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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527481/rethinking-anatomy-how-to-overcome-challenges-of-medical-education-s-evolution
#1
REVIEW
Bruno Guimarães, Luís Dourado, Stanislav Tsisar, José Miguel Diniz, Maria Dulce Madeira, Maria Amélia Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: Due to scientific and technological development, Medical Education has been readjusting its focus and strategies. Medical curriculum has been adopting a vertical integration model, in which basic and clinical sciences coexist during medical instruction. This context favours the introduction of new complementary technology-based pedagogical approaches. Thus, even traditional core sciences of medical curriculum, like Anatomy, are refocusing their teaching/learning paradigm...
February 27, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515848/coronary-artery-disease-detection-limitations-of-stress-testing-in-left-ventricular-dysfunction
#2
REVIEW
Ritin Bomb, Senthil Kumar, Anand Chockalingam
Incidental diagnosis of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVD) is common in clinical practice. The prevalence of asymptomatic LVD (Ejection Fraction, EF < 50%) is 6.0% in men and 0.8% in women and is twice as common as symptomatic LVD. The timely and definitive exclusion of an ischemic etiology is central to optimizing care and reducing mortality in LVD. Advances in cardiovascular imaging provide many options for imaging of patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Clinician experience, patient endurance, imaging modality characteristics, cost and safety determine the choice of testing...
April 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515589/spectrum-of-pulmonary-valve-morphology-and-its-relationship-to-pulmonary-trunk-in-tetralogy-of-fallot
#3
Binita R Chacko, George K Chiramel, Leena R Vimala, Devi A Manuel, Elizabeth Joseph, K Reka
BACKGROUND: Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a complex congenital heart disease with anatomic variations. Although the pulmonary valve in TOF is abnormal, it has not been studied well, especially on newer imaging modalities such as multidetector computed tomography (CT), which gives excellent anatomic detail. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the morphology of pulmonary valve in TOF on CT and evaluate its association with the degree of hypoplasia of infundibulum and pulmonary trunk...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511478/recognition-of-small-airways-obstruction-in-asthma-and-copd-the-road-less-travelled
#4
REVIEW
Desh Deepak, Akhila Prasad, Swapndeep Singh Atwal, Kshitij Agarwal
The small airways, once regarded as the silent zone in the air conducting system of the lungs are now known to be one of the initial sites of involvement in diseases like asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Identification of the involvement of distal airways in these diseases is often difficult to assess, clinically as well as by conventional pulmonary function tests and therefore, usually remains undiscovered in early stages. Early recognition of their involvement in asthma and COPD and timely management may reduce long term morbidity in these conditions...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509807/treatment-of-retroperitoneal-sarcoma-current-standards-and-new-developments
#5
Winan J van Houdt, Shane Zaidi, Christina Messiou, Khin Thway, Dirk C Strauss, Robin L Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Retroperitoneal sarcomas are rare tumors and with complex treatment. In this manuscript we give an overview of current standards in treatment of this disease and discuss new developments. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgery with complete resection of the primary tumor is still the only curative modality. The role of preoperative radiotherapy is not clear and is currently being investigated in a clinical trial. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is not the standard of care but can be considered occasionally when complete resection is uncertain...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507913/role-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-in-lung-transplantation
#6
REVIEW
Kelly E Hathorn, Walter W Chan, Wai-Kit Lo
Lung transplantation is one of the highest risk solid organ transplant modalities. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and lung transplant outcomes, including acute and chronic rejection. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology, evaluation, and management of GERD in lung transplantation, as informed by the most recent publications in the field. The pathophysiology of reflux-induced lung injury includes the effects of aspiration and local immunomodulation in the development of pulmonary decline and histologic rejection, as reflective of allograft injury...
April 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504359/changing-the-paradigm-for-diagnostic-mri-in-pediatrics-don-t-hold-your-breath
#7
Melissa M Masaracchia, Michael J Tsapakos, Nancy J McNulty, Michael L Beach
Increasingly complex pediatric patients and improvements in technology warrant reevaluation of the risk associated with anesthesia for diagnostic imaging. Although magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice for children given the potentially harmful effects of computerized tomography-associated ionizing radiation, we dare to suggest that certain patients would benefit from the liberalization of our current standard. Incorporating the use of newer computerized tomography technology may improve safety for those that are already at higher risk for adverse events...
