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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927319/dietary-fat-stimulates-pancreatic-cancer-growth-and-promotes-fibrosis-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-through-the-cholecystokinin-receptor
#1
Sandeep Nadella, Julian Burks, Abdulhameed Al-Sabban, Gloria Inyang, Juan Wang, Robin D Tucker, Marie E Zamanis, William Bukowski, Narayan Shivapurkar, Jill P Smith
The gastrointestinal peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) is released from the duodenum in response to dietary fat to aid in digestion, and plasma CCK levels are elevated with the consumption of high fat diets. CCK is also a trophic peptide for the pancreas and has also been shown to stimulate growth of pancreatic cancer. In the current investigation, we studied the influence of a diet high in saturated fat on growth of pancreatic cancer in syngeneic murine models before the mice became obese to exclude the confounding factors associated with obesity...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925420/hepatic-steatosis-risk-is-partly-driven-by-increased-de-novo-lipogenesis-following-carbohydrate-consumption
#2
Francis W B Sanders, Animesh Acharjee, Celia Walker, Luke Marney, Lee D Roberts, Fumiaki Imamura, Benjamin Jenkins, Jack Case, Sumantra Ray, Samuel Virtue, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy, Michael Allison, Nita Forouhi, Andrew J Murray, Nick Wareham, Michele Vacca, Albert Koulman, Julian L Griffin
BACKGROUND: Diet is a major contributor to metabolic disease risk, but there is controversy as to whether increased incidences of diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease arise from consumption of saturated fats or free sugars. Here, we investigate whether a sub-set of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were associated with hepatic steatosis and whether they arise from de novo lipogenesis (DNL) from the consumption of carbohydrates. RESULTS: We conduct direct infusion mass spectrometry of lipids in plasma to study the association between specific TAGs and hepatic steatosis assessed by ultrasound and fatty liver index in volunteers from the UK-based Fenland Study and evaluate clustering of TAGs in the National Survey of Health and Development UK cohort...
June 20, 2018: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920218/deletion-of-the-stress-response-protein-redd1-promotes-ceramide-induced-retinal-cell-death-and-jnk-activation
#3
Weiwei Dai, William P Miller, Allyson L Toro, Adam J Black, Sadie K Dierschke, Robert P Feehan, Scot R Kimball, Michael D Dennis
The role of dyslipidemia in the development of retinal dysfunction remains poorly understood. Using an animal model of diet-induced obesity/pre-type 2 diabetes, we investigated molecular defects in the retina arising from consumption of a diet high in saturated fats and sugars ( i.e., a Western diet). We found that feeding mice a Western diet increased the abundance of retinal sphingolipids, attenuated protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation, enhanced JNK activation, and increased retinal cell death. When we used palmitate or C6-ceramide (Cer) to assess sphingolipid-mediated signaling in cultured murine and human cells, we observed similar effects on Akt, JNK, and cell death...
June 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912182/calorespirometry-a-powerful-noninvasive-approach-to-investigate-cellular-energy-metabolism
#4
Robert A Skolik, Mary E Konkle, Michael A Menze
Many cell lines used in basic biological and biomedical research maintain energy homeostasis through a combination of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. However, the extent to which both pathways contribute to the landscape of cellular energy production is consistently overlooked. Transformed cells cultured in saturating levels of glucose often show a decreased dependency on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production, which is compensated by an increase in substrate-level phosphorylation. This shift in metabolic poise allows cells to proliferate despite the presence of mitochondrial toxins...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909965/the-association-of-potato-intake-with-risk-for-incident-type-2-diabetes-in-adults
#5
Hossein Farhadnejad, Farshad Teymoori, Golaleh Asghari, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies indicate that the risk for diabetes associated with high consumption of potato differs in various populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between total, boiled and fried potato intake and the risk for incident diabetes in Tehranian adults. METHODS: This cohort study was conducted in 1,981 adults, aged 19 to 70 years, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed up for 6 years. Usual dietary potato intakes were assessed using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire...
