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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911363/generation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-human-melanoma-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes
#1
Hidehito Saito, Kumiko Iwabuchi, Noemi Fusaki, Fumito Ito
Adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate durable and complete responses in significant subsets of patients with metastatic melanoma. Major obstacles of this approach are the reduced viability of transferred T cells, caused by telomere shortening, and the limited number of TILs obtained from patients. Less-differentiated T cells with long telomeres would be an ideal T cell subset for adoptive T cell therapy;however, generating large numbers of these less-differentiated T cells is problematic...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910042/direct-cardiac-reprogramming-as-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-treatment-of-myocardial-infarction
#2
Hong Ma, Li Wang, Jiandong Liu, Li Qian
Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) holds great promise as a novel therapy for the treatment of heart failure, a common and morbid disease that is usually caused by irreversible loss of functional cardiomyocytes (CMs). Recently, we and others showed that in a murine model of acute myocardial infarction, delivery of three transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 converted endogenous cardiac fibroblasts into functional iCMs. These iCMs integrated electrically and mechanically with surrounding myocardium, resulting in a reduction in scar size and an improvement in heart function...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909790/strigolactones-affect-tomato-hormone-profile-and-somatic-embryogenesis
#3
Yuanli Wu, Evgenia Dor, Joseph Hershenhorn
Exogenously applied GR24 affected somatic embryo formation and morphogenesis of strigolactone-deficient tomato mutant through cross-talk with auxins and cytokinins indicating involvement of SLs in the embryogenic process. Strigolactones (SLs) mediate the regulation of plant responses to the environment through cross-talk with other plant hormones, especially auxins. Auxins play a crucial role in coordinating the morphogenesis and development of plant reproductive organs, including the signal-transduction cascade leading to the reprogramming of gene-expression patterns before embryo formation...
December 1, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909427/biocombinatorial-synthesis-of-novel-lipopeptides-by-com-domain-mediated-reprogramming-of-the-plipastatin-nrps-complex
#4
Hongxia Liu, Ling Gao, Jinzhi Han, Zhi Ma, Zhaoxin Lu, Chen Dai, Chong Zhang, Xiaomei Bie
Both donors and acceptors of communication-mediating (COM) domains are essential for coordinating intermolecular communication within nonribosomal peptides synthetases (NRPSs) complexes. Different sets of COM domains provide selectivity, allowing NRPSs to utilize different natural biosynthetic templates. In this study, novel lipopeptides were synthesized by reprogramming the plipastatin biosynthetic machinery. A Thr-to-Asp point mutation was sufficient to shift the selectivity of the donor COM domain of ppsB toward that of ppsD...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906710/who-s-your-daddy-paternal-inheritance-of-metabolic-disease-risk
#5
Elvira Isganaitis, Harumi Suehiro, Connie Cardona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. RECENT FINDINGS: The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906585/birth-of-cloned-microminipigs-derived-from-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos-that-have-been-transiently-treated-with-valproic-acid
#6
Kazuchika Miyoshi, Hiroaki Kawaguchi, Kosuke Maeda, Masahiro Sato, Kohei Akioka, Michiko Noguchi, Masahisa Horiuchi, Akihide Tanimoto
In our previous study, we found that treatment of miniature pig somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos with 4 mM valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, for 48 hours after activation enhanced blastocyst formation rate and octamer-binding transcription factor-3/4 (Oct-3/4) gene expression at the late blastocyst stage; however, the production of viable cloned pups failed, when those VPA-treated SCNT embryos were transferred to recipients. This failure suggests that the present VPA treatment is suboptimal...
November 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906098/direct-reprogramming-of-urine-derived-cells-with-inducible-myod-for-modeling-human-muscle-disease
#7
Ellis Y Kim, Patrick Page, Lisa M Dellefave-Castillo, Elizabeth M McNally, Eugene J Wyatt
BACKGROUND: Cellular models of muscle disease are taking on increasing importance with the large number of genes and mutations implicated in causing myopathies and the concomitant need to test personalized therapies. Developing cell models relies on having an easily obtained source of cells, and if the cells are not derived from muscle itself, a robust reprogramming process is needed. Fibroblasts are a human cell source that works well for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, which can then be differentiated into cardiomyocyte lineages, and with less efficiency, skeletal muscle-like lineages...
September 15, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905670/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-new-getaway-for-bone-tissue-engineering-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Farshid Bastami, Pantea Nazeman, Hamidreza Moslemi, Maryam Rezai Rad, Kazem Sharifi, Arash Khojasteh
OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are frequently used for bone regeneration, however, they are limited in quantity. Moreover, their proliferation and differentiation capabilities reduce during cell culture expansion. Potential application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been reported as a promising alternative source for bone regeneration. This study aimed to systematically review the available literature on osteogenic potential of iPSCs and to discuss methods applied to enhance their osteogenic potential...
