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Pediatric head trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902676/dural-sinus-cerebral-venous-thrombosis-in-a-pediatric-trauma-patient-a-rare-complication-after-closed-head-injury
#1
Jonathan Wilcher, Michelle Pannell
OBJECTIVE: Closed head injury rarely predisposes patients, particularly children, to the development of dural sinus thrombosis. In addition, most cases of sinus thrombosis are subacute in nature. The following is a case report of a precipitous course of dural sinus thrombosis after closed head injury in a pediatric trauma patient. DESCRIPTION: A 14-year-old African American girl presented to the emergency department as a trauma activation. She was an unrestrained rear-seat passenger involved in a motor vehicle collision during which she was ejected...
December 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902671/prehospital-transport-for-pediatric-trauma-a-comparison-of-private-transport-and-emergency-medical-services
#2
Yea-Chyi Lin, York Tien Lee, Jasmine Xun Yi Feng, Li Wei Chiang, Shireen Anne Nah
OBJECTIVES: We describe the demographics of pediatric patients with trauma transferred using private transport (PT) versus emergency medical services (EMS) and evaluate the potential impact on their treatment and outcome. METHODS: We accessed data from our national trauma registry, a prospectively collected database. Data were extracted on all patients with trauma admitted to our institution between January 2011 and June 2013, with injury severity score (ISS) higher than 8...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894431/head-and-cervical-spine-evaluation-for-the-pediatric-surgeon
#3
REVIEW
Mary K Arbuthnot, David P Mooney, Ian C Glenn
This article is designed to guide pediatric surgeons in the evaluation and stabilization of blunt head and cervical spine injuries in pediatric patients. Trauma remains the number one cause of morbidity and mortality among children, and the incidence of head injuries continues to rise. Cervical spine injuries, on the other hand, are unusual but can be devastating if missed. This article highlights the pathophysiology unique to pediatric head and cervical spine trauma as well as keys to clinical and diagnostic evaluation...
February 2017: Surgical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885947/quickbrain-mri-for-the-detection-of-acute-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
David C Sheridan, Craig D Newgard, Nathan R Selden, Mubeen A Jafri, Matthew L Hansen
OBJECTIVE The current gold-standard imaging modality for pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is CT, but it confers risks associated with ionizing radiation. QuickBrain MRI (qbMRI) is a rapid brain MRI protocol that has been studied in the setting of hydrocephalus, but its ability to detect traumatic injuries is unknown. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients with TBI who were undergoing evaluation at a single Level I trauma center between February 2010 and December 2013...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884333/c-spine-injury-and-mandibular-fractures-lifesaver-broken-in-two-spots
#5
Michael W Chu, Tahereh Soleimani, Tyler A Evans, Sarah I Fernandez, Leigh Spera, Carrie Klene, Ben L Zarzaur, Sunil S Tholpady
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a leading cause of injury and mortality and may involve mandibular fractures and cervical spine injuries. Manipulation of the spine during trauma protocols and operative treatment has the potential to cause serious spinal cord injuries. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors associated with cervical spine injury (CSI) in patients with mandibular fractures. METHODS: The National Trauma Databank (2007-2010) was used to identify patients with mandibular fractures...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876383/helmet-use-and-injury-severity-among-pediatric-skiers-and-snowboarders-in-colorado
#6
Melissa Milan, Sandeep Jhajj, Camille Stewart, Laura Pyle, Steven Moulton
INTRODUCTION: Skiing and snowboarding are popular winter recreational activities that are commonly associated with orthopedic type injuries. Unbeknownst to most parents, however, are the significant but poorly described risks for head, cervical spine and solid organ injuries. Although helmet use is not mandated for skiers and snowboarders outside of resort sponsored activities, we hypothesized that helmet use is associated with a lower risk of severe head injury, shorter ICU stay and shorter hospital length of stay...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864928/classification-of-porcine-cranial-fracture-patterns-using-a-fracture-printing-interface
#7
Feng Wei, Serhat Selçuk Bucak, Jennifer M Vollner, Todd W Fenton, Anil K Jain, Roger C Haut
Distinguishing between accidental and abusive head trauma in children can be difficult, as there is a lack of baseline data for pediatric cranial fracture patterns. A porcine head model has recently been developed and utilized in a series of studies to investigate the effects of impact energy level, surface type, and constraint condition on cranial fracture patterns. In the current study, an automated pattern recognition method, or a fracture printing interface (FPI), was developed to classify cranial fracture patterns that were associated with different impact scenarios documented in previous experiments...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862642/external-validation-of-the-pecarn-head-trauma-prediction-rules-in-japan
#8
Kentaro Ide, Satoko Uematsu, Kenichi Tetsuhara, Satoshi Yoshimura, Takahiro Kato, Tohru Kobayashi
OBJECTIVES: The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) head trauma prediction rules are used to assist computed tomography (CT) decision-making for children with minor head trauma. Although the PECARN rules have been validated in North America and Europe, they have not yet been validated in Asia. In Japan, there are no clinical decision rules for children with minor head trauma. The rate of head CT for children with minor head trauma in Japan is high since CT is widely accessible across the country...
