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Newer modalities ophthalmology

Bart K Chwalisz, Marc A Bouffard, Sashank Prasad, Dean M Cestari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review new applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology in neuro-ophthalmology. We also describe new technologies for visualizing the extracranial vessels in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). RECENT FINDINGS: Newer OCT modalities are expanding the evaluation of the optic disc, and are being applied to a number of neurologic conditions such as demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. Swept-source OCT and enhanced-depth imaging OCT are refining the fine-grained analysis of the optic nerve head in the diagnosis of papilledema and optic nerve drusen...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Farid Menaa, Barkat Ali Khan, Bushra Uzair, Abder Menaa
Sickle cell retinopathy (SCR) is the most representative ophthalmologic complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), a hemoglobinopathy affecting both adults and children. SCR presents a wide spectrum of manifestations and may even lead to irreversible vision loss if not properly diagnosed and treated at the earliest. Over the past decade, multidisciplinary research developments have focused upon systemic, genetic, and ocular risk factors of SCR, enabling the clinician to better diagnose and manage these patients...
2017: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Daniel A Pahl, Nancy S Green, Monica Bhatia, Royce W S Chen
Sickle retinopathy reflects disease-related vascular injury of the eye, which can potentially result in visual loss from vitreous hemorrhage or retinal detachment. Here we review sickle retinopathy among children with sickle cell disease, describe the epidemiology, pediatric risk factors, pathophysiology, ocular findings, and treatment. Newer, more sensitive ophthalmological imaging modalities are available for retinal imaging, including ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Pradeep Sharma, Nripen Gaur, Swati Phuljhele, Rohit Saxena
Strabismus is one of the most challenging subspecialties encountered in the field of ophthalmology. The concept of etiology of strabismus is being advanced with the development of newer imaging modalities and increased understanding of the genetics of strabismus. Imaging is also being used to aid in the planning of strabismus surgery. Newer horizons are being explored in the amblyopia management. The good old eye-pad is being replaced with the iPad. Early detection of loss of stereopsis is being used to decide the timing for strabismus surgery...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Hirotoshi Yasui, Kazuhide Sato, Yoshihiro Takeyama, Hiroaki Nishihara, Matsuyoshi Maeda, Hideo Gonda, Ryujiro Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Visual disturbance caused by cancer metastasis from other organs is one of the largest challenges to cancer patients' quality of life (QOL). Lung cancer is the most frequent primary site of choroidal metastasis in men, but improvement of visual disturbance has not always been emphasized in lung cancers. Recently intravitreal bevacizumab is a newer modality being tried for local control of choroidal metastases. CASE REPORT: A 68-year-old man was admitted the hospital with complaint of visual disturbance in his left eye...
2015: American Journal of Case Reports
Mohamed Allam, Hassan Riad
Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentry disorder of the skin and mucous membranes which manifests as white macules and patches due to selective loss of melanocytes. Etiological hypotheses of vitiligo include genetic, immunological, neurohormonal, cytotoxic, biochemical, oxidative stress and newer theories of melanocytorrhagy and decreased melanocytes survival. There are several types of vitiligo which are usually diagnosed clinically and by using a Wood's lamp; also vitiligo may be associated with autoimmune diseases, audiological and ophthalmological findings or it can be a part of polyendocrinopathy syndromes...
2013: Qatar Medical Journal
Joshua D Stein, Brian W Hanrahan, Grant M Comer, Frank A Sloan
PURPOSE: To determine patterns of diffusion of diagnostic tests and therapeutic interventions in the United States through 2010 for patients with newly diagnosed exudative macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis. METHODS: SETTING AND PATIENT POPULATION: A total of 23 941 Medicare beneficiaries with exudative AMD newly diagnosed during 1992-2009. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Current Procedural Technology (CPT-4) billing codes were used to identify use of diagnostic tests (optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and fundus photography) and therapeutic interventions (argon laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy, intravitreal corticosteroids, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] agents) used by these beneficiaries during the first year following diagnosis...
April 2013: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Christina R Prescott, Kathryn A Colby
Ocular imaging technologies continue to evolve and play increasingly important roles in both the diagnosis and management of corneal pathology. In addition to improved documentation of exam findings using increasingly better resolution photographs, newer modalities, including specular and confocal microscopy, can facilitate diagnosis by imaging single cell layers within the cornea. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) can image structures in the cornea and anterior segment which may not otherwise be visible...
