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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908340/end-points-of-sepsis-resuscitation
#1
REVIEW
John C Greenwood, Clinton J Orloski
Resuscitation goals for the patient with sepsis and septic shock are to return the patient to a physiologic state that promotes adequate end-organ perfusion along with matching metabolic supply and demand. Ideal resuscitation end points should assess the adequacy of tissue oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption, and be quantifiable and reproducible. Despite years of research, a single resuscitation end point to assess adequacy of resuscitation has yet to be found. Thus, the clinician must rely on multiple end points to assess the patient's overall response to therapy...
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907021/the-effects-of-long-term-saturated-fat-enriched-diets-on-the-brain-lipidome
#2
Corey Giles, Ryusuke Takechi, Natalie A Mellett, Peter J Meikle, Satvinder Dhaliwal, John C Mamo
The brain is highly enriched in lipids, where they influence neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity and inflammation. Non-pathological modulation of the brain lipidome has not been previously reported and few studies have investigated the interplay between plasma lipid homeostasis relative to cerebral lipids. This study explored whether changes in plasma lipids induced by chronic consumption of a well-tolerated diet enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFA) was associated with parallel changes in cerebral lipid homeostasis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904803/building-healthy-eating-habits-in-childhood-a-study-of-the-attitudes-knowledge-and-dietary-habits-of-schoolchildren-in-malaysia
#3
Kazi Enamul Hoque, Megat Ahmad Kamaluddin, Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak, Afiq Athari Abdul Wahid
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity have increased rapidly in incidence to become a global issue today. Overweight and obesity problems are significantly linked to unhealthy dietary patterns, physical inactivity and misperception of body image. This study aimed to determine whether Malaysian children build healthy eating habits from childhood. METHODS: A survey on eating habits was conducted among primary school students in standards 4 to 6 in the state of Selangor, Malaysia...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903745/inhibiting-microglia-expansion-prevents-diet-induced-hypothalamic-and-peripheral-inflammation
#4
Caroline André, Omar Guzman-Quevedo, Charlotte Rey, Julie Rémus-Borel, Samantha Clark, Ashley Castellanos-Jankiewicz, Elodie Ladeveze, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Agnes Nadjar, Djoher Nora Abrous, Sophie Laye, Daniela Cota
Cell proliferation and neuroinflammation in the adult hypothalamus may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we tested whether the intertwining of these two processes has a role in the metabolic changes caused by three weeks of saturated high-fat diet (HFD) consumption.As compared to chow, HFD-fed mice rapidly increased body weight and fat mass, and specifically showed increased microglia number in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. Microglia expansion required the adequate presence of fats and carbohydrates in the diet, since feeding mice a very high-fat, very low-carbohydrate diet did not affect cell proliferation...
November 30, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902728/a-smart-capsule-system-for-automated-detection-of-intestinal-bleeding-using-hsl-color-recognition
#5
Panpan Qiao, Hongying Liu, Xueping Yan, Ziru Jia, Xitian Pi
There are no ideal means for the diagnosis of intestinal bleeding diseases as of now, particularly in the small intestine. This study investigated an intelligent intestinal bleeding detection capsule system based on color recognition. After the capsule is swallowed, the bleeding detection module (containing a color-sensitive adsorptive film that changes color when absorbing intestinal juice,) is used to identify intestinal bleeding features. A hue-saturation-light color space method can be applied to detect bleeding according to the range of H and S values of the film color...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896921/effect-of-iron-supplementation-during-lactation-on-maternal-iron-status-and-oxidative-stress-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Josh M Jorgensen, Zhenyu Yang, Bo Lönnerdal, Caroline J Chantry, Kathryn G Dewey
We examined the effect of iron-containing prenatal vitamin-mineral supplements taken postpartum on biomarkers of iron status and oxidative stress. Lactating women (n = 114) were randomly assigned to consume daily one iron-free prenatal vitamin-mineral supplement plus either 27 mg of iron or placebo for approximately 3.5 months. The placebo group took the tablets between meals, while those given iron took the tablets either with (Fe-W) or between meals (Fe-B). Blood and urine samples were collected before and after the supplementation period to analyze hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, hepcidin, transferrin saturation (TfSat), total plasma iron, and biomarkers of oxidative stress (isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)) and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP))...
