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Chelsea C Estrada, Praharshasai Paladugu, Yiqing Guo, Jesse Pace, Monica P Revelo, David J Salant, Stuart J Shankland, Vivette D D'Agati, Anita Mehrotra, Stephanie Cardona, Agnieszka B Bialkowska, Vincent W Yang, John C He, Sandeep K Mallipattu
Pathologic glomerular epithelial cell (GEC) hyperplasia is characteristic of both rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and subtypes of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Although initial podocyte injury resulting in activation of STAT3 signals GEC proliferation in both diseases, mechanisms regulating this are unknown. Here, we show that the loss of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), a zinc-finger transcription factor, enhances GEC proliferation in both RPGN and FSGS due to dysregulated STAT3 signaling...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
Kim Maree O'Sullivan, Sharon Lee Ford, Anthony Longano, A Richard Kitching, Stephen R Holdsworth
In anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis (AAV), toll like receptors (TLRs) may be engaged by infection associated patterns and by endogenous danger signals, linking infection and innate inflammation with this autoimmune disease. This study examined intrarenal TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 expression and renal injury in AAV, testing the hypothesis that increased TLR expression correlates with renal injury. Patients with AAV exhibited both glomerular and tubulointerstitial expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9, with TLR4 being the most prominent in both compartments...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Yingjie Han, Frank Y Ma, Julie Di Paolo, David J Nikolic-Paterson
Non-selective inhibitors of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) efficiently suppress disease in T cell-dependent models of crescentic glomerulonephritis. However, the therapeutic potential of selective SYK inhibitors in this disease has not been established. In addition, we lack knowledge regarding SYK expression in non-myeloid cells in glomerulonephritis. We addressed these two issues in a rat model of nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NTN) using a SYK inhibitor, GS-492429. Disease was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (Study 1) or Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats (Study 2) by immunization with sheep IgG and administration of sheep anti-rat nephrotoxic serum...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Wonyong Lee, Sung-Jae Kim, Chong-Hyuk Choi, Yun-Rak Choi, Yong-Min Chun
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe a new C-shaped tear configuration, and to compare clinical outcomes and structural integrity between the C-shaped and the established crescent-shaped small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears after arthroscopic repair. METHODS: This retrospective study included 102 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair in a single-row fashion for small- to medium-sized rotator cuff tears of either C or crescent shape from March 2009 to June 2014...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Natalie D Munro, Guy Bar-Oz, Jacqueline S Meier, Lidar Sapir-Hen, Mary C Stiner, Reuven Yeshurun
Our compilation of zooarchaeological data from a series of important archaeological sites spanning the Epipaleolithic through Pre-Pottery Neolithic B periods in the Mediterranean Hills of the southern Levant contributes to major debates about the beginnings of ungulate management in Southwest Asia. The data support an onset of ungulate management practices by the Early PPNB (10,500-10,000 cal. BP), more than 500 years earlier than previously thought for this region. There is a clear developmental connection between reduced hunting intensity and the uptake of ungulate management, confirming that this process began in response to local, density-dependent demographic factors...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wojciech T Osowiecki, Xingchen Ye, Pratima Satish, Karen C Bustillo, Ezra L Clark, A Paul Alivisatos
The ability to predict and control the formation of bimetallic heterogeneous nanocrystals is desirable for many applications in plasmonics and catalysis. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of stable, monodisperse, and solution-processed Cu-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles with specific but unusual elemental arrangements that are consistent with a recently developed thermodynamic model. Using air-free scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the distribution of Cu and Ag positions was unambiguously identified within individual nanocrystals (NCs), leading to the discovery of a Cu-Ag nanocrescent shape...