September 2012: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Jonathan H Salvin, Dorothy Hendricks
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in pediatric oncology care have increased survival rates for children with malignancy. As a result, ophthalmologists are seeing more short-term and long-term complications associated with the treatment of these conditions. Ophthalmologists need to be aware of cancer treatment-related eye disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple eye findings are associated with cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, radiation, bone marrow transplantation, and newer modalities such as intra-arterial chemotherapy...
September 2012: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
R Ramakrishnan, Mona Khurana
Glaucoma is a serious sight-threatening disorder aptly named the Silent thief of sight. India, being the second most populous country in the world, has about 20% of the world glaucoma population. The complex geographical and socioeconomic architecture and the economic extremes have a profound effect on its health system. The present times are abundant with fresh developments in the field of glaucoma. Though newer modalities are present in India, they are not ample and are unequally distributed. Adherence and persistence with medical therapy is an issue owing to a multitude of factors...
January 2011: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
E I Traboulsi
A correct diagnosis of the early-onset childhood retinal dystrophies requires careful clinical evaluation, the detection of suggestive or pathognomonic ophthalmoscopic clues, the use of electrophysiology to document characteristic electroretinographic findings and, in some cases, the utilisation of newer diagnostic modalities such as optical coherence tomography. Molecular diagnosis confirms the clinical diagnosis and provides the basis for possible future gene therapy. A strict definition of early-onset childhood retinal dystrophies (EOCRDs) does not exist, but inherited retinal dystrophies that are diagnosed in the first few years of life could be included under this umbrella terminology...
October 2010: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Jerry A Shields, Hakan Demirci, Brian P Marr, Ralph C Eagle, Mary Stefanyszyn, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE: To determine incidence and distribution of conjunctival epithelial involvement by eyelid sebaceous carcinoma and to make recommendations regarding its management. METHODS: The medical records were reviewed retrospectively on patients with histopathologically confirmed sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelids managed at the Oncology Service at Wills Eye Hospital. Those tumors with involvement of the conjunctival epithelium were identified and selected for further study...
March 2005: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Patricia L Davis, Walter M Jay
Optic disc drusen are congenital and developmental anomalies of the optic nerve head seen commonly in clinical practice, often as an incidental ophthalmologic finding during routine exams. Optic disc drusen are a form of calcific degeneration in some of the axons of the optic nerve. Visual acuity is often not affected but the visual fields of these patients can be abnormal and deteriorate over time. Optic disc drusen are familial and are not uncommon. They are thought to be the result of pathology at the level of the optic nerve head itself...
December 2003: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Joanne C Dondey, Sandra Staffieri, John McKenzie, Gabrielle Davie, James Elder
PURPOSE: To describe changes in the management of retinoblastoma in Victoria and to review the effect of newer, conservative treatments on preservation of eyes, visual outcome and mortality by comparing a similar group of patients treated over successive time intervals. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all cases of retinoblastoma diagnosed and treated in Victoria between 1956 and 2000 was conducted. Historical data on 77 cases previously published by O'Day et al...
August 2004: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
A Jäckel, M Bock, M Deichmann, V Waldmann, H Näher
The uvea is the most common site for extra-cutaneous melanoma and uveal melanoma is the most frequent primary intraocular tumour in adults. Because its different location, biology, histology, genetic features and prognosis in comparison to cutaneous melanoma, this tumour is considered as a distinct entity in the group of malignant melanoma. While primary uveal melanoma is usually treated by ophthalmologic oncologists, metastatic diseases is often managed by dermatologic oncologists. Hematogenous spread predominantly involves the liver and is often restricted to this organ for a long period...
February 2001: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
W R Freeman, D U Bartsch
Ophthalmic lasers are used as diagnostic as well as therapeutic modalities in patients with retinal diseases. Recent advances in laser technology have allowed more convenient selection of wavelength and a wide variety of delivery systems is available to deliver the laser energy to the retina. In addition, newer lasers that disrupt and cut tissue will become available for use in patients with retinal diseases. The use of imaging lasers and lasers in combination with dyes selectively to enhance their effects have become useful in diagnosis and understanding of pathophysiology of diseases...
August 1993: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology
S M Friedman, M L Rubin
Diabetic retinopathy is a common cause of blindness in the adult population in the United States. Ophthalmologists now have laser and surgical treatment modalities available that can significantly decrease the risk of blindness in the diabetic population. The American Academy of Ophthalmology, through its Diabetes 2000 program, is making a national effort to educate all physicians who care for diabetic patients to recognize the problem and to be aware of the therapies available to prevent blindness.
May 1992: Geriatrics
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