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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457538/effects-of-dexmedetomidine-infusion-during-spinal-anesthesia-on-hemodynamics-and-sedation
#1
Ebru Tarıkçı Kılıç, Gaye Aydın
We evaluated the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine during spinal anesthesia on hemodynamics, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, sedpain, and compared them with those of saline infusion. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II cases were randomly divided into two groups. Patients were connected to the monitor after premedication, and spinal anesthesia was administered. Sensory and motor blockades were assessed using pinprick test and Bromage scale, respectively. Group I received dexmedetomidine infusion and Group II received saline infusion...
December 2018: Libyan Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457511/a-probabilistic-intake-model-to-estimate-the-impact-of-reformulation-by-the-food-industry-among-irish-consumers
#2
S Pigat, A Connolly, M Cushen, M Cullen, C O'Mahony
This project quantified the impact that voluntary reformulation efforts of the food industry had on the Irish population's nutrient intake. Nutrient composition data on reformulated products were collected from 14 major food companies for two years, 2005 and 2012. Probabilistic intake assessments were performed using the Irish national food consumption surveys as dietary intake data. The nutrient data were weighted by market shares replacing existing food composition data for these products. The reformulation efforts assessed, significantly reduced mean energy intakes by up to 12 kcal/d (adults), 15 kcal/d (teens), 19 kcal/d (children) and 9 kcal/d (pre-schoolers)...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447246/fried-food-intake-and-risk-of-nonfatal-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-the-costa-rica-heart-study
#3
Peter Hu, Yanping Li, Hannia Campos
Economic development in middle-income countries has led to a noticeable rise in the availability of commercial deep fried foods and lifestyles that require eating meals "on the go" and outside of the home. Yet, data from these countries where fried foods were traditionally prepared at home are scarce, despite several studies showing the potential adverse effects of fried food consumption on risk for heart disease. We aimed to examine whether consumption of fried foods inside or outside of the home is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) among Hispanic/Latinos living in Costa Rica...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447203/quantification-of-fetal-organ-volume-and-fat-deposition-following-in-utero-exposure-to-maternal-western-diet-using-mri
#4
Kevin J Sinclair, Lanette J Friesen-Waldner, Colin M McCurdy, Curtis N Wiens, Trevor P Wade, Barbra de Vrijer, Timothy R H Regnault, Charles A McKenzie
PURPOSE: To examine the feasibility of using MRI to identify differences in liver size and fat deposition in fetal guinea pigs exposed to an in utero environment influenced by maternal consumption of a Western diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female guinea pigs fed either an energy-dense Western Diet (WD), comprised of increased saturated fats and simple sugars, or a Control Diet (CD) from weaning through pregnancy, underwent MR scanning near term (~ 60 days; term ~ 69 days)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442981/polymer-foam-supported-chemically-reduced-graphene-oxide-conductive-networks-for-gas-sensing
#5
Jiajia Song, Yanyan Wang, Feng Zhang, Yan Ye, Yanhua Liu, Xiaohong Zhou, Linsen Chen, Changsi Peng
In this work, gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) foams were reported for NH3 detection. Polymer foams were used as scaffolds to support rGO, and the resultant soft sensing devices exhibited a high sensitivity, high selectivity, and rapid recovery for NH3 detection at room temperature. The sensor showed more than 0.90% and 3.67% resistance changes respectively, when it's exposed to 1 ppm and 50 ppm NH3. The graphene foam gas sensors (FGS) also showed excellent repeatability. Furthermore, the response of rGO foam gas sensor to NH3 was more than two times higher than that to methanol vapors diluted to 1% of the saturated vapor concentration...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439472/snacking-patterns-in-children-a-comparison-between-australia-china-mexico-and-the-us
#6
Dantong Wang, Klazine van der Horst, Emma F Jacquier, Myriam C Afeiche, Alison L Eldridge
Snacking is common in children and influenced by many factors. The aim of this study is to provide insight of both common and country-specific characteristics of snacking among 4-13 year old children. We analyzed snacking prevalence, energy and nutrient contributions from snacking across diverse cultures and regions, represented by Australia, China, Mexico, and the US using data from respective national surveys. We found that the highest prevalence of snacking was in Australia and the US (over 95%) where snacking provided one-third and one-quarter of total energy intake (TEI), respectively, followed by Mexico (76%, provided 15% TEI) and China (65%, provided 10% TEI)...
February 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433780/nutritional-enhancement-of-sheep-meat-fatty-acid-profile-for-human-health-and-wellbeing
#7
Obert C Chikwanha, Payam Vahmani, Voster Muchenje, Michael E R Dugan, Cletos Mapiye
Dietary fatty acids (FA) consumed by sheep, like other ruminants, can undergo biohydrogenation resulting in high proportions of saturated FA (SFA) in meat. Biohydrogenation is typically less extensive in sheep than cattle, and consequently, sheep meat can contain higher proportions of omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), and PUFA biohydrogenation intermediates (PUFA-BHI) including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-monounsaturated FAs (t-MUFA). Sheep meat is also noted for having characteristically higher contents of branched chain FA (BCFA)...