December 1, 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904699/generation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-with-high-efficiency-from-human-embryonic-renal-cortical-cells
#9
Ling Yao, Ruifang Chen, Pu Wang, Qi Zhang, Hailiang Tang, Huaping Sun
Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) emerges as a prospective therapeutic angle in regenerative medicine and a tool for drug screening. Although increasing numbers of iPSCs from different sources have been generated, there has been limited progress in yield of iPSC. Here, we show that four Yamanaka factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc can convert human embryonic renal cortical cells (hERCCs) to pluripotent stem cells with a roughly 40-fold higher reprogramming efficiency compared with that of adult human dermal fibroblasts...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903739/homocysteine-activates-b-cells-via-regulating-pkm2-dependent-metabolic-reprogramming
#10
Jiacheng Deng, Silin Lü, Huiying Liu, Bo Liu, Changtao Jiang, Qingbo Xu, Juan Feng, Xian Wang
The overactivation of immune cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-accelerated atherosclerosis. Homocysteine (Hcy) activates B cell proliferation and Ab secretion; however, the underlying mechanisms for these effects remain largely unknown. Metabolic reprogramming is critical for lymphocyte activation and effector function. In this study, we showed that Hcy-activated B cells displayed an increase in both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, with a tendency to shift toward the latter, as well as an accumulation of intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway, to provide energy and biosynthetic substrates for cell growth and function...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903713/-trained-immunity-consequences-for-lymphoid-malignancies
#11
REVIEW
Wendy B C Stevens, Mihai G Netea, Arnon P Kater, Walter J F M van der Velden
In hematological malignancies complex interactions exist between the immune system, microorganisms and malignant cells. On one hand, microorganisms can induce cancer, as illustrated by specific infection-induced lymphoproliferative diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. On the other hand, malignant cells create an immunosuppressive environment for their own benefit, but this also results in an increased risk of infections. Disrupted innate immunity contributes to the neoplastic transformation of blood cells by several mechanisms, including the uncontrolled clearance of microbial and autoantigens resulting in chronic immune stimulation and proliferation, chronic inflammation, and defective immune surveillance and anti-cancer immunity...
December 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902735/role-of-hepatic-specific-transcription-factors-and-polycomb-repressive-complex-2-during-induction-of-fibroblasts-to-hepatic-fate
#12
Shima Rastegar-Pouyani, Niusha Khazaei, Ping Wee, Abdulshakour Mohammadnia, Moein Yaqubi
Direct reprogramming using defined sets of transcription factors (TFs) is a recent strategy for generating induced hepatocytes (iHeps) from fibroblasts for use in regenerative medicine and drug development. Comprehensive studies detailing the regulatory role of TFs during this reprogramming process could help increase its efficiency. This study aimed to find the TFs with the greatest influences on the generation of iHeps from fibroblasts, and to further understand their roles in the regulation of the gene expression program...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901044/fatty-acid-metabolic-reprogramming-via-mtor-mediated-inductions-of-ppar%C3%AE-directs-early-activation-of-t-cells
#13
Mulki Angela, Yusuke Endo, Hikari K Asou, Takeshi Yamamoto, Damon J Tumes, Hirotake Tokuyama, Koutaro Yokote, Toshinori Nakayama
To fulfil the bioenergetic requirements for increased cell size and clonal expansion, activated T cells reprogramme their metabolic signatures from energetically quiescent to activated. However, the molecular mechanisms and essential components controlling metabolic reprogramming in T cells are not well understood. Here, we show that the mTORC1-PPARγ pathway is crucial for the fatty acid uptake programme in activated CD4(+) T cells. This pathway is required for full activation and rapid proliferation of naive and memory CD4(+) T cells...
November 30, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900567/clinical-potential-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-perspectives-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
REVIEW
Dharmendra Kumar, Taruna Anand, Wilfried A Kues
The recent establishment of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells promises the development of autologous cell therapies for degenerative diseases, without the ethical concerns associated with human embryonic stem (ES) cells. Initially, iPS cells were generated by retroviral transduction of somatic cells with core reprogramming genes. To avoid potential genotoxic effects associated with retroviral transfection, more recently, alternative non-viral gene transfer approaches were developed. Before a potential clinical application of iPS cell-derived therapies can be planned, it must be ensured that the reprogramming to pluripotency is not associated with genome mutagenesis or epigenetic aberrations...