November 29, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893806/hplc-based-mass-spectrometry-characterizes-the-phospholipid-alterations-in-ether-linked-lipid-deficiency-models-following-oxidative-stress
#7
Robin Drechsler, Shaw-Wen Chen, Blair C R Dancy, Lena Mehrabkhani, Carissa Perez Olsen
Despite the fact that the discovery of ether-linked phospholipids occurred nearly a century ago, many unanswered questions remain concerning these unique lipids. Here, we characterize the ether-linked lipids of the nematode with HPLC-MS/MS and find that more than half of the phosphoethanolamine-containing lipids are ether-linked, a distribution similar to that found in mammalian membranes. To explore the biological role of ether lipids in vivo, we target fatty acyl-CoA reductase (fard-1), an essential enzyme in ether lipid synthesis, with two distinct RNAi strategies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893782/beneficial-effects-of-metformin-and-or-salicylate-on-palmitate-or-tnf%C3%AE-induced-neuroinflammatory-marker-and-neuropeptide-gene-regulation-in-immortalized-npy-agrp-neurons
#8
Wenqing Ye, Ernesto H Ramos, Brian C Wong, Denise D Belsham
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus induce feeding and decrease energy expenditure. With consumption of a diet high in fat, there is an increase in circulating saturated free fatty acids, including palmitate, leading to the development of neuroinflammation and secretion of cytokines, such as TNFα, and in turn activation of the canonical IKKβ/NFκB cascade. We describe a model of palmitate- and TNFα-induced neuroinflammation in a functionally characterized, immortalized NPY/AgRP-expressing cell model, mHypoE-46, to study whether the anti-diabetic metformin alone or in combination with the anti-inflammatory agent salicylate can ameliorate these detrimental effects...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892898/the-role-of-adipose-tissue-and-excess-of-fatty-acids-in-the-induction-of-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle
#9
Agnieszka Błachnio-Zabielska, Sławomir Grycel, Marta Chacińska, Piotr Zabielski
Skeletal muscle is the main tissue responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Consumption of a high-fat diet rich in saturated fats (HFD) and obesity are associated with accumulation of intramuscular lipids that leads to several disorders, e.g. insulin resistance (IRes) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The mechanism underlying the induction of IRes is still unknown. It was speculated that accumulation of intramuscular triacylglycerols (TAG) is linked to induction of IRes. Now, research focuses on bioactive lipids: long-chain acyl-CoA (LCACoA), diacylglycerols (DAG) and ceramides (Cer)...
November 14, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867696/quantification-of-extra-cerebral-and-cerebral-hemoglobin-concentrations-during-physical-exercise-using-time-domain-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#10
Héloïse Auger, Louis Bherer, Étienne Boucher, Richard Hoge, Frédéric Lesage, Mathieu Dehaes
Fitness is known to have beneficial effects on brain anatomy and function. However, the understanding of mechanisms underlying immediate and long-term neurophysiological changes due to exercise is currently incomplete due to the lack of tools to investigate brain function during physical activity. In this study, we used time-domain near infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) to quantify and discriminate extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation (SO2) in young adults at rest and during incremental intensity exercise...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866929/long-term-outcomes-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-under-specific-drug-therapy-in-eisenmenger-syndrome
#11
Sébastien Hascoët, Alban-Elouen Baruteau, Marc Humbert, Gérald Simonneau, Xavier Jais, Jérôme Petit, Daniela Laux, Olivier Sitbon, Virginie Lambert, André Capderou
BACKGROUND: The long-term effectiveness of pulmonary arterial hypertension-specific drug therapy (PAH-SDT) in Eisenmenger syndrome is controversial. We investigated short-term and long-term hemodynamic changes under PAH-SDT and their associations with outcomes in a bicentric cohort. METHODS: Over 20 years, we included 69 patients with congenital heart disease, an indexed pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRi) >8 WU·m(2), and 292 standardized catheterizations at baseline and after PAH-SDT initiation or intensification...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843721/antioxidant-nutrition-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-parr-and-post-smolt-fed-diets-with-high-inclusion-of-plant-ingredients-and-graded-levels-of-micronutrients-and-selected-amino-acids
#12
Kristin Hamre, Nini H Sissener, Erik-Jan Lock, Pål A Olsvik, Marit Espe, Bente E Torstensen, Joana Silva, Johan Johansen, Rune Waagbø, Gro-Ingunn Hemre
The shift from marine to plant-based ingredients in fish feeds affects the dietary concentrations and bioavailability of micronutrients, amino acids and lipids and consequently warrants a re-evaluation of dietary nutrient recommendations. In the present study, an Atlantic salmon diet high in plant ingredients was supplemented with graded levels of nutrient premix (NP), containing selected amino acids, taurine, cholesterol, vitamins and minerals. This article presents the results on the antioxidant nutrients vitamin C, E and selenium (Se), and effects on tissue redox status...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829485/the-impact-of-doubling-dairy-or-plant-based-foods-on-consumption-of-nutrients-of-concern-and-proper-bone-health-for-adolescent-females
#13
Elieke Demmer, Christopher J Cifelli, Jenny A Houchins, Victor L Fulgoni
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of increasing plant-based foods v. dairy foods on energy and nutrients of concern in adolescent females via diet modelling exercises. DESIGN: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to compare nutrient intakes from usual diet with those from three dietary scenarios that increased current intakes by 100 % of the following: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods; and (iii) milk, cheese and yoghurt...
