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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208460/ralgps2-is-involved-in-tunneling-nanotubes-formation-in-5637-bladder-cancer-cells
#1
A D'Aloia, G Berruti, B Costa, C Schiller, R Ambrosini, V Pastori, E Martegani, M Ceriani
RalGPS2 is a Ras-independent Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) for RalA containing a PH domain and an SH3-bindind region and it is involved in several cellular processes, such as cytokinesis, control of cell cycle progression, differentiation, cytoskeleton organization and rearrangement. Up to now, few data have been published regarding RalGPS2 role in cancer cells, and its involvement in bladder cancer is yet to be established. In this paper we demonstrated that RalGPS2 is expressed in urothelial carcinoma-derived 5637 cancer cells and is essential for cellular growth...
December 2, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201632/active-living-in-rural-appalachia-using-the-rural-active-living-assessment-rala-tools-to-explore-environmental-barriers
#2
Adam Hege, Richard W Christiana, Rebecca Battista, Hannah Parkhurst
People residing in rural communities are more likely to be physically inactive and subsequently have elevated risks for chronic disease. Recent evidence has shown this could stem from environmental barriers, inadequate programming and policies directed at the promotion of physical activity (PA) in rural settings. The objective of this research was to assess active living features in rural towns and townships (n = 16) across seven counties in northwestern North Carolina (NC). The study utilized the Town-Wide and Street Segment components of the Rural Active Living Assessment (RALA) as well as the 2014 American Community Survey results...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196555/ral-gtpases-biology-and-potential-as-therapeutic-targets-in-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Chao Yan, Dan Theodorescu
More than a hundred proteins comprise the RAS superfamily of small GTPases. This family can be divided into RAS, RHO, RAB, RAN, ARF, and RAD subfamilies, with each shown to play distinct roles in human cells in both health and disease. The RAS subfamily has a well-established role in human cancer with the three genes, HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS being the commonly mutated in tumors. These RAS mutations, most often functionally activating, are especially common in pancreatic, lung, and colorectal cancers. Efforts to inhibit RAS and related GTPases have produced inhibitors targeting the downstream effectors of RAS signaling, including inhibitors of the RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)-ERK kinase pathway and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase-AKT-mTOR kinase pathway...
January 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136404/galectin-3-expression-is-prognostic-in-diffuse-type-gastric-adenocarcinoma-confers-aggressive-phenotype-and-can-be-targeted-by-yap1-bet-inhibitors
#4
Jaffer A Ajani, Jeannelyn S Estrella, Qiongrong Chen, Arlene M Correa, Lang Ma, Ailing W Scott, Jiankang Jin, Bin Liu, Min Xie, Kazuki Sudo, Hironori Shiozaki, Brian Badgwell, Brian Weston, Jeffrey H Lee, Manoop S Bhutani, Hisashi Onodera, Koyu Suzuki, Akihiro Suzuki, Sheng Ding, Wayne L Hofstetter, Randy L Johnson, Robert S Bresalier, Shumei Song
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside binding protein, has been noted in many tumour types but its functional significance and clinical utility in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) are not well known. METHODS: We studied 184 GAC patients characterised by histologic grade, sub-phenotypes (diffuse vs intestinal), and ethnicity (Asians vs North Americans). Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the expression of Gal-3 in human GACs and we correlated it to the clinical outcomes...
November 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133857/pdgfr-modulated-mir-23b-cluster-and-mir-125a-5p-suppress-lung-tumorigenesis-by-targeting-multiple-components-of-kras-and-nf-kb-pathways
#5
Srivatsava Naidu, Lei Shi, Peter Magee, Justin D Middleton, Alessandro Laganá, Sudhakar Sahoo, Hui Sun Leong, Melanie Galvin, Kristopher Frese, Caroline Dive, Vincenza Guzzardo, Matteo Fassan, Michela Garofalo
In NSCLC alterations in PDGF receptors are markers of worst prognosis and efficient targeting of these receptors is yet to be achieved. In this study, we explored PDGFR-regulated microRNAs demonstrating that miR-23b cluster and miR-125a-5p are downregulated by increased expression of PDGFR-α or PDGFR-β in NSCLC cells. Mechanistically, the expression of these microRNAs is positively regulated by p53 and negatively modulated by NF-kB p65. Forced expression of miR-23b cluster or miR-125a-5p enhanced drug sensitivity and suppressed invasiveness of NSCLC cells by silencing several genes involved in oncogenic KRAS and NF-kB pathways, including SOS1, GRB2, IQGAP1, RALA, RAF-1, IKKβ, AKT2, ERK2 and KRAS itself...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128114/saturated-or-unsaturated-fat-supplemented-maternal-diets-influence-omental-adipose-tissue-proteome-of-suckling-goat-kids
#6
Laura Restelli, Andreia T Marques, Giovanni Savoini, Guido Invernizzi, Michela Carisetti, Cristina Lecchi, Emoke Bendixen, Fabrizio Ceciliani
The aim of the present study was to investigate how maternal diet can influence the adipose tissue of goat kids. Omental adipose tissue proteomes of goat-kids from mothers fed with diet enriched with stearic acid (ST-kids), fish oil (FO-kids) and standard diets (CTRL) were determined by quantitative iTRAQ 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis. Twenty proteins were found to be differentially expressed in suckling kids' omental adipose tissue. Stearic acid induces changes in a higher number of proteins when compared to fish oil...