June 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mazdak A Khalighi, Alexander J Gallan, Anthony Chang, Shane M Meehan
Amyloid nephropathy is an uncommon disease that frequently presents with reduced kidney function and proteinuria and, in developed nations, is most often associated with underlying paraproteinemia. The histologic appearance of glomerular amyloid deposition includes mesangial and capillary wall infiltration by an amorphous eosinophilic material, and features of endo- or extracapillary proliferation are not typically seen. Rare cases of crescentic injury have been reported in a subset of patients with amyloid nephropathy, particularly those with amyloid derived from serum amyloid A protein...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Keren Cohen-Hagai, Sydney Benchetrit, Osnat Klein, Yona Kitay-Cohen, Ze'ev Korzets
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Archives of Rheumatology
Xiaoxu Wang, Menno Van Lookeren Campagne, Kenneth J Katschke, Damodar Gullipalli, Takashi Miwa, Yoshiyasu Ueda, Yuan Wang, Matthew Palmer, Guolan Xing, Wen-Chao Song
Background C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is a life-threatening kidney disease caused by dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement (AP) activation. No approved specific therapy is available for C3G, although an anti-C5 mAb has been used off-label in some patients with C3G, with mixed results. Thus, there is an unmet medical need to develop other inhibitors of complement for C3G. Methods We used a murine model of lethal C3G to test the potential efficacy of an Fc fusion protein of complement receptor of the Ig superfamily (CRIg-Fc) in the treatment of C3G...
June 12, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
J-B Coty, C Nedelcu, S Yahya, V Dupont, C Rougé-Maillart, M Verschoore, C Ridereau Zins, C Aubé
Currently, post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) has become an accessible and contemporary tool for forensic investigations. In the case of burn victims, it provides specific semiologies requiring a prudent understanding to differentiate between the normal post-mortem changes from heat-related changes. The aim of this pictorial essay is to provide to the radiologist the keys to establish complete and focused reports in cases of PMCT of burn victims. Thus, the radiologist must discern all the contextual divergences with the forensic history, and must be able to report all the relevant elements to answer to the forensic pathologist the following questions: Are there tomographic features that could help to identify the victim? Is there evidence of remains of biological fluids in liquid form available for toxicological analysis and DNA sampling? Is there another obvious cause of death than heat-related lesions, especially metallic foreign bodies of ballistic origin? Finally, what are the characteristic burn-related injuries seen on the corpse that should be sought during the autopsy? TEACHING POINTS: • CT is highly useful to find features permitting the identification of a severely burned body...
June 7, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Lakshmi Saladi, Danial Shaikh, Muhammad Saad, Enny Cancio-Rodriguez, Vivette D D'Agati, Boris Medvedovsky, Kalpana A Uday, Muhammad Adrish
RATIONALE: Pulmonary renal syndrome (PRS) is a term most commonly used to describe a combination of glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage as a manifestation of a multisystem autoimmune disease. It is usually associated with ANCA vasculitis and anti-GBM disease. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in a patient with ANCA and anti-GBM negative pauci-immune glomerulonephritis is rare and optimal management is unknown. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 85-year-old man with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, prostate cancer and recently diagnosed pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis presented to our emergency department with worsening dyspnea and pedal edema for several days...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Keiko Koshiba, Sei Muraoka, Toshihiro Nanki, Satoru Komatsumoto
We report the findings of an 18-year-old boy with immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV) complicated with bowel perforation and nephritis. He presented with abdominal pain, arthralgia and palpable purpura. Massive proteinuria developed during his clinical course. The patient was treated successfully using combination therapy of glucocorticoid (GC), cyclosporine (CYA) and factor XIII (F XIII) replacement. A standard treatment strategy for severe IgAV patients has not been established due to its rarity. Combination therapy using GC, CYA and F XIII replacement should be considered for severe IgAV patients...
June 6, 2018: Internal Medicine
Lingling Ge, Jingru Cheng, Duo Wei, Yue Sun, Rong Guo
A strategy to the batch-scale fabrication of anisotropic particles with diverse morphologies and various chemical compositions is reported by applying the highly structured fluids of Cerberus emulsions as templates. The Cerberus emulsions are produced simply by traditional one-step vortex mixing the surfactant aqueous solution with three immiscible oils which are selectively photo curable or incurable. Anisotropic particles are subsequently fabricated by UV-induced polymerization. The diversity in morphology of the particles is provided by the various controllable geometries of the Cerberus droplets...
