3K27ac activation mark...
August 14, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805797/human-genomics-projects-and-precision-medicine
#4
REVIEW
F Carrasco-Ramiro, R Peiró-Pastor, B Aguado
The completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP) in 2001 opened the floodgates to a deeper understanding of medicine. There are dozens of HGP-like projects which involve from a few tens to several million genomes currently in progress, which vary from having specialised goals or a more general approach. However, data generation, storage, management and analysis in public and private cloud computing platforms have raised concerns about privacy and security. The knowledge gained from further research has changed the field of genomics and is now slowly permeating into clinical medicine...
August 14, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803908/comparative-analysis-of-basidiomycete-transcriptomes-reveals-a-core-set-of-expressed-genes-encoding-plant-biomass-degrading-enzymes
#5
Mao Peng, Maria Victoria Aguilar-Pontes, Matthieu Hainaut, Bernard Henrissat, Kristiina Hildén, Miia R Mäkelä, Ronald P de Vries
Basidiomycete fungi can degrade a wide range of plant biomass, including living and dead trees, forest litter, crops, and plant matter in soils. Understanding the process of plant biomass decay by basidiomycetes could facilitate their application in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, detergent, and biofuels, and also provide new insights into their essential biological role in the global carbon cycle. The fast expansion of basidiomycete genomic and functional genomics data (e.g. transcriptomics, proteomics) has facilitated exploration of key genes and regulatory mechanisms of plant biomass degradation...
August 10, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803790/utility-of-the-cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunit-i-gene-for-the-diagnosis-of-toxoplasmosis-using-pcr
#6
Xue Feng, Kazumi Norose, Kexin Li, Kenji Hikosaka
Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. Since this parasite causes severe clinical symptoms in immunocompromised patients, early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is essential. PCR is currently used for early diagnosis, but there is no consensus regarding the most effective method for amplifying Toxoplasma DNA. In this study, we considered the utility of the cytochrome c subunit I (cox1) gene, which is encoded in the mitochondrial DNA of this parasite, as a novel target of PCR for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803390/cancer-clonal-theory-immune-escape-and-their-evolving-roles-in-cancer-multi-agent-therapeutics
#7
REVIEW
Jonathan L Messerschmidt, Prianka Bhattacharya, Gerald L Messerschmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The knowledge base of malignant cell growth and resulting targets is rapidly increasing every day. Clonal theory is essential to understand the changes required for a cell to become malignant. These changes are then clues to therapeutic intervention strategies. Immune system optimization is a critical piece to find, recognize, and eliminate all cancer cells from the host. Only by administering (1) multiple therapies that counteract the cancer cell's mutational and externally induced survival traits and (2) by augmenting the immune system to combat immune suppression processes and by enhancing specific tumor trait recognition can cancer begin to be treated with a truly targeted focus...
August 12, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802908/apoptosis-signaling-and-bcl-2-pathways-provide-opportunities-for-novel-targeted-therapeutic-strategies-in-hematologic-malignances
#8
REVIEW
Huanling Wu, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Ken H Young
Apoptosis is an essential biological process involved in tissue homeostasis and immunity. Aberrations of the two main apoptotic pathways, extrinsic and intrinsic, have been identified in hematological malignancies; many of these aberrations are associated with pathogenesis, prognosis and resistance to standard chemotherapeutic agents. Targeting components of the apoptotic pathways, especially the chief regulatory BCL-2 family in the intrinsic pathway, has proved to be a promising therapeutic approach for patients with hematological malignances, with the expectation of enhanced efficacy and reduced adverse events...