May 15, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501087/the-role-of-radiotherapy-in-localized-esophageal-and-gastric-cancer
#8
REVIEW
John Ng, Percy Lee
Multimodality management has become a core treatment principle for locally advanced esophageal, gastroesophageal junction (GEJ), and gastric cancer. Radiotherapy serves an important role for optimizing patient outcomes. This article reviews the evolving role of radiotherapy in the multidisciplinary management of esophageal, GEJ, and gastric cancer, summarizing the results of recent clinical trials leading to contemporary accepted treatment approaches. A major theme is the evidence supporting the role of radiotherapy in combined modality management, particularly the trend toward its delivery in the neoadjuvant setting...
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475814/multi-disciplinary-management-of-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-with-irreversible-electroporation
#9
REVIEW
Robert C G Martin
The essential diagnosis for LAPC is based on high-quality cross-sectional imaging, which demonstrates tumor invasion into the celiac/superior mesenteric arteries and/or superior mesenteric/portal venous system that is not reconstructable. The optimal management of these patients is evolving quickly with the advent of newer chemotherapeutics, radiation, and non-thermal ablation modalities. This review will present the current status of initial chemotherapy, surgical therapy, ablative therapy, and radiation therapy for patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473084/acr-appropriateness-criteria-%C3%A2-renal-transplant%C3%A2-dysfunction
#10
Myles T Taffel, Paul Nikolaidis, Michael D Beland, M Donald Blaufox, Vikram S Dogra, Stanley Goldfarb, John L Gore, Howard J Harvin, Marta E Heilbrun, Matthew T Heller, Gaurav Khatri, Glenn M Preminger, Andrei S Purysko, Andrew D Smith, Zhen J Wang, Robert M Weinfeld, Jade J Wong-You-Cheong, Erick M Remer, Mark E Lockhart
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice in patients with end-stage renal disease because the 5-year survival rates range from 72% to 99%. Although graft survival has improved secondary to the introduction of newer immunosuppression drugs and the advancements in surgical technique, various complications still occur. Ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality for the evaluation of renal transplants in the immediate postoperative period and for long-term follow-up. In addition to depicting many of the potential complications of renal transplantation, ultrasound can also guide therapeutic interventions...
May 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469715/a-review-of-imaging-modalities-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
Mona Ascha, Rahul D Renapurkar, Adriano R Tonelli
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined as resting mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg measured by right heart catheterization. PH is a progressive, life-threatening disease with a variety of etiologies. Swift and accurate diagnosis of PH and appropriate classification in etiologic group will allow for earlier treatment and improved outcomes. A number of imaging tools are utilized in the evaluation of PH, such as chest X-ray, computed tomography (CT), ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scan, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging...
April 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458496/chronic-recurrent-non-specific-parotitis-a-case-report-and-review
#12
Saibaba Mahalakshmi, Srinivas Kandula, Patil Shilpa, Ganganna Kokila
BACKGROUND: Chronic recurrent non-specific parotitis is characterized by recurrent episodes of swelling and pain of unknown etiology in the parotid gland. Sialography is a hallmark in the diagnosis of salivary gland disorders; newer imaging modalities like CT-Sialography, sialoendoscopy and MRI can be used. Various treatment modalities have been tried, from conservative approach to surgical excision depending on the recurrence rate and severity of the condition. Although symptomatic treatment with antibiotics and analgesic, injection of intraductal medicament, aggressive treatment like duct ligation or excision of gland are some of the treatment modalities, there is no established algorithm as to which treatment method should be opted in such clinical situation...
January 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456373/book-genetics-for-obstetricians-and-gynaecologists-chapter-genetic-markers-on-ultrasound-scan
#13
REVIEW
Janani Sivanathan, Basky Thilaganathan
Prenatal diagnosis is a rapidly evolving speciality. Screening for aneuploidy begins with non-sonographic features of background risk of maternal age and past and family history. It is possible to diagnose major structural defects in the foetus using second trimester scans. Serum biochemistry markers in the early second trimester were added to increase the detection rate of aneuploidy. However, as some of these abnormalities were amenable to detection earlier in the first trimester, newer modalities were introduced...