November 3, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047224/ral-signaling-pathway-in-health-and-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Adel Rezaei Moghadam, Elham Patrad, Elham Tafsiri, Warner Peng, Benjamin Fangman, Timothy J Pluard, Anthony Accurso, Michael Salacz, Kushal Shah, Brandon Ricke, Danse Bi, Kyle Kimura, Leland Graves, Marzieh Khajoie Najad, Roya Dolatkhah, Zohreh Sanaat, Mina Yazdi, Naeimeh Tavakolinia, Mohammad Mazani, Mojtaba Amani, Saeid Ghavami, Robyn Gartell, Colleen Reilly, Zaid Naima, Tuba Esfandyari, Faris Farassati
The Ral (Ras-Like) signaling pathway plays an important role in the biology of cells. A plethora of effects is regulated by this signaling pathway and its prooncogenic effectors. Our team has demonstrated the overactivation of the RalA signaling pathway in a number of human malignancies including cancers of the liver, ovary, lung, brain, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Additionally, we have shown that the activation of RalA in cancer stem cells is higher in comparison with differentiated cancer cells...
October 18, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022480/evaluation-of-serum-autoantibodies-against-tumor-associated-antigens-as-biomarkers-in-lung-cancer
#8
Pei Li, Jian-Xiang Shi, Meng-Tao Xing, Li-Ping Dai, Ji-Tian Li, Jian-Ying Zhang
We evaluated autoantibodies against nine tumor-associated antigens, including p62, p16, Koc, p53, Cyclin B1, Cyclin E, Survivin, HCC1, and RalA as serological markers in lung cancer. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect autoantibodies in sera from 50 lung cancer patients and 42 normal controls. Then, four tumor-associated antigens of higher values were selected and validated in sera from validation group. Western blot and serum absorption test were used to confirm positive findings from ELISA...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903407/mir-331-3p-and-aurora-kinase-inhibitor-ii-co-treatment-suppresses-prostate-cancer-tumorigenesis-and-progression
#9
Michael R Epis, Keith M Giles, Dianne J Beveridge, Kirsty L Richardson, Patrick A Candy, Lisa M Stuart, Jacqueline Bentel, Ronald J Cohen, Peter J Leedman
RNA-based therapeutics could represent a new avenue of cancer treatment. miRNA 331-3p (miR-331-3p) is implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) as a putative tumor suppressor, but its functional activity and synergy with other anti-tumor agents is largely unknown. We found miR-331-3p expression in PCa tumors was significantly decreased compared to non-malignant matched tissue. Analysis of publicly available PCa gene expression data sets showed miR-331-3p expression negatively correlated with Gleason Score, tumor stage, lymph node involvement and PSA value, and was significantly down regulated in tumor tissue relative to normal prostate tissue...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821441/in-situ-detection-of-the-activation-of-rac1-and-rala-small-gtpases-in-mouse-adipocytes-by-immunofluorescent-microscopy-following-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-insulin-stimulation
#10
Nobuyuki Takenaka, Yuma Nihata, Sho Ueda, Takaya Satoh
Rac1 has been implicated in insulin-dependent glucose uptake by mechanisms involving plasma membrane translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. Although the uptake of glucose is also stimulated by insulin in adipose tissue, the role for Rac1 in adipocyte insulin signaling remains controversial. As a step to reveal the role for Rac1 in adipocytes, we aimed to establish immunofluorescent microscopy to detect the intracellular distribution of activated Rac1. The epitope-tagged Rac1-binding domain of a Rac1-specific target was utilized as a probe that specifically recognizes the activated form of Rac1...