August 8, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802252/exploiting-radiation-induced-signaling-to-increase-the-susceptibility-of-resistant-cancer-cells-to-targeted-drugs-akt-and-mtor-inhibitors-as-an-example
#9
Iris Eke, Adeola Y Makinde, Molykutty J Aryankalayil, Veit Sandfort, Sanjeewani T Palayoor, Barbara H Rath, Lance Liotta, Mariaelena Pierobon, Emanuel F Petricoin, Matthew F Brown, Jayne M Stommel, Mansoor M Ahmed, C Norman Coleman
Implementing targeted drug therapy in radio-oncologic treatment regimens has greatly improved the outcome of cancer patients. However, the efficacy of molecular targeted drugs such as inhibitory antibodies or small molecule inhibitors essentially depends on target expression and activity, which both can change during the course of treatment. Radiotherapy has previously been shown to activate pro-survival pathways which can help tumor cells to adapt and thereby survive treatment. Therefore, we aimed to identify changes in signaling induced by radiation and evaluate the potential of targeting these changes with small molecules to increase the therapeutic efficacy on cancer cell survival...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801899/bioluminescence-monitoring-of-promoter-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Juliette M K M Delhove, Rajvinder Karda, Kate E Hawkins, Lorna M FitzPatrick, Simon N Waddington, Tristan R McKay
The application of luciferase reporter genes to provide quantitative outputs for the activation of promoters is a well-established technique in molecular biology. Luciferase catalyzes an enzymatic reaction, which in the presence of the substrate luciferin produces photons of light relative to its molar concentration. The luciferase transgene can be genetically inserted at the first intron of a target gene to act as a surrogate for the gene's endogenous expression in cells and transgenic mice. Alternatively, promoter sequences can be excised and/or amplified from genomic sources or constructed de novo and cloned upstream of luciferase in an expression cassette transfected into cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801652/assessment-of-three-new-loci-from-genome-wide-association-study-in-essential-tremor-in-chinese-population
#11
Yuan Zhang, Yuwen Zhao, Xiaoting Zhou, Kai Li, Minhan Yi, Jifeng Guo, Xinxiang Yan, Beisha Tang, Qiying Sun
Essential tremor (ET) is the most common tremor disorder. Evidences indicated that genetics plays an essential role in the researches of etiology. A new genome-wide association study (GWAS) from European population identified three novel loci in ET, which were rs10937625 in STK32B, rs17590046 in PPARGC1A, and rs12764057, rs10822974 and rs7903491 in CTNNA3. Due to the different genetic background in different population, we performed a case-control study to investigate these variants in a cohort of 533 subjects in Chinese population...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801642/extreme-anoxia-tolerance-in-crucian-carp-and-goldfish-through-neofunctionalization-of-duplicated-genes-creating-a-new-ethanol-producing-pyruvate-decarboxylase-pathway
#12
Cathrine E Fagernes, Kåre-Olav Stensløkken, Åsmund K Røhr, Michael Berenbrink, Stian Ellefsen, Göran E Nilsson
Without oxygen, most vertebrates die within minutes as they cannot meet cellular energy demands with anaerobic metabolism. However, fish of the genus Carassius (crucian carp and goldfish) have evolved a specialized metabolic system that allows them to survive prolonged periods without oxygen by producing ethanol as their metabolic end-product. Here we show that this has been made possible by the evolution of a pyruvate decarboxylase, analogous to that in brewer's yeast and the first described in vertebrates, in addition to a specialized alcohol dehydrogenase...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801606/linkage-mapping-aided-by-de-novo-genome-and-transcriptome-assembly-in-portunus-trituberculatus-applications-in-growth-related-qtl-and-gene-identification
#13
Jianjian Lv, Baoquan Gao, Ping Liu, Jian Li, Xianliang Meng
A high-resolution genetic linkage map is an essential tool for decoding genetics and genomics in non-model organisms. In this study, a linkage map was constructed for the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) with 10,963 markers; as far as we know, this number of markers has never been achieved in any other crustacean. The linkage map covered 98.85% of the whole genome with a mean marker interval of 0.51 cM. The de novo assembly based on genome and transcriptome sequencing data enabled 2,378 explicit annotated markers to be anchored to the map...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801457/correction-for-yu-et-al-a-mouse-prmt1-null-allele-defines-an-essential-role-for-arginine-methylation-in-genome-maintenance-and-cell-proliferation
#14
Zhenbao Yu, Taiping Chen, Josée Hébert, En Li, Stéphane Richard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801037/genome-modularity-and-synthetic-biology-engineering-systems
#15
REVIEW
Milsee Mol, Ritika Kabra, Shailza Singh
Whole genome sequencing projects running in various laboratories around the world has generated immense data. A systematic phylogenetic analysis of this data shows that genome complexity goes on decreasing as it evolves, due to its modular nature. This modularity can be harnessed to minimize the genome further to reduce it with the bare minimum essential genes. A reduced modular genome, can fuel progress in the area of synthetic biology by providing a ready to use plug and play chassis. Advances in gene editing technology such as the use of tailor made synthetic transcription factors will further enhance the availability of synthetic devices to be applied in the fields of environment, agriculture and health...