November 12, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832341/non-accidental-trauma-the-role-of-radiology
#9
Cory M Pfeifer, Matthew R Hammer, Kate L Mangona, Timothy N Booth
Non-accidental trauma is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. Given the vulnerable state of the child, the radiologist can often provide valuable diagnostic information in the setting of suspected abuse. This review focuses on common findings of abusive trauma and serves as a guide to aid in clinical decision-making for providers of emergency medicine and pediatrics. Amid this discussion is an assessment of modern controversies regarding reported mimicking pathologies, recapitulation of the current state of evidence with respect to radiologic findings of abuse, and examination of the contribution that spine imaging may add to the diagnosis of possible abusive head trauma in the acutely injured child...
November 10, 2016: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821497/pediatric-abusive-head-trauma-prevention-initiatives-a-literature-review
#10
Nahara Rodrigues Laterza Lopes, Lúcia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Williams
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a serious form of child maltreatment that needs to be prevented. The aim of this study was to summarize the main AHT prevention strategies described in literature, aiming to identify evidence of their efficiency, as well as strengths and limitations. International databases were reviewed from 2005 to 2015 using the key words Shaken Baby Syndrome or abusive head trauma or nonaccidental head trauma or abusive head injury or nonaccidental head injury and prevention A total of 1,215 articles were found and 34 complete articles were selected for this study...
November 6, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805998/big-children-or-little-adults-a-statewide-analysis-of-adolescent-isolated-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-outcomes-at-pediatric-versus-adult-trauma-centers
#11
Brian W Gross, Mathew M Edavettal, Alan D Cook, Cole D Rinehart, Caitlin A Lynch, Eric H Bradburn, Daniel Wu
BACKGROUND: The appropriate managing center for adolescent trauma patients is debated. We sought to determine whether outcome differences existed for adolescent severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) patients treated at pediatric versus adult trauma centers. We hypothesized that no difference in mortality, functional status at discharge (FSD) or overall complication rate would be observed between center types. METHODS: All adolescent trauma patients (aged 15-17 years) presenting with isolated sTBI (head Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score ≥3; all other AIS body region scores ≤2) to accredited level I-II trauma centers in Pennsylvania from 2003-2015 were extracted from the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcome Study database...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800539/comparing-two-different-doses-of-intravenous-midazolam-in-pediatric-sedation-and-analgesia
#12
Hassan Barzegari, Kambiz Masoumi, Hassan Motamed, Behzad Zohrevandi, Shima Zeynadini Meymand
INTRODUCTION: Midazolam has turned into a common drug for pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia. However, there is not much data regarding its proper dose and potential side effects in the Iranian children population. Therefore, the present study was done to compare 2 doses of IV midazolam in this regard. METHODS: The present clinical trial was performed to compare 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg doses of IV midazolam in induction of sedation for head trauma infant patients in need of brain computed tomography (CT) scan...