November 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745416/a-role-for-host-cell-exocytosis-in-inlb-mediated-internalisation-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#11
Hoan Van Ngo, Manmeet Bhalla, Da-Yuan Chen, Keith Ireton
The bacterial surface protein InlB mediates internalisation of Listeria monocytogenes into human cells through interaction with the host receptor tyrosine kinase, Met. InlB-mediated entry requires localised polymerisation of the host actin cytoskeleton. Apart from actin polymerisation, roles for other host processes in Listeria entry are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that exocytosis in the human cell promotes InlB-dependent internalisation. Using a probe consisting of VAMP3 with an exofacial green fluorescent protein tag, focal exocytosis was detected during InlB-mediated entry...
November 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722830/ralfuranones-contribute-to-mushroom-type-biofilm-formation-by-ralstonia-solanacearum-strain-oe1-1
#12
Yuka Mori, Yuki Hosoi, Shiho Ishikawa, Kazusa Hayashi, Yu Asai, Hideyuki Ohnishi, Mika Shimatani, Kanako Inoue, Kenichi Ikeda, Hitoshi Nakayashiki, Yasuyo Nishimura, Kouhei Ohnishi, Akinori Kiba, Kenji Kai, Yasufumi Hikichi
After invasion into intercellular spaces of tomato plants, the soil-borne plant pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum strain OE1-1 forms mushroom-shaped biofilms (mushroom-type biofilms, mBFs) on tomato cells, leading to its virulence. The strain OE1-1 produces aryl-furanone secondary metabolites, ralfuranones (A, B, J, K and L), dependent on the quorum sensing (QS) system with methyl 3-hydroxymyristate (3-OH MAME) synthesized by PhcB as a QS signal. Ralfuranones are associated with the feedback loop of the QS system...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666255/mir-331-3p-and-aurora-kinase-inhibitor-ii-co-treatment-suppresses-prostate-cancer-tumorigenesis-and-progression
#13
Michael R Epis, Keith M Giles, Dianne J Beveridge, Kirsty L Richardson, Patrick A Candy, Lisa M Stuart, Jacqueline Bentel, Ronald J Cohen, Peter J Leedman
RNA-based therapeutics could represent a new avenue of cancer treatment. miRNA 331-3p (miR-331-3p) is implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) as a putative tumor suppressor, but its functional activity and synergy with other anti-tumor agents is largely unknown. We found miR-331-3p expression in PCa tumors was significantly decreased compared to non-malignant matched tissue. Analysis of publicly available PCa gene expression data sets showed miR-331-3p expression negatively correlated with Gleason Score, tumor stage, lymph node involvement and PSA value, and was significantly down regulated in tumor tissue relative to normal prostate tissue...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618923/serum-autoantibodies-against-a-panel-of-15-tumor-associated-antigens-in-the-detection-of-ovarian-cancer
#14
Hao Sun, Jian-Xiang Shi, Hong-Fei Zhang, Meng-Tao Xing, Pei Li, Li-Ping Dai, Cheng-Lin Luo, Xiao Wang, Peng Wang, Hua Ye, Liu-Xia Li, Jian-Ying Zhang
In this study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been used to examine the frequencies of serum autoantibodies against two candidate tumor-associated antigens intensively selected from the Human Protein Atlas database, in combination with 13 tumor-associated antigens available from our lab in sera from 44 OC patients and 50 normal healthy controls. Conventional evaluation (mean + 3SD as the cutoff value to determine a positive reactivity), receiver operating characteristic curve analyses, and classification tree analysis were further used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of autoantibodies against these tumor-associated antigens (anti-tumor-associated antigens) in ovarian cancer...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545253/encapsulation-of-the-antioxidant-r-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-in-permethylated-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-cyclodextrins-thermal-and-x-ray-structural-characterization-of-the-1-1-inclusion-complexes
#15
Mino R Caira, Susan A Bourne, Buntubonke Mzondo
The naturally occurring compound α-lipoic acid (ALA) is implicated in manifold critical biological roles and its potent antioxidant properties and potential for treatment of various diseases have led to its widespread use as a dietary supplement. However, shortcomings of poor aqueous solubility and low thermal stability have hampered its development as a medicinal agent, prompting the use of cyclodextrins (CDs) to address these problems. The paucity of published structural data on the nature of the interactions between ALA and CDs motivated the present study, which describes the synthesis and X-ray structural elucidation of crystalline inclusion complexes between the biologically relevant R-(+)-α-lipoic acid (RALA) and the host molecules permethylated α-CD (TMA) and permethylated β-CD (TMB)...
