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Pneumocephalus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408774/postoperative-pneumocephalus-increases-the-recurrence-rate-of-chronic-subdural-hematoma
#1
Chao-Guo You, Xue-Sheng Zheng
OBJECTIVES: Pneumocephalus is a common operative complication of chronic subdural hematoma. This study is to analyze the relationship between postoperative pneumocephalus and the recurrence and surgical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective case-cohort study, including a pneumocephalus group (n = 46) and a control group (n = 181). Their recurrence rates, CT attenuation values, hospital stay, healing time and the neurological status were recorded and analyzed...
January 29, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348993/delayed-presentation-of-cerebral-air-embolism-from-a-left-atrial-esophageal-fistula-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Catherine Peterson, Clay Elswick, Vicki Diaz, R Shane Tubbs, Marc Moisi
Air embolism developing from an atrial-esophageal fistula that was created as a complication from an atrial ablation procedure is a rare, yet usually fatal diagnosis. Neurologic manifestations such as meningitis, altered mental status, seizures, strokes, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), psychiatric changes, and coma can ensue. Imaging of the brain might reveal infarcts, cerebral edema, as well as signs of pneumocephalus. This case describes a 42-year-old male with recent cardiac ablation procedure at an outside hospital for refractory atrial fibrillation (A-fib) who presented with altered mental status, dyspnea and diaphoresis...
November 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347913/an-unusual-case-of-infective-pneumocephalus-case-report-of-pneumocephalus-exacerbated-by-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#3
Abdus Samad Ansari, Brittany B Dennis, Dilip Shah, Winfred Baah
BACKGROUND: Pneumocephalus, illustrated by air in the cranial vault is relatively infrequent and generally associated with neurosurgery, trauma, meningitis and barotrauma. However cases of spontaneous non-traumatic pneumocephalus remain rare. While the relationship between continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and atraumatic pneumocephalus has been previously reported, to our knowledge the rare presentation associated with sinus wall osteomyelitis has never been described. We summarize here the case of a 67-year-old woman's acute presentation of Streptococcus salvarius infection after a sudden drop in her consciousness...
January 18, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332784/air-transport-of-a-patient-with-impending-cerebral-herniation-from-tension-pneumocephalus
#4
Etzer Augustin, Michael Karsy, Jim Bryan, Jian Guan, Richard H Schmidt
Tension pneumocephalus is a rare but dangerous complication of craniotomy, sinus surgery, and traumatic cranial injury. Compared with simple pneumocephalus, which often resolves spontaneously over the course of a few days, tension pneumocephalus tends to increase with ongoing cerebrospinal fluid leak and requires immediate neurosurgical treatment to prevent cerebral herniation. Air transport of patients with tension pneumocephalus for neurosurgical care entails a risk of neurologic worsening because of changes in ambient air pressure with altitude and cabin pressurization...
January 2018: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326765/pneumocephalus-following-combined-spinal-epidural-anaesthesia-for-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-case-report
#5
Y W Chew, V K Suppan, S R Ashutosh, M M Tew, J H Jimmy-Tan
The authors describe a case of pneumocephalus following epidural anaesthesia for total knee arthroplasty. Multiple attempts in locating the epidural space for the anaesthesia and the use of loss of resistance to air (LORA) technique were identified as the source of air entry. Supportive management was given including high flow oxygenation therapy and spontaneous reabsorption of air was noted five days after surgery. The presence of pneumocephalus should be kept in mind if patient develops neurological complications postoperatively following epidural anaesthesia...
November 2017: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322987/complications-related-to-sitting-position-during-pediatric-neurosurgery-an-institutional-experience-and-review-of-literature
#6
Priyanka Gupta, Girija P Rath, Hemanshu Prabhakar, Parmod K Bithal
BACKGROUND: Sitting position is preferred during posterior fossa surgeries as it provides better anatomical orientation and a clear surgical field. However, its use has been declining due to its propensity to cause life-threatening complications. This study was carried out to analyze the perioperative complications and postoperative course of children who underwent neurosurgery in sitting position. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 97 children (<18 years) who underwent neurosurgery in sitting position over a period of 12 years, were retrospectively analyzed...
January 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307024/predictors-of-ventricular-tension-pneumocephalus-after-posterior-fossa-surgery-in-the-sitting-position
#7
Alexandra Sachkova, Timm Schemmerling, Maria Goldberg, Volodymyr Solomiichuk, Veit Rohde, Kajetan L von Eckardstein, Bawarjan Schatlo
BACKGROUND: Ventricular pneumocephalus is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of cranial surgery in the sitting position. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to assess the incidence and risk factors of postoperative ventricular pneumocephalus. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 307 consecutive patients (147 men, 160 women) treated at our institution by intracranial surgery in the sitting position from January 2010 to October 2014...