February 26, 2018: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907155/green-leafy-vegetables-in-diets-with-a-25-1-omega-6-omega-3-fatty-acid-ratio-modify-the-erythrocyte-fatty-acid-profile-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#6
Melissa Johnson, Ralphenia D Pace, Wendell H McElhenney
BACKGROUND: In addition to the actual composition of the diet (i.e. nutrient composition, food groups), the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio has been demonstrated to influence the tissue fatty acid profile and subsequently the risk for cardiovascular and other diseases. Likewise, the consumption of green leafy vegetables (GLVs) may favorably reduce the risks associated with disease. Although an ~ 3:1 omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio (ω-6/ω-3 FAR) is recommended, the typical American diet has an ~ 25:1 ω-6/ω-3 FAR...
June 15, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896121/prenatal-exposure-to-a-maternal-high-fat-diet-increases-hepatic-cholesterol-accumulation-in-intrauterine-growth-restricted-rats-in-part-through-microrna-122-inhibition-of-cyp7a1
#7
Erin K Zinkhan, Baifeng Yu, Amnon Schlegel
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and consumption of a high saturated fat diet (HFD) increase the risk of hypercholesterolemia, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The mechanism through which the cumulative impact of IUGR and in utero exposure to a maternal HFD increase cholesterol levels remains unknown. Cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) initiates catabolism of cholesterol to bile acids for elimination from the body, and is regulated by microRNA-122 (miR-122). We hypothesized that IUGR rats exposed to a maternal HFD would have increased cholesterol and decreased Cyp7a1 protein levels in juvenile rats, findings which would be normalized by administration of a miR-122 inhibitor...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880354/modification-of-erythrocyte-membrane-fatty-acid-contents-after-kidney-transplantation-a-prospective-study
#8
Y K Son, H Kwon, H W Lee, E G Jeong, S M Lee, S E Kim, Y Park, W S An
BACKGROUND: Modifications of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FA) contents may affect cellular function or transmembrane receptors. One cross-sectional study has shown that kidney transplant (KTP) recipients have lower erythrocyte membrane oleic acid content than dialysis patients do. Therefore, we prospectively tested whether erythrocyte membrane contents of FA including oleic acid change after KTP. METHODS: We recruited 23 KTP recipients (September 2011 through May 2014)...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875620/performance-comparison-of-the-digital-neuromorphic-hardware-spinnaker-and-the-neural-network-simulation-software-nest-for-a-full-scale-cortical-microcircuit-model
#9
Sacha J van Albada, Andrew G Rowley, Johanna Senk, Michael Hopkins, Maximilian Schmidt, Alan B Stokes, David R Lester, Markus Diesmann, Steve B Furber
The digital neuromorphic hardware SpiNNaker has been developed with the aim of enabling large-scale neural network simulations in real time and with low power consumption. Real-time performance is achieved with 1 ms integration time steps, and thus applies to neural networks for which faster time scales of the dynamics can be neglected. By slowing down the simulation, shorter integration time steps and hence faster time scales, which are often biologically relevant, can be incorporated. We here describe the first full-scale simulations of a cortical microcircuit with biological time scales on SpiNNaker...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867803/shifts-on-gut-microbiota-associated-to-mediterranean-diet-adherence-and-specific-dietary-intakes-on-general-adult-population
#10
Izaskun Garcia-Mantrana, Marta Selma-Royo, Cristina Alcantara, María C Collado
There is increasing evidence for the interaction between gut microbiome, diet, and health. It is known that dysbiosis is related to disease and that most of the times this imbalances in gut microbial populations can be promoted through diet. Western dietary habits, which are characterized by high intakes of calories, animal proteins, saturated fats, and simple sugars have been linked with higher risk of obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the impact of dietary patterns, dietary components, and nutrients on gut microbiota in healthy people...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867006/egg-consumption-in-infants-is-associated-with-longer-recumbent-length-and-greater-intake-of-several-nutrients-essential-in-growth-and-development
#11
Yanni Papanikolaou, Victor L Fulgoni
Nutrient intake during infancy is critical for healthy growth and development. The present study examined egg consumption and associations with nutrient intakes, markers of growth and weight-related measures in infants 6⁻24 months of age ( N = 561) compared to infant egg non-consumers ( N = 2129). Egg consumers were defined as those infants consuming eggs (i.e., with the exclusion of mixed dishes) during a 24-h dietary recall. Associations with nutrient intakes and markers of growth variables were evaluated using data from What We Eat in America, the dietary component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001⁻2012...
