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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159043/neuroimaging-and-other-modalities-to-assess-alzheimer-s-disease-in-down-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Natalie Neale, Concepcion Padilla, Luciana Mascarenhas Fonseca, Tony Holland, Shahid Zaman
People with Down syndrome (DS) develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) at higher rates and a younger age of onset compared to the general population. As the average lifespan of people with DS is increasing, AD is becoming an important health concern in this group. Neuroimaging is becoming an increasingly useful tool in understanding the pathogenesis of dementia development in relation to clinical symptoms. Furthermore, neuroimaging has the potential to play a role in AD diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutics. This review describes major recent findings from in vivo neuroimaging studies analysing DS and AD via ligand-based positron emission tomography (PET), [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157382/diagnostic-imaging-and-newer-modalities-for-thoracic-diseases-pet-computed-tomographic-imaging-and-endobronchial-ultrasound-for-staging-and-its-implication-for-lung-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Sarah J Counts, Anthony W Kim
Modalities to detect and characterize lung cancer are generally divided into those that are invasive [endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS), esophageal ultrasound (EUS), and electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENMB)] versus noninvasive [chest radiography (CXR), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)]. This chapter describes these modalities, the literature supporting their use, and delineates what tests to use to best evaluate the patient with lung cancer...
January 2018: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140815/neuroimaging-diagnostic-and-monitoring-approaches-in-ophthalmology
#3
Bart K Chwalisz, Marc A Bouffard, Sashank Prasad, Dean M Cestari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review new applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology in neuro-ophthalmology. We also describe new technologies for visualizing the extracranial vessels in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). RECENT FINDINGS: Newer OCT modalities are expanding the evaluation of the optic disc, and are being applied to a number of neurologic conditions such as demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. Swept-source OCT and enhanced-depth imaging OCT are refining the fine-grained analysis of the optic nerve head in the diagnosis of papilledema and optic nerve drusen...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133706/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-progesterone-with-or-without-hypothermia-in-patients-with-acute-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Sumit Sinha, Amol Raheja, Neha Samson, Keshav Goyal, Sanjeev Bhoi, Arul Selvi, Pushpa Sharma, Bhawani Shankar Sharma
OBJECTIVE: Among newer neuroprotectant modalities, hypothermia and progesterone have shown a beneficial role in preliminary studies enrolling patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of progesterone with or without prophylactic hypothermia in acute sTBI patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective, outcome assessor, statistician blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled phase II trial of progesterone with or without hypothermia (factorial design)...
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112644/is-lung-ultrasound-useful-for-diagnosing-pneumonia-in-children-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#5
Hua Xin, Jie Li, Hai-Yang Hu
BACKGROUND: Childhood mortality due to pneumonia is high. Chest radiography is the primary imaging modality used for the evaluation of pneumonia in children. Lung ultrasonography (LUS) is a newer, alternative diagnostic method that has been gaining popularity in recent years. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the diagnostic usefulness of LUS for childhood pneumonia. METHODS: All studies included in this meta-analysis were retrieved from PubMed, Elsevier's Science Direct, and Springer, and by manual searches including the use of reference lists, through March 31, 2017...
November 6, 2017: Ultrasound Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099317/virtual-microscopy-in-histopathology-training-changing-student-attitudes-in-3-successive-academic-years
#6
Christof A Bertram, Theresa Firsching, Robert Klopfleisch
Several veterinary faculties have integrated virtual microscopy into their curricula in recent years to improve and refine their teaching techniques. The many advantages of this recent technology are described in the literature, including remote access and an equal and constant slide quality for all students. However, no study has analyzed the change of perception toward virtual microscopy at different time points of students' academic educations. In the present study, veterinary students in 3 academic years were asked for their perspectives and attitudes toward virtual microscopy and conventional light microscopy...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098574/immune-contributions-to-osteoarthritis
#7
REVIEW
Erika Barboza Prado Lopes, Adrian Filiberti, Syed Ali Husain, Mary Beth Humphrey
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Mounting evidence supports a role of low-grade inflammation in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). We review and discuss the role of synovitis, complement activation, cytokines, and immune cell population in OA. RECENT FINDINGS: Using newer imaging modalities, synovitis is found in the majority of knees with OA. Complement activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines play a significant role in the development of cartilage destruction and synovitis...