February 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432891/estimation-of-achievable-oxygen-consumption-following-transfusion-with-rejuvenated-red-blood-cells
#8
Amudan J Srinivasan, Kyle Kausch, Collin Inglut, Alan Gray, Matthew Landrigan, Jessica L Poisson, Jacob N Schroder, Ian J Welsby
OBJECTIVE: Erythrocyte storage induces a non-physiological increase in hemoglobin-oxygen affinity (quantified by low p50, the oxygen tension at 50% hemoglobin saturation), which can be restored through biochemical rejuvenation. The objective was to mathematically model the impact of transfusing up to three standard allogeneic units or rejuvenated units on oxygen delivery (DO 2 ) and oxygen consumption (VO 2 ). METHODS: Oxygen dissociation curves were generated from AS-1 RBC leukoreduced units (n = 7) before and after rejuvenation following manufacturer's instructions...
February 9, 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426919/dietary-supplementation-with-hybrid-palm-oil-alters-liver-function-in-the-common-marmoset
#9
Flavia Spreafico, Rafael Carvalho Sales, Judit Gil-Zamorano, Priscylla da Costa Medeiros, Maria-Jesús Latasa, Monique Ribeiro Lima, Sergio Augusto Lopes de Souza, Roberto Martin-Hernández, Diego Gómez-Coronado, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutierrez, Diana C Mantilla-Escalante, Maria das Graças Tavares do Carmo, Alberto Dávalos
Hybrid palm oil, which contains higher levels of oleic acid and lower saturated fatty acids in comparison with African palm oil, has been proposed to be somehow equivalent to extra virgin olive oil. However, the biological effects of its consumption are poorly described. Here we have explored the effects of its overconsumption on lipid metabolism in a non-human primate model, the common marmoset. Dietary supplementation of marmoset with hyperlipidic diet containing hybrid palm oil for 3 months did not modify plasma lipids levels, but increased glucose levels as compared to the supplementation with African palm oil...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412459/shelf-to-health-does-product-innovation-change-national-estimates-of-dietary-impacts
#10
Christopher A Taylor, Rosanna P Watowicz, Colleen K Spees, Neal H Hooker
This paper presents a simulation process to augment nutrition surveillance in the United States which incorporates product innovation data. Traditional point-estimates of nutritional quality in a food category are compared to those based on distributions of nutrient compositions using product-level variability seen in the market. Nationally representative consumption patterns provide dietary intakes. Cookies are used as an example food category. Nutrient composition data from Global New Product Database (GNPD) for 5259 cookies launched 2005 to 2012 were matched to dietary intakes from 2005 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) over the 2 y cycles of NHANES for 8284 cookie consumers...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411856/improving-methyl-ketone-production-in-e-coli-by-heterologous-expression-of-nadh-dependent-fabg
#11
Ee-Been Goh, Yan Chen, Christopher J Petzold, Jay D Keasling, Harry R Beller
We previously engineered E. coli to overproduce medium- to long-chain saturated and monounsaturated methyl ketones, which could potentially be applied as diesel fuel blending agents or in the flavor and fragrance industry. Recent efforts at strain optimization have focused on cofactor balance, as fatty acid-derived pathways face the systematic metabolic challenge of net NADPH consumption [in large part, resulting from the key fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme FabG (β-ketoacyl-ACP reductase)] and net NADH production...
February 7, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411535/near-infrared-spectroscopy-detects-age-related-differences-in-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-function-promising-implications-for-geroscience
#12
Susie Chung, Ryan Rosenberry, Terence E Ryan, Madison Munson, Thomas Dombrowsky, Suwon Park, Aida Nasirian, Mark J Haykowsky, Michael D Nelson
Age is the greatest risk factor for chronic disease and is associated with a marked decline in functional capacity and quality of life. A key factor contributing to loss of function in older adults is the decline in skeletal muscle function. While the exact mechanism(s) remains incompletely understood, age-related mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a major role. To explore this question further, we studied 15 independently living seniors (age: 72 ± 5 years; m/f: 4/11; BMI: 27.6 ± 5.9) and 17 young volunteers (age: 25 ± 4 years; m/f: 8/9; BMI: 24...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402899/comparison-of-environmental-impact-and-nutritional-quality-among-a-european-sample-population-findings-from-the-food4me-study
#13
Christie Walker, Eileen R Gibney, Stefanie Hellweg
This study evaluates the relationship between environmental impacts and diet quality through several environmental and nutritional indicators, using data from over 1400 participants across seven European countries in the Food4Me study. Comparisons of environmental impacts and dietary quality were evaluated across country, gender groups, and dietary patterns. While there was clear variability within the different subsets, there were large differences observed in both dietary quality and environmental impacts between cultures, genders, and dietary patterns...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401867/reverse-mode-pslc-multi-plane-optical-see-through-display-for-ar-applications
#14
Shuxin Liu, Yan Li, Pengcheng Zhou, Quanming Chen, Yikai Su
In this paper we propose an optical see-through multi-plane display with reverse-mode polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC). Our design solves the problem of accommodation-vergence conflict with correct focus cues. In the reverse mode PSLC system, power consumption could be reduced to ~1/(N-1) of that in a normal mode system if N planes are displayed. The PSLC films fabricated in our experiment exhibit a low saturation voltage ~20 Vrms, a high transparent-state transmittance (92%), and a fast switching time within 2 ms and polarization insensitivity...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397146/effects-of-a-randomized-intervention-promoting-healthy-children-s-meals-on-children-s-ordering-and-dietary-intake-in-a-quick-service-restaurant
#15
Stephanie Anzman-Frasca, Abbey C Braun, Sarah Ehrenberg, Leonard H Epstein, April Gampp, Lucia A Leone, Anita Singh, Sara Tauriello
BACKGROUND: Children's consumption of restaurant foods is associated with higher energy intake and lower nutritional quality compared to foods prepared at home. The aim of this pilot study was to test whether an in-restaurant intervention promoting healthy children's meals (i.e. two meals that met nutrition recommendations and were thus healthier than typical children's meal offerings across leading restaurants) affected children's meal selection and intake. METHODS: Families with 4-to-8-year-old children were recruited from one location of Anderson's Frozen Custard, a regional quick-service restaurant chain...