June 4, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861491/assessing-the-dietary-habits-of-canadians-by-eating-location-and-occasion-findings-from-the-canadian-community-health-survey-cycle-2-2
#12
Stephanie K Nishi, Mahsa Jessri, Mary L'Abbé
Occasion and location of food environment has an influence on dietary habits, nutritional quality and overall health and nutrition-related chronic disease risk. Eating occasion and location was assessed in 20,402 Canadians aged ≥ 2 years, with a focus on energy, saturated fat, added sugars, and sodium intake by age group. Data showed >80% of children, compared to ~60% of adolescents and adults, consumed three meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) plus snacks in a day. Dinner contributed the most calories [ranging from 395 ± 11 kcal (2⁻3 year olds) to 952 ± 27 kcal (men 19⁻30 years)], saturated fat [7...
May 27, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851507/dietary-fat-and-gut-microbiota-mechanisms-involved-in-obesity-control
#13
Olívia Gonçalves Leão Coelho, Flávia Galvão Cândido, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Obesity is a serious global health problem that is directly related to various morbidities manifestation. Intestinal dysbiosis has been implicated on obesity pathogenesis. Diet composition can alter gut microbiota, regardless of energy intake. Dietary fatty acids quality may affect gut microbiota composition, which in turn may affect host metabolic health. The mechanisms by which the different type of FFA modulate gut microbiota is yet poor elucidate and there is a lack of studies regard to this. Fatty acids may act in cell membrane, interfere with energy production, inhibit enzymatic activities, impair nutrient absorption and generate toxic compounds to cells, leading to growth inhibition or even bacterial death...
May 31, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848474/accurately-inferring-compliance-to-five-major-food-guidelines-through-simplified-surveys-applying-data-mining-to-the-uk-national-diet-and-nutrition-survey
#14
Nicholas Rosso, Philippe Giabbanelli
BACKGROUND: National surveys in public health nutrition commonly record the weight of every food consumed by an individual. However, if the goal is to identify whether individuals are in compliance with the 5 main national nutritional guidelines (sodium, saturated fats, sugars, fruit and vegetables, and fats), much less information may be needed. A previous study showed that tracking only 2.89% of all foods (113/3911) was sufficient to accurately identify compliance. Further reducing the data needs could lower participation burden, thus decreasing the costs for monitoring national compliance with key guidelines...
May 30, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844213/positive-correlation-between-regional-cerebral-oxygen-saturation-and-mixed-venous-oxygen-saturation-during-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#15
Zheng Guan, Jing-Jie Liu, Hui Yuan, Yan-Feng Gao
BACKGROUND: The balance of oxygen delivery and consumption is essential in patients who are critically ill. Mixed venous oxygen saturation (Sv̄O2 ) is a standard method to evaluate oxygen delivery and consumption during anesthesia. However, Sv̄O2 is monitored through a pulmonary artery catheter, which is invasive. Regional cerebral oxygenation (rScO2 ) reflects oxygen saturation in a small region of the frontal lobes and is monitored noninvasively through near-infrared spectroscopy...