November 2, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094004/nuclear-medicine-imaging-in-osteonecrosis-of-hip-old-and-current-concepts
#8
REVIEW
Kanhaiyalal Agrawal, Sujit Kumar Tripathy, Ramesh Kumar Sen, S Santhosh, Anish Bhattacharya
Osteonecrosis (ON) is caused by inadequate blood supply leading to bone death, which results in the collapse of the architectural bony structure. Femoral head is the most common site involved in ON. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a commonly used imaging modality to detect early ON. When MRI is inconclusive, bone scan is helpful in detecting ON during early phase of the disease. As newer nuclear medicine equipment, like single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT, are emerging in medical science, we review the role of these imaging modalities in ON of femoral head...
October 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089689/imaging-of-retained-surgical-items-a-pictorial-review-including-new-innovations
#9
G V Santhosh Kumar, Subhash Ramani, Abhishek Mahajan, Nikshita Jain, Rachel Sequeira, Meenakshi Thakur
With the advent of newer imaging modalities retained surgical items are now easily diagnosed by their characteristic imaging appearances. A combination of complementary imaging modalities helps to arrive at the diagnosis of this relatively rare complication. Factors contributing to their imaging features include the timing of diagnosis and imaging, presence of secondary infection, communication of the retained item with hollow viscus or external skin wound, and type of imaging modality used. A high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis before labeling it as a retained surgical item...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082122/optical-coherence-tomography-and-fundus-autofluorescence-findings-in-presumed-congenital-simple-retinal-pigment-epithelium-hamartoma
#10
Prabu Baskaran, Dhananjay Shukla, Parag Shah
Aim: Presumed congenital simple retinal pigment epithelium hamartoma is a rare benign lesion of the macula that mimics congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and combined hamartoma of the retina and the RPE; newer imaging modalities can help in diagnosis. We report three patients with presumed congenital simple RPE hamartoma, and describe the enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) findings. Methods: Two patients were asymptomatic; one had an intraocular foreign body in addition to the hamartoma...
2017: GMS Ophthalmology Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062744/transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-in-intermediate-and-low-risk-patients-clinical-evidence
#11
Sameer Arora, John P Vavalle
The encouraging results of the PARTNER 2 (Placement of AoRtic TraNscathetER Valves 2) trial led to the approval of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in intermediate-surgical-risk patients. Recently, the SURTAVI (SUrgical Replacement and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) investigators demonstrated the feasibility of TAVR with self-expanding valves in intermediate-risk patients. The focus has now shifted to clinical trials comparing TAVR to surgery in low-surgical-risk populations with a goal to expand TAVR to all-risk patients...
September 2017: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061059/bone-metastases-in-neuroendocrine-tumors
#12
R Zamborsky, A Svec, M Kokavec, S Galbavy
Neuroendocrine tumors arise from various cells that form a part of the endocrine system and account for a small number of cases encountered by oncologists in clinical practice. The clinical incidence of these tumors used to be low, and newer imaging modalities have now begun to be used for detecting bone metastases at an earlier stage. Bone metastases arising from neuroendocrine tumors are a well-recognized complication. Their presence carries along a poor prognosis. Clinical symptoms are similar to those encountered in other forms of cancer that are complicated by bone metastasis...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046974/stress-echocardiography-in-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#13
REVIEW
Sothinathan Gurunathan, Roxy Senior
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stress echocardiography (SE) is a well-established technique for the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). This review article summarizes the status of SE in CAD, including testing protocols, clinical efficacy and current use of newer technologies: myocardial perfusion, strain imaging, three-dimensional echocardiography and adjunctive carotid ultrasonography. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent major findings in SE include the clinical value of myocardial perfusion imaging in multicentre studies, as well as when added to left ventricular (LV) wall motion assessment in clinical service...