January 31, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393043/new-determinants-for-gallstone-disease
#16
Daniel Mønsted Shabanzadeh
Gallstone disease is highly prevalent in Denmark and other countries of northern Europe, and cholecystectomy for the treatment of clinical gallstone disease is one the most frequently performed surgical procedures. Research efforts for the identification of mechanisms involved in gallstone formation have a long history and the most established include bile cholesterol saturation, gallbladder motor function, and the enterohepatic circulation of secondary bile salts produced by fecal microbiota. A small number of determinants that are believed to affect these mechanisms have been identified until now...
February 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391150/microvascular-responsiveness-to-pulsatile-and-non-pulsatile-flow-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#17
Michael P O'Neil, Rene Alie, Linrui Ray Guo, Mary-Lee Myers, John Murkin, Chris Ellis
BACKGROUND: Pulsatile perfusion may offer microcirculatory advantages over conventional non-pulsatile perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Here we present direct visual evidence of microvascular perfusion and vasoreactivity between perfusion modalities. METHODS: A prospective, randomized cohort study of twenty high-risk cardiac surgical patients undergoing pulsatile (n=10) or non-pulsatile (n=10) flow during CPB. Changes in sublingual mucosal microcirculation were assessed using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging along with near-infrared spectroscopic indices of thenar muscle tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and its recovery during a vascular occlusion test at various time points: T0-baseline, T1-30min CPB, T2-90min CPB, T3-1hr post CPB, and T4-24hr post CPB...
January 29, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385742/validation-of-the-brazilian-healthy-eating-index-revised-using-biomarkers-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
Roseli B D Toffano, Elaine Hillesheim, Mariana G Mathias, Carolina A Coelho-Landell, Roberta G Salomão, Maria O R V Almada, Joyce M Camarneiro, Tamiris T Barros, José S Camelo-Junior, Serge Rezzi, Laurence Goulet, Maria P Giner, Laeticia Da Silva, Francois-Pierre Martin, Ivan Montoliu, Sofia Moco, Sebastiano Collino, Jim Kaput, Jacqueline P Monteiro
The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) can be used to determine overall dietary patterns. We assessed the BHEI-R scores in children and adolescents, aged from 9 to 13 years old, and associated its component scores with biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. Three 24-h recalls were used to generate BHEI-R. Biomarkers were analyzed in plasma and red blood cells. Correlation tests, agreement, and covariance analyses were used to associate BHEI-R components with biomarkers. Data from 167 subjects were used...
January 30, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375180/designing-a-food-tax-to-impact-food-related-non-communicable-diseases-the-case-of-chile
#19
Juan Carlos Caro, Lindsey Smith-Taillie, Shu Wen Ng, Barry Popkin
The global shift towards diets high in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and energy dense ultra-processed foods is linked to higher prevalence of obesity, diabetes and most other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), causing significant health costs. Chile has the highest SSB consumption in the world, very high junk food intake and very rapid increases in these poor components of the diet plus obesity prevalence. This study's purpose is to compare the effect of different tax schemes for SSBs and ultra-processed foods on nutrient availability, utilizing price-elasticities, which are estimated from a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System model, using the 2011-2012 Income and Expenditure survey...
August 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371097/akt-activation-improves-microregional-oxygen-supply-consumption-balance-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion
#20
Harvey R Weiss, Oak Z Chi, Geza K Kiss, Xia Liu, Stacey Damito, Estela Jacinto
There have been reports that activation of Akt may provide neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. We tested the hypothesis that activation of Akt would decrease infarct size and improve microregional O2 supply/consumption balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. This hypothesis was tested in isoflurane-anesthetized rats with middle cerebral artery blockade for 1 hr and reperfusion for 2 hr with or without SC-79 (Akt activator, 0.05 mg/kg, three doses). Regional cerebral blood flow was determined using a C14-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic technique...
January 22, 2018: Brain Research
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