March 21, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441369/cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-oncology
#14
Daniel Jeong, Aarti Patel, Christopher J Francois, Kenneth L Gage, Michael G Fradley
BACKGROUND: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as an important diagnostic modality in the management of cardiovascular-related dysfunction in oncological diseases. Advances in imaging techniques have enhanced the detection and evaluation of cardiac masses; meanwhile, innovative applications have created a growing role for cardiac MRI for the management of cardiotoxicity caused by cancer therapies. METHODS: An overview is provided of the clinical indications and technical considerations of cardiac MRI...
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440246/what-s-new-for-us-in-strabismus
#15
Pradeep Sharma, Nripen Gaur, Swati Phuljhele, Rohit Saxena
Strabismus is one of the most challenging subspecialties encountered in the field of ophthalmology. The concept of etiology of strabismus is being advanced with the development of newer imaging modalities and increased understanding of the genetics of strabismus. Imaging is also being used to aid in the planning of strabismus surgery. Newer horizons are being explored in the amblyopia management. The good old eye-pad is being replaced with the iPad. Early detection of loss of stereopsis is being used to decide the timing for strabismus surgery...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430673/antimicrobial-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-prevalence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#16
Regine Cherazard, Marcia Epstein, Thien-Ly Doan, Tanzila Salim, Sheena Bharti, Miriam A Smith
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, bacteremia, and otitis media. S. pneumoniae has developed increased resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review of prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications in S. pneumoniae resistance. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Since S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was first reported with subsequent development of resistance to other classes of drugs, selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment is challenging...
May 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427298/recent-advances-in-pediatric-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-an-overview
#17
Salvatore Oliva, Salvatore Cucchiara, Stanley Allen Cohen
Pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy has become a fundamental component of health care for infants and children. New imaging technologies and creative extraluminal applications have brought exciting and clinically important benefits to pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy. Areas covered: The impact of different new technologies in pediatric endoscopy and focused on improvements in mucosa visualization and the application of new noninvasive tools and procedures to avoid biopsies or surgery are reviewed. Expert commentary: Enhancement in mucosal visualization and reduction of anesthesia and biopsies are the main goals that guide the endoscopy development in pediatrics...
May 5, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409551/musculoskeletal-tuberculosis
#18
REVIEW
Michael K Leonard, Henry M Blumberg
Musculoskeletal tuberculosis (TB) accounts for approximately 10% of all extrapulmonary TB cases in the United States and is the third most common site of extrapulmonary TB after pleural and lymphatic disease. Vertebral involvement (tuberculous spondylitis, or Pott's disease) is the most common type of skeletal TB, accounting for about half of all cases of musculoskeletal TB. The presentation of musculoskeletal TB may be insidious over a long period and the diagnosis may be elusive and delayed, as TB may not be the initial consideration in the differential diagnosis...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405937/new-cardiac-imaging-algorithms-to-diagnose-constrictive-pericarditis-versus-restrictive-cardiomyopathy
#19
REVIEW
Ahmad Mahmoud, Manish Bansal, Partho P Sengupta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Echocardiography is the mainstay in the diagnostic evaluation of constrictive pericarditis (CP) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM), but no single echocardiographic parameter is sufficiently robust to accurately distinguish between the two conditions. The present review summarizes the recent advances in echocardiography that promise to improve its diagnostic performance for this purpose. The role of other imaging modalities such as cardiac computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and invasive hemodynamic assessment in the overall diagnostic approach is also discussed briefly...
May 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405087/leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-drug-reaction-to-certolizumab-pegol
#20
Meghan Woody, Donald Warren, Laura Speck, Julie Jackson
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha antagonists are a common treatment modality for autoimmune disorders, but their use can be associated with many side effects, including various dermatologic conditions. Certolizumab pegol, a newer TNF antagonist that lacks the Fc portion of the IgG antibody, has recently been approved to treat psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Crohn's disease. Though other TNF antagonists have been associated with leukocytoclastic vasculitis, this finding has not yet been reported with certolizumab pegol...
April 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
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