June 6, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Haitham H Hassane, Mirza M Beg, Chokkalingam Siva, Celso Velázquez
BACKGROUND Systemic vasculitis can present with a multitude of symptoms involving multiple organ systems. Clinicians should avoid anchoring bias and be cognizant that different types of vasculitides can be present in the same patient and that the diagnosis of one should not preclude the subsequent diagnosis of another. CASE REPORT A 67-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of episodes of epistaxis and recurrent severe sinusitis. Her physical examination showed nasal congestion and purpuric rash on the lower extremities...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Paul Diefenhardt, Anna Nosko, Malte A Kluger, Johannes V Richter, Claudia Wegscheid, Yasushi Kobayashi, Gisa Tiegs, Samuel Huber, Richard A Flavell, Rolf A K Stahl, Oliver M Steinmetz
Background Th17 cells are central pathogenic mediators of autoimmune disease, including many forms of GN. IL-10 receptor signaling (IL-10R) in regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been implicated in the downregulation of Th17 cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and functional relevance of this process remain unclear. Methods We generated mice with Treg-specific IL-10Ra deficiency and subjected these mice to nephrotoxic serum-induced nephritis as a model of crescentic GN. Immune responses and Treg phenotypes were extensively analyzed...
June 4, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Pooya Iranpour, Sara Haseli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Karen E Fisher, Isobel Romberger, David Lowry, Phakade Shange, Robert W Roberson
Characteristics of hyphal structure and growth can provide insights into the mechanisms of polarized growth and support investigations of fungal phylogeny. To assist with the resolution of evolutionary relationships of the zygomycetes, the authors used comparative bioimaging methods (light [LM] and transmission electron [TEM] microscopy) to describe selected subcellular characters of hyphal tips of Conidiobolus coronatus. Growing hyphae of C. coronatus contain Spitzenkörper (Spk). Spk are most commonly present in hyphae of Dikarya (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and are rarely reported in zygomycete hyphae, which possess an apical vesicle crescent (AVC)...
January 2018: Mycologia
Solange Moll, Yukari Yasui, Ahmed Abed, Takeshi Murata, Hideaki Shimada, Akira Maeda, Naoshi Fukushima, Masakazu Kanamori, Sabine Uhles, Laura Badi, Thomas Cagarelli, Ivan Formentini, Faye Drawnel, Guy Georges, Tobias Bergauer, Rodolfo Gasser, R Daniel Bonfil, Rafael Fridman, Hans Richter, Juergen Funk, Marcus J Moeller, Christos Chatziantoniou, Marco Prunotto
BACKGROUND: Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a collagen-activated receptor tyrosine kinase extensively implicated in diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis and fibrosis. Multiple preclinical studies, performed using either a gene deletion or a gene silencing approaches, have shown this receptor being a major driver target of fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. METHODS: The present study investigated the role and relevance of DDR1 in human crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Paulo César de Paula Vasconcelos, Cleide Adriani Signor Tirloni, Rhanany Alan Calloi Palozi, Maicon Matos Leitão, Maria Tainara Soares Carneiro, Maysa Isernhagen Schaedler, Aniely Oliveira Silva, Roosevelt Isaias Carvalho Souza, Marcos José Salvador, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior, Cândida Aparecida Leite Kassuya
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gomphrena celosioides Mart., belonging to the Amaranthaceae family, is a weed known as "perpétua," and its ethnopharmacological use is to treat of urinary tract disorders and kidney stones. Urinary tract disorders and kidney stones could include several pathological conditions such hypertension, diuretic and lithiasic problems. In the present work a model of renovascular hypertension was developed in vivo to investigate its usefulness as an antihypertensive drug...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Daniel Josef Lindegger, Maria Helfenstein, Oliver Job, Misha Pless
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2018: Neurology
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