May 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498728/a-family-affair-a-ral-exocyst-centered-network-links-ras-rac-rho-signaling-to-control-cell-migration
#16
Giulia Zago, Marco Biondini, Jacques Camonis, Maria Carla Parrini
Cell migration is central to many developmental, physiologic and pathological processes, including cancer progression. The Ral GTPases (RalA and RalB) which act down-stream the Ras oncogenes, are key players in the coordination between membrane trafficking and actin polymerization. A major direct effector of Ral, the exocyst complex, works in polarized exocytosis and is at the center of multiple protein-protein interactions that support cell migration by promoting protrusion formation, front-rear polarization, and extra-cellular matrix degradation...
May 12, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459538/substrate-recognition-of-martx-ras-rap1-specific-endopeptidase
#17
Marco Biancucci, Amy E Rabideau, Zeyu Lu, Alex R Loftis, Bradley L Pentelute, Karla J F Satchell
Ras/Rap1-specific endopeptidase (RRSP) is a cytotoxic effector domain of the multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin of highly virulent strains of Vibrio vulnificus. RRSP blocks RAS-MAPK kinase signaling by cleaving Ras and Rap1 within the switch I region between Y32 and D33. Although the RRSP processing site is highly conserved among small GTPases, only Ras and Rap1 have been identified as proteolytic substrates. Here we report that residues Y32 and D33 at the scissile bond play an important role in RRSP substrate recognition, while the nucleotide state of Ras has an only minimal effect...
May 30, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436620/arginine-rich-peptide-based-mrna-nanocomplexes-efficiently-instigate-cytotoxic-t-cell-immunity-dependent-on-the-amphipathic-organization-of-the-peptide
#18
Vimal K Udhayakumar, Ans De Beuckelaer, Joanne McCaffrey, Cian M McCrudden, Jonathan L Kirschman, Daryll Vanover, Lien Van Hoecke, Kenny Roose, Kim Deswarte, Bruno G De Geest, Stefan Lienenklaus, Philip J Santangelo, Johan Grooten, Helen O McCarthy, Stefaan De Koker
To date, the mRNA delivery field has been heavily dominated by lipid-based systems. Reports on the use of nonlipid carriers for mRNA delivery in contrast are rare in the context of mRNA vaccination. This paper describes the potential of a cell-penetrating peptide containing the amphipathic RALA motif to deliver antigen-encoding mRNA to the immune system. RALA condenses mRNA into nanocomplexes that display acidic pH-dependent membrane disruptive properties. RALA mRNA nanocomplexes enable mRNA escape from endosomes and thereby allow expression of mRNA inside the dendritic cell cytosol...
April 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415752/correlation-between-facial-morphology-and-gene-polymorphisms-in-the-uygur-youth-population
#19
Huiyu He, Xue Mi, Jiayu Zhang, Qin Zhang, Yuan Yao, Xu Zhang, Feng Xiao, Chunping Zhao, Shutao Zheng
Human facial morphology varies considerably among individuals and can be influenced by gene polymorphisms. We explored the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on facial features in the Uygur youth population of the Kashi area in Xinjiang, China. Saliva samples were collected from 578 volunteers, and 10 SNPs previously associated with variations in facial physiognomy were genotyped. In parallel, 3D images of the subjects' faces were obtained using grating facial scanning technology. After delimitation of 15 salient landmarks, the correlation between SNPs and the distances between facial landmark pairs was assessed...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363788/mesenchymal-stem-cell-fate-following-non-viral-gene-transfection-strongly-depends-on-the-choice-of-delivery-vector
#20
T Gonzalez-Fernandez, B N Sathy, C Hobbs, G M Cunniffe, H O McCarthy, N J Dunne, V Nicolosi, F J O'Brien, D J Kelly
Controlling the phenotype of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) through the delivery of regulatory genes is a promising strategy in tissue engineering (TE). Essential to effective gene delivery is the choice of gene carrier. Non-viral delivery vectors have been extensively used in TE, however their intrinsic effects on MSC differentiation remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of three different classes of non-viral gene delivery vectors: (1) cationic polymers (polyethylenimine, PEI), (2) inorganic nanoparticles (nanohydroxyapatite, nHA) and (3) amphipathic peptides (RALA peptide) on modulating stem cell fate after reporter and therapeutic gene delivery...
March 29, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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