January 6, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295798/pneumocephalus-after-epidural-injection
#8
Jerel Chacko, Kelly Levis, Barry Hahn
BACKGROUND: Pneumocephalus, or air in the intracranial space, is most commonly encountered after trauma or surgery. Epidural injections are commonly performed in obstetrics and pain management. Complications are uncommon and include hemorrhage, cerebrospinal fluid leak, and infection. A rare complication is pneumocephalus, described in only a few case reports of epidural anesthesia. CASE REPORT: We describe a 34-year-old woman complaining of a generalized headache 6 days after an unremarkable vaginal delivery that was assisted by an epidural injection...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291381/custom-fabrication-of-a-3-dimensionally-printed-helmet-for-improved-socialization-and-subjective-self-assessment-in-a-case-of-acquired-cranial-defect-a-case-presentation
#9
Cesar Colasante, Zachary Sanford, Nileyma Castro, Matthew Bartels
Traumatic injury and subsequent residual cosmetic deformity are subject of intense scrutiny for their effects on objective health measures assessing patient morbidity and mortality. Although these remain principal concerns of all members of the treatment team, of less immediate yet lasting importance to the patient are the social costs of such disfigurement. Subjective feelings of unease and embarrassment can hinder social reintegration and encourage deteriorating psychosocial health. The following presents a case of one such individual who sustained traumatic brain injury and associated pneumocephalus and osteomyelitis requiring surgical debridement with bifrontal craniectomy and lobotomy...
December 29, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279249/reconstruction-of-a-skull-base-defect-after-endoscopic-endonasal-resection-of-a-pituitary-adenoma-sphenoid-mucosal-flaps
#10
Erden Goljo, Eliezer Kinberg, Katelyn Stepan, Jill K Gregory, Alfred M Iloreta, Satish Govindaraj, Hongyan Zou
This report describes a bilateral sphenoid sinus mucosal flap for the repair of a sellar floor defect and CSF leak following endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery. The key advantage of this technique is enabling the sphenoid mucosal flaps to remain vascularized, which reduces postoperative complications including CSF leakage, recurrent sinusitis, meningitis, encephalitis and pneumocephalus. The use of this technique is a viable and possibly favorable alternative to free grafts in the reconstruction of small to medium sized sellar defects with low flow or absent CSF leaks base surgery...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201857/a-rare-complication-of-lumbar-spinal-surgery-pneumocephalus
#11
Uğur Özdemir
A 25-year-old male patient with severe thigh and right side pain was presented. In the lumbar magnetic resonance images, there was a contrasting spinal cord tumor image with 1 cm in diameter at the level of the L3 vertebra. The patient was operated and the tumor was totally removed. All the pain of the patient recovered. The patient's postoperative two days were very comfortable and the patient was early mobilized. On the third postoperative day, the patient complained of severe headache, nausea and vomiting...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201853/proper-management-of-posttraumatic-tension-pneumocephalus
#12
Jinwon Kwon, Hyoung Kyun Rha, Hae Kwan Park, Chung Kee Chough, Won Il Joo, Sung Hoon Cho, Wonmo Gu, Wonjun Moon, Jaesung Han
Pneumocephalus is commonly seen after craniofacial injury. The pathogenesis of pneumocephalus has been debated as to whether it was caused by ball valve effect or combined episodic increased pressure within the nasopharynx on coughing. Discontinuous exchange of air and cerebrospinal fluid due to "inverted bottle" effect is assumed to be the cause of it. Delayed tension pneumocephalus is not common, but it requires an active management in order to prevent serious complication. We represent a clinical case of a 57-year-old male patient who fell down from 3 m height, complicated by tension pneumocephalus on 5 months after trauma...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196064/acute-management-of-tension-pneumocephalus-in-a-pediatric-patient-a-case-report
#13
Lauren M L'Hommedieu, Michael W Dingeldein, Krystal L Tomei, Brendan J Kilbane
BACKGROUND: Tension pneumocephalus is a rare but life-threatening condition in which air gains entry into the cranium and exerts mass effect on the brain, resulting in increased intracranial pressure. It occurs most frequently secondary to head trauma, particularly to the orbits or sinuses. CASE REPORT: A 13-year-old male sustained facial trauma from a motor vehicle collision and was found to have tension pneumocephalus on computer tomography. The patient underwent immediate rapid sequence intubation without preceding positive pressure ventilation in the emergency department...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194262/application-of-yl-1-needle-in-chronic-subdural-hematoma-treatment-for-super-aged-patients
#14
Xifeng Fei, Yi Wan, Zhimin Wang, Hanchun Chen, Dongyi Jiang
OBJECTIVE: The proportion of the super-aged population (at the age of 80 or above) in patients with chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) and the incidence of CSDH of the population have been increasing. Since it is widely accepted that YL-1 needle is effective in CSDH treatment, this paper aimed to probe into the efficacy of YL-1 needle in minimally invasive surgery for super-aged (at the age of 80-90) CSDH patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis on the clinical information of 17 super-aged CSDH patients having received the YL-1 needle puncture treatment provided by the hospital from May 2012 to December 2016 was performed...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175906/traumatic-pneumocephaly-trapped-air-from-where
#15
Azam Basheer, Mohamed Macki, Asim Mahmood
Traumatic pneumocephaly is literally defined as 'air in the head' after trauma. While this phenomenon has been well described in the literature, our case report is unique in describing diffuse pneumocephalus in the subaponeurotic space, subdural space, subarachnoid space, brain and ventricles without a break in the cranial vault: a 26-year-old man fell from a =9 meter scaffolding in a water tower. Following an arduous and delayed extrication, the patient was unresponsive with loss of pulse requiring intubation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and release of tension pneumothorax with bilateral thoracostomy tubes...