November 29, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900211/in-vivo-expression-of-reprogramming-factors-increases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-chronic-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#15
Soohyun Wi, Ji Hea Yu, MinGi Kim, Sung-Rae Cho
Neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity can be stimulated in vivo in the brain. In this study, we hypothesized that in vivo expression of reprogramming factors such as Klf4, Sox2, Oct4, and c-Myc would facilitate endogenous neurogenesis and functional recovery. CD-1® mice were induced at 1 week of age by unilaterally carotid artery ligation and exposure to hypoxia. At 6 weeks of age, mice were injected GFP only or both four reprogramming factors and GFP into lateral ventricle. Passive avoidance task and open field test were performed to evaluate neurobehavioral function...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899507/cycling-through-developmental-decisions-how-cell-cycle-dynamics-control-pluripotency-differentiation-and-reprogramming
#16
REVIEW
Abdenour Soufi, Stephen Dalton
A strong connection exists between the cell cycle and mechanisms required for executing cell fate decisions in a wide-range of developmental contexts. Terminal differentiation is often associated with cell cycle exit, whereas cell fate switches are frequently linked to cell cycle transitions in dividing cells. These phenomena have been investigated in the context of reprogramming, differentiation and trans-differentiation but the underpinning molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Most progress to address the connection between cell fate and the cell cycle has been made in pluripotent stem cells, in which the transition through mitosis and G1 phase is crucial for establishing a window of opportunity for pluripotency exit and the initiation of differentiation...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898069/clozapine-modifies-the-differentiation-program-of-human-adipocytes-inducing-browning
#17
E Kristóf, Q-M Doan-Xuan, A K Sárvári, Á Klusóczki, P Fischer-Posovszky, M Wabitsch, Z Bacso, P Bai, Z Balajthy, L Fésüs
Administration of second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) often leads to weight gain and consequent cardio-metabolic side effects. We observed that clozapine but not six other antipsychotic drugs reprogrammed the gene expression pattern of differentiating human adipocytes ex vivo, leading to an elevated expression of the browning marker gene UCP1, more and smaller lipid droplets and more mitochondrial DNA than in the untreated white adipocytes. Laser scanning cytometry showed that up to 40% of the differentiating single primary and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes had the characteristic morphological features of browning cells...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897982/maternal-fructose-intake-affects-transcriptome-changes-and-programmed-hypertension-in-offspring-in-later-life
#18
REVIEW
You-Lin Tain, Julie Y H Chan, Chien-Ning Hsu
Hypertension originates from early-life insults by so-called "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHaD). Studies performed in the previous few decades indicate that fructose consumption is associated with an increase in hypertension rate. It is emerging field that tends to unfold the nutrient-gene interactions of maternal high-fructose (HF) intake on the offspring which links renal programming to programmed hypertension. Reprogramming interventions counteract disturbed nutrient-gene interactions induced by maternal HF intake and exert protective effects against developmentally programmed hypertension...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896299/basement-membrane-ultrastructure-and-component-localization-data-from-uterine-tissues-during-early-mouse-pregnancy
#19
Celestial R Jones-Paris, Sayan Paria, Taloa Berg, Juan Saus, Gautam Bhave, Bibhash C Paria, Billy G Hudson
Basement membranes (BMs) are specialized extracellular scaffolds that provide architecture and modulate cell behaviors in tissues, such as fat, muscle, endothelium, endometrium, and decidua. Properties of BMs are maintained in homeostasis for most adult tissues. However, BM ultrastructure, composition, and localization are rapidly altered in select uterine tissues that are reprogrammed during pregnancy to enable early maternal-embryo interactions. Here, our data exhibit both static and dynamic BMs that were tracked in mouse uterine tissues during pre-, peri-, and postimplantation periods of pregnancy...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895716/widespread-recovery-of-methylation-at-gametic-imprints-in-hypomethylated-mouse-stem-cells-following-rescue-with-dnmt3a2
#20
Avinash Thakur, Sarah-Jayne Mackin, Rachelle E Irwin, Karla M O'Neill, Gareth Pollin, Colum Walsh
BACKGROUND: Imprinted loci are paradigms of epigenetic regulation and are associated with a number of genetic disorders in human. A key characteristic of imprints is the presence of a gametic differentially methylated region (gDMR). Previous studies have indicated that DNA methylation lost from gDMRs could not be restored by DNMT1, or the de novo enzymes DNMT3A or 3B in stem cells, indicating that imprinted regions must instead undergo passage through the germline for reprogramming. However, previous studies were non-quantitative, were unclear on the requirement for DNMT3A/B and showed some inconsistencies...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
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