November 2016: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771222/analyses-of-demographical-and-injury-characteristics-of-adult-and-pediatric-patients-injured-in-syrian-civil-war
#13
Erhan Er, Şeref Kerem Çorbacıoğlu, Sertaç Güler, Şahin Aslan, Meltem Seviner, Gökhan Aksel, Burak Bekgöz
PURPOSE: Aimed to analyze demographical data and injury characteristics of patients who were injured in the Syrian Civil War (SCW) and to define differences in injury characteristics between adult and pediatric patients. METHODOLOGY: Patients who were injured in the SCW and transferred to our emergency department were retrospectively analyzed in this study during the 15-month period between July 2013 and October 2014. RESULTS: During the study period, 1591 patients who were the victims of the SCW and admitted to our emergency department due to war injury enrolled in the study...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767903/neurosurgical-sequelae-of-domestic-dog-attacks-in-children
#14
Ramesh Kumar, Frederic W B Deleyiannis, Corbett Wilkinson, Brent R O'Neill
OBJECTIVE The authors' goals in this study were to describe a series of dog attacks on children that required neurosurgical consultation and to better understand the pattern of injuries inflicted, the circumstances that place children at risk for attack, and the dog breeds involved. In addition, the authors review the surgical and medical management of these patients. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all children requiring neurosurgical consultation for dog bite at a regional Level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 15-year period...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766468/early-diffusion-restriction-of-white-matter-in-infants-with-small-subdural-hematomas-is-associated-with-delayed-atrophy
#15
Cameron A Elliott, Vijay Ramaswamy, Francois D Jacob, Tejas Sankar, Vivek Mehta
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality. In these patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the test of choice to describe the extent of microstructural injury. CASE PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION: In this case series, we describe novel acute and chronic MRI findings in four infants (6-19 months) with small, unilateral subdural hematomas in whom the etiology of head injury was suspicious for non-accidental trauma (NAT)...
October 20, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759850/pediatric-minor-head-trauma-do-cranial-ct-scans-change-the-therapeutic-approach
#16
Felipe P Andrade, Roberto Montoro, Renan Oliveira, Gabriela Loures, Luana Flessak, Roberta Gross, Camille Donnabella, Andrea Puchnick, Lisa Suzuki, Rodrigo Regacini
OBJECTIVES: 1) To verify clinical signs correlated with appropriate cranial computed tomography scan indications and changes in the therapeutic approach in pediatric minor head trauma scenarios. 2) To estimate the radiation exposure of computed tomography scans with low dose protocols in the context of trauma and the additional associated risk. METHODS: Investigators reviewed the medical records of all children with minor head trauma, which was defined as a Glasgow coma scale ≥13 at the time of admission to the emergency room, who underwent computed tomography scans during the years of 2013 and 2014...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744559/performance-of-computed-tomography-of-the-head-to-evaluate-for-skull-fractures-in-infants-with-suspected-non-accidental-trauma
#17
Paige A Culotta, James E Crowe, Quynh-Anh Tran, Jeremy Y Jones, Amy R Mehollin-Ray, H Brandon Tran, Marcella Donaruma-Kwoh, Cristina T Dodge, Elizabeth A Camp, Andrea T Cruz
BACKGROUND: Young children with suspected abusive head trauma often receive skull radiographs to evaluate for fractures as well as computed tomography (CT) of the head to assess for intracranial injury. Using a CT as the primary modality to evaluate both fracture and intracranial injury could reduce exposure to radiation without sacrificing performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity of CT head with (3-D) reconstruction compared to skull radiographs to identify skull fractures in children with suspected abusive head trauma...
October 15, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741078/the-utility-of-head-computed-tomography-in-the-evaluation-of-apparent-life-threatening-event
#18
Wayne Stark, Annie Rominger, Fred Warkentine, Kerry Caperell
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of empiric head computed tomography (CT) in apparent life threatening event (ALTE). METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of children younger than 12 months presenting to an urban pediatric hospital and its suburban satellite for an ALTE from October 2009 to December 2012. The ALTE cases were identified as having had a diagnosis of ALTE (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision 799...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741077/acute-outcomes-of-isolated-pneumocephali-in-children-after-minor-blunt-head-trauma
#19
Ashley Blanchard, Keven I Cabrera, Nathan Kuppermann, Peter S Dayan
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence of and adverse outcomes caused by pneumocephali in children with minor blunt head trauma who had no other intracranial injuries (ie, isolated pneumocephali). METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a public use dataset from a multicenter prospective study of pediatric minor head trauma. We included children younger than 18 years with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 or 15 and non-trivial mechanisms of injury who had cranial computed tomographies obtained...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712897/a-rare-but-important-entity-epistaxis-in-infants
#20
Amy M DeLaroche, Helene Tigchelaar, Nirupama Kannikeswaran
BACKGROUND: Epistaxis is a common emergency department (ED) complaint; however, this entity is rare among children younger than 2 years of age. In this age group, epistaxis may be a presenting sign of a bleeding disorder or nonaccidental trauma. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 2-month-old infant who was evaluated in the pediatric ED for epistaxis and discharged home. The infant returned 2 days later with facial swelling and irritability, and was found to have significant head trauma...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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