August 8, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800137/chemical-dispersants-enhance-the-activity-of-oil-and-gas-condensate-degrading-marine-bacteria
#16
Julien Tremblay, Etienne Yergeau, Nathalie Fortin, Susan Cobanli, Miria Elias, Thomas L King, Kenneth Lee, Charles W Greer
Application of chemical dispersants to oil spills in the marine environment is a common practice to disperse oil into the water column and stimulate oil biodegradation by increasing its bioavailability to indigenous bacteria capable of naturally metabolizing hydrocarbons. In the context of a spill event, the biodegradation of crude oil and gas condensate off eastern Canada is an essential component of a response strategy. In laboratory experiments, we simulated conditions similar to an oil spill with and without the addition of chemical dispersant under both winter and summer conditions and evaluated the natural attenuation potential for hydrocarbons in near-surface sea water from the vicinity of crude oil and natural gas production facilities off eastern Canada...
August 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800133/adaptive-evolution-of-rhizobial-symbiotic-compatibility-mediated-by-co-evolved-insertion-sequences
#17
Ran Zhao, Li Xue Liu, Yun Zeng Zhang, Jian Jiao, Wen Jing Cui, Biliang Zhang, Xiao Lin Wang, Meng Lin Li, Yi Chen, Zhu Qing Xiong, Wen Xin Chen, Chang Fu Tian
Mutualism between bacteria and eukaryotes has essential roles in the history of life, but the evolution of their compatibility is poorly understood. Here we show that different Sinorhizobium strains can form either nitrogen-fixing nodules or uninfected pseudonodules on certain cultivated soybeans, while being all effective microsymbionts of some wild soybeans. However, a few well-infected nodules can be found on a commercial soybean using inocula containing a mixed pool of Tn5 insertion mutants derived from an incompatible strain...
August 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800086/the-potential-for-reassortment-between-oropouche-and-schmallenberg-orthobunyaviruses
#18
Natasha L Tilston-Lunel, Xiaohong Shi, Richard M Elliott, Gustavo Olszanski Acrani
A number of viruses within the Peribunyaviridae family are naturally occurring reassortants, a common phenomenon for segmented viruses. Using a minigenome-reporter and virus-like particle (VLP) production assay, we have accessed the potential of Oropouche virus (OROV), Schmallenberg virus (SBV), and other orthobunyaviruses within the Simbu serogroup to reassort. We found that the untranslated region (UTR) in the medium segment is a potential contributing factor for reassortment by the tested viruses. We demonstrate that for promoter activity to occur it was essential that the viral RNA polymerase (L) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were from the same virus, reinforcing the hypothesis that the large and small segments that encode these proteins segregate together during genome reassortment...
August 11, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799718/identification-and-elucidation-of-in-vivo-function-of-two-alanine-racemases-from-pseudomonas-putida-kt2440
#19
Estrella Duque, Abdelali Daddaoua, Baldo F Cordero, Jesús De la Torre, M Antonia Molina-Henares, Juan-Luis Ramos
The genome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 contains two open reading frames (ORFs), PP_3722 and PP_5269, that encode proteins with a Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) binding motif and a high similarity to alanine racemases. Alanine racemases play a key role in the biosynthesis of D-alanine, a crucial amino acid in the peptidoglycan layer. For these ORFs, we generated single and double mutants and found that inactivation of PP_5269 resulted in D-alanine auxotrophy, while inactivation of PP_3722 did not. Furthermore, as expected, the PP_3722/PP_5269 double mutant was a strict auxotroph for D-alanine...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798494/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-the-sex-determining-gene-doublesex-in-the-sawfly-athalia-rosae%C3%A2-hymenoptera-tenthredinidae
#20
Shotaro Mine, Megumi Sumitani, Fugaku Aoki, Masatsugu Hatakeyama, Masataka G Suzuki
Sexual fate of the sawfly, Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) is determined by the complementary sex determination (CSD) mechanism as is the case in honeybees. However, to date, genes involved in sex determination have not been identified in this species. In this study, we attempted to identify orthologs of complementary sex-determiner (csd), feminizer (fem), and doublesex (dsx) from the A. rosae genome, all of which are crucial components of the sex determination cascade in the honeybee. As a result, we identified a sawfly ortholog of dsx (designated as Ardsx)...
2017: Applied Entomology and Zoology
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