October 18, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046757/multiple-left-anterior-descending-coronary-artery-to-left-ventricular-fistula-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#14
Praneet Iyer, Rishitha Yelisetti
Coronary artery fistulas (CAFs) are found in 0.3-0.8% of patients who undergo coronary angiography. CAFs are defined as single or multiple, small or large direct communications that arise from one or more coronary arteries and enter into one of the four cardiac chambers or major vessels. We present two cases of multiple coronary artery fistulas arising from diagonal and left anterior descending (LAD) branches of left coronary artery draining into the left ventricle. In both the cases, No intervention was performed...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046101/anorectal-melanoma-experience-from-a-tertiary-cancer-care-centre-in-south-india
#15
S Ranjith, M Muralee, A Sajeed, P M Arun, K Cherian, C K Nair, P Augustine, I Ahamed
Introduction Mucosal malignant melanoma of the anorectum is a rare and aggressive disease, in which early diagnosis is difficult. The prognosis remains extremely poor, irrespective of the treatment. We share our experience in treating this malignancy at our centre in South India. Methods This study describes a retrospective analysis of 31 cases of anorectal melanoma presented to our centre between January 2001 and December 2013. Results Twenty-two patients (71%) presented with metastasis and had a median overall survival of nine months...
October 19, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044455/use-of-an-app-controlled-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-system-for-improved-self-management-of-knee-conditions-and-reduced-costs
#16
Morad Chughtai, Nicholas Piuzzi, George Yakubek, Anton Khlopas, Nipun Sodhi, Assem A Sultan, Salahuddin Nasir, Benjamin S T Yates, Anil Bhave, Michael A Mont
Patients suffering from quadriceps muscle weakness secondary to osteoarthritis or after surgeries, such as total knee arthroplasty, appear to benefit from the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), which can improve muscle strength and function, range of motion, exercise capacity, and quality of life. Several modalities exist that deliver this therapy. However, with the ever-increasing demand to improve clinical efficiency and costs, digitalize healthcare, optimize data collection, improve care coordination, and increase patient compliance and engagement, newer devices incorporating technologies that facilitate these demands are emerging...
October 12, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027633/multi-modality-imaging-in-the-evaluation-and-treatment-of-mitral-regurgitation
#17
REVIEW
Marc-André Bouchard, Claudia Côté-Laroche, Jonathan Beaudoin
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is frequent and associated with increased mortality and morbidity when severe. It may be caused by intrinsic valvular disease (primary MR) or ventricular deformation (secondary MR). Imaging has a critical role to document the severity, mechanism, and impact of MR on heart function as selected patients with MR may benefit from surgery whereas other will not. In patients planned for a surgical intervention, imaging is also important to select candidates for mitral valve (MV) repair over replacement and to predict surgical success...
October 13, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026048/spinal-cord-stimulation-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-a-review-of-current-evidence-and-practice
#18
S Sc Wong, C W Chan, C W Cheung
Spinal cord stimulation provides analgesia through electrical stimulation of the dorsal column of the spinal cord via electrode leads placed into the epidural space. In traditional tonic stimulation, a painful sensation is replaced with paraesthesia. Spinal cord stimulation is effective in reducing neuropathic pain, enhancing function, and improving quality of life in different chronic pain conditions. Currently, there is most evidence to support its use for failed back surgery syndrome when multidisciplinary conventional management is unsuccessful...
October 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983771/endoscopic-and-imaging-predictors-of-complete-pathologic-response-after-chemoradiation-for-esophageal-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Guneesh S Uberoi, Angad S Uberoi, Manoop S Bhutani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Locally advanced esophageal cancer is frequently treated preoperatively with chemotherapy and radiation. The degree of response to this preoperative therapy varies in different patients, and a complete pathological response (pCR) has important implications in the management and prognosis of these patients. This is a review of the different modalities currently available to detect pCR and the clinical context of their use. RECENT FINDINGS: While research is still ongoing, no single technique has emerged as the modality of choice to reliably predict pCR in all patients...
October 6, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979013/subcutaneous-autologous-serum-therapy-in-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria
#20
Kiran Vasant Godse, Nitin Nadkarni, Sharmila Patil, Aayushi Mehta
BACKGROUND: There is a felt need for trying newer therapeutic modalities in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, especially in the subset of patients classified as non-responders to antihistamines. Autologous serum therapy is an upcoming modality of treatment, and we decided to study its efficacy by subcutaneous route. AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness of subcutaneous autologous serum therapy (AST) in CSU. METHODS: This was a single blind, placebo-controlled parallel group, randomized, controlled study...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
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