November 25, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174239/the-efficiency-and-safety-of-the-autologous-fat-graft-in-reconstruction-of-skull-base-defects-after-resection-of-skull-base-meningiomas
#16
Hussam Metwali, Venelin Gerganov, Breno Nery, Ahmed Aly, Rodrigo Avila-Cervantes, Madjid Samii
INTRODUCTION: reconstruction of skull base after resection of skull base meningioma is of paramount importance. We are presenting a safe and effective method of skull base reconstruction METHODS: a retrospective analysis of patients operated for skull base meningioma from 2007 to 2014. We analyzed the surgical technique, efficiency and safety as well as the graft-related complications. RESULTS: Autologous free fat graft had been used in 55 patients. Thirty nine patients had posterior fossa meningioma related to the petrous bone, and sixteen patients had anterior fossa meningiomas related to the paranasal sinuses...
November 23, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134167/postoperative-imaging-findings-associated-with-transpalpebral-craniotomy-approach-to-anterior-cranial-fossa
#17
Dennis Monks, Allison Weyer, Peter Thurlow, Khaled Aziz, Erik Happ, Michael Goldberg
Background and Purpose  The transpalpebral "eyelid" approach is a novel alternative to the traditional ciliary or supraciliary incision for supraorbital frontal craniotomy and access to the anterior cranial fossa. Though a prior publication from our institution has described the surgical approach in detail along with cosmetic and clinical outcomes, postoperative imaging findings have not yet been described. As this surgical technique becomes more widely practiced, it is essential for neuroradiologists, oculoplastic surgeons, and skull base neurosurgeons to be familiar with the expected postoperative imaging findings, especially those that prompt subsequent intervention...
December 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123840/a-system-of-delivering-medical-staff-members-by-helicopter-to-manage-severely-wounded-patients-in-an-area-where-medical-resources-are-limited
#18
Kohei Ishikawa, Kazuhiko Omori, Hiromichi Ohsaka, Kei Jitsuiki, Toshihiko Yoshizawa, Yasumasa Oode, Mutsumi Sakurada, Atsuhiko Mogami, Youichi Yanagawa
Aim: We review the case of a severely injured patient to evaluate the system of delivering medical staff by helicopter in areas with limited medical resources. Methods: The patient's chart was reviewed, summarized, and presented. Results: A 22-year-old woman attempted a suicidal fall after using a knife to stab herself. She was transported to a local hospital. A radiological study revealed fractures to the patient's face and the base of her skull, pneumocephalus, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, stab wounds to the neck and chest, pneumothorax, unstable pelvic fracture, and right femoral shaft fracture...
January 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121383/a-novel-etiology-for-pneumolabyrinth-after-temporal-bone-fracture-without-otic-capsule-involvement
#19
Thomas J Muelleman, Vidur Bhalla, Hinrich Staecker
Pneumolabyrinth has been considered an indicator of otic capsule involvement in temporal bone fractures. We present a novel theory for the etiology of pneumolabyrinth in a trauma patient without an otic capsule fracture: passage of intrathecal air into the labyrinth. Our patient experienced transient bilateral pneumolabyrinth after head trauma due to a motor vehicle collision. The patient was noted to have extensive pneumocephalus and a unilateral temporal bone fracture that spared the otic capsule. Initial computed tomography (CT) scans demonstrated air in the cochlea and both internal auditory canals...
October 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114309/pneumocephalus-following-dorsal-laminectomy-an-unusual-complication
#20
Brajesh Kumar, Chirantan Banerjee, Samarendra Nath Ghosh
A 16-year-old male presented at Bangur Institute of Neurosciences Neurosurgery Outpatient Department with history of gradually progressive paraparesis for 5 months associated with stiffness, urinary hesitancy, and urge incontinence for last 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging spine was done which showed cystic intradural extramedullary space occupying lesion at D4/D5 to D9. Patient had 2 episodes of generalized tonic-clonic seizure on the day 4. Computed tomography scan showed pneumocephalus. Histopathological examination report was that of nonspecific inflammatory cyst...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
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