November 10, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825941/consumption-of-ultra-processed-foods-predicts-diet-quality-in-canada
#14
Jean-Claude Moubarac, M Batal, M L Louzada, E Martinez Steele, C A Monteiro
This study describes food consumption patterns in Canada according to the types of food processing using the Nova classification and investigates the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and the nutrient profile of the diet. Dietary intakes of 33,694 individuals from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey aged 2 years and above were analyzed. Food and drinks were classified using Nova into unprocessed or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients, processed foods and ultra-processed foods...
November 4, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825136/pubertal-and-adult-windows-of-susceptibility-to-a-high-animal-fat-diet-in-trp53-null-mammary-tumorigenesis
#15
Yirong Zhu, Mark D Aupperlee, Yong Zhao, Ying Siow Tan, Erin L Kirk, Xuezheng Sun, Melissa A Troester, Richard C Schwartz, Sandra Z Haslam
Premenopausal breast cancer is associated with increased animal fat consumption among normal weight, but not overweight women (Farvid et al., 2014). Our previous findings in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice similarly showed promotion of carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis by a diet high in saturated animal fat (HFD). This effect was specific to pubertal versus adult HFD. This study identifies the effects of HFD during puberty versus adulthood in Trp53-null transplant BALB/c mice and investigates its mechanism of enhancing tumorigenesis...
November 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816052/postprandial-serum-endotoxin-in-healthy-humans-is-modulated-by-dietary-fat-in-a-randomized-controlled-cross-over-study
#16
Joshua M Lyte, Nicholas K Gabler, James H Hollis
BACKGROUND: High-fat diets may contribute to metabolic disease via postprandial changes in serum endotoxin and inflammation. It is unclear how dietary fat composition may alter these parameters. We hypothesized that a meal rich in n-3 (ω3) fatty acids would reduce endotoxemia and associated inflammation but a saturated or n-6 (ω6) fatty acid-rich meal would increase postprandial serum endotoxin concentrations and systemic inflammation in healthy adults. METHODS: Healthy adults (n = 20; mean age 25 ± 3...
November 5, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813678/animal-proteins-as-important-contributors-to-a-healthy-human-diet
#17
Ibrahim Elmadfa, Alexa L Meyer
Adequate protein intake is critical for health and development. Generally, protein of animal origin is of higher quality for humans owing to its amino acid pattern and good digestibility. When administered in mixtures it can enhance the quality of plant proteins, but it is often scarce in low-income communities, especially in young children, the elderly, and pregnant and lactating women, who have increased requirements and in whom high-quality protein also stimulates bone growth and maintenance. Although high protein intake was associated with increased type 2 diabetes mellitus risk, milk and seafood are good sources of branched chain amino acids and taurine, which act beneficially on glucose metabolism and blood pressure...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812516/associations-between-lifestyle-factors-and-iron-overload-in-korean-adults
#18
Hyungjo Kim, Chol Shin, Inkyung Baik
It has been suggested that iron overload, which indicates the accumulation of iron, generates cellular reactive oxygens and causes peroxide damages to the body. Such oxidative stresses, in a broader context, are also caused by lifestyles such as alcohol consumption and smoking. However, there are limited data on the association between these lifestyle factors and internal iron overload. In present study, we evaluated associations between lifestyle factors, such as smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, and serum markers of iron overload...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797736/dietary-fat-guidelines-have-no-evidence-base-where-next-for-public-health-nutritional-advice
#19
Zoë Harcombe
INTRODUCTION: National dietary guidelines were introduced in 1977 and 1983, by the US and UK governments, with the aim of reducing coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. The 2 specific dietary fat recommendations were to reduce total fat and saturated fat consumption to 30% and 10% of total energy intake, respectively. METHODS: 4 systematic reviews (3 with meta-analysis) were undertaken to examine the evidence for these dietary fat guidelines: (1) randomised controlled trial (RCT) and (2) prospective cohort (PC) evidence at the time the guidelines were introduced; and (3) RCT and (4) PC evidence currently available...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792184/water-and-beverage-consumption-analysis-of-the-australian-2011-2012-national-nutrition-and-physical-activity-survey
#20
Zhixian Sui, Miaobing Zheng, Man Zhang, Anna Rangan
BACKGROUND: Water consumption as a vital component of the human diet is under-researched in dietary surveys and nutrition studies. AIM: To assess total water and fluid intakes and examine demographic, anthropometric, and dietary factors associated with water consumption in the Australian population. METHODS: Dietary intake data from the 2011 to 2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used. Usual water, fluid and food and nutrient intakes were estimated from two days of dietary recalls...
October 26, 2016: Nutrients
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