May 29, 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801338/laser-q-switching-with-pts-2-microflakes-saturable-absorber
#16
Xinyu Wang, Ping Kwong Cheng, Chun Yin Tang, Hui Long, Huiyu Yuan, Longhui Zeng, Sainan Ma, Wayesh Qarony, Yuen Hong Tsang
Numerous studies have been conducted to explore the performance of two-dimensional (2D) layered nano-materials based saturable absorber (SA) for pulsed laser applications. However, fabricating materials in nanoscale requires complicated preparation processes, high energy consumption, and high expertise. Hence, the study of pulsed laser performance based on the saturable absorber prepared by layered materials with bulk-micro size have gained a great attention. Platinum disulfide (PtS2 ), which is newly developed group 10 2D layered materials, offers great potential for the laser photonic applications owing to its high carrier mobility, broadly tunable natural bandgap energy, and stability...
May 14, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801219/acid-rock-drainage-passive-remediation-using-alkaline-clay-hydro-geochemical-study-and-impacts-of-vegetation-and-sand-on-remediation
#17
Fernando Plaza, Yipei Wen, Xu Liang
Acid rock drainage (ARD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mine industry, especially in regions with an abundance of coal refuse (CR) deposits (e.g. the Northern Appalachian Coalfield in the USA) where surface and ground waters are affected by this pollution due to the acidity and high content of sulfates and heavy metals. This study explores the effectiveness of the ARD passive remediation method using alkaline clay (AC) through a series of static and long-term kinetic laboratory experiments (over three years) complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791675/development-of-a-diet-quality-index-adapted-for-pregnant-women
#18
Lívia Castro Crivellenti, Daniela Cristina Candelas Zuccolotto, Daniela Saes Sartorelli
OBJECTIVE: To develop a Diet Quality Index Adapted for Pregnant Women (IQDAG) and to evaluate its relation with the characteristics of women treated at the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS: The data on food intake come from a cross-sectional study carried out with 785 adult pregnant women in the city of Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2011 and 2012. The index was based on the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, previous national dietary indexes, and the new Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population...
2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789933/adequacy-of-usual-macronutrient-intake-and-macronutrient-distribution-in-children-and-adolescents-in-spain-a-national-dietary-survey-on-the-child-and-adolescent-population-enalia-2013-2014
#19
Ana M López-Sobaler, Aránzazu Aparicio, Josefa Rubio, Victoria Marcos, Rosa Sanchidrián, Sara Santos, Napoleón Pérez-Farinós, M Ángeles Dal-Re, Carmen Villar-Villalba, Maria José Yusta-Boyo, Teresa Robledo, José Javier Castrodeza-Sanz, Rosa M Ortega
OBJECTIVES: To describe the nutritional profile and assess the National Dietary Survey on the Child and Adolescent Population project in Spain (ENALIA) regarding usual total energy and macronutrient intake. METHODS: A cross-sectional nationally representative sample of 1862 children and adolescents (age 6 months to 17) was surveyed between 2013 and 2014 following European methodology recommendations. Dietary information was collected using two methods, dietary records (for children from age 6 months to 9 years) and 24-h dietary recall (participants age 10 and older)...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787743/persistence-of-central-venous-oxygen-desaturation-during-early-sepsis-is-associated-with-higher-mortality-a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-albios-trial
#20
Alessandro Protti, Serge Masson, Roberto Latini, Roberto Fumagalli, Marilena Romero, Carla Pessina, Giovanni Pasetti, Gianni Tognoni, Antonio Pesenti, Luciano Gattinoni, Pietro Caironi
BACKGROUND: Relevance of low (<70%) central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2 ) during early sepsis has been recently questioned by three negative trials (ProCESS, ARISE and ProMISe) on early goal-directed therapy (EGDT). However, subjects included in those trials had ScvO2 at enrolment as high as 71±13%, 73±11% and 70±12%. Herein we assessed the association between ScvO2 <70% at six hours and 90-day mortality in subjects enrolled in the ALBIOS trial, focusing on those with initial ScvO2 <70%...
May 19, 2018: Chest
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