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Brain therapy

Susan Combs Scott, Nathan A Pennell
BACKGROUND: Checkpoint inhibitors augment the immune system's natural surveillance mechanisms and have increasing applications in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immunosuppressive corticosteroids are also frequently used in this population to treat unwanted inflammation. Based on this mechanistic opposition, we investigated the interaction between nivolumab and corticosteroids in patients with advanced NSCLC. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 210 NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab at the Cleveland Clinic was performed...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Mark G Swain, David E J Jones
The management of fatigue associated with chronic liver disease is a complex and major clinical challenge. Although fatigue can complicate many chronic diseases, it is particularly common in diseases with an inflammatory component. Fatigue can have both peripheral (i.e., neuromuscular) and central (i.e., resulting from changes in neurotransmission within the brain) causes. However, fatigue in chronic liver disease has strong social/contextual components and is often associated with behavioural alterations including depression and anxiety...
June 23, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Aditya Kulkarni, Paola Caporali, Atul Dolas, Soniya Johny, Sandeep Goyal, Jessica Dragotto, Alberto Macone, Ramesh Jayaraman, Maria Teresa Fiorenza
Niemann-Pick Type C1 disorder (NPC) is a rare lysosomal storage disease characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol in lysosomes. NPC has no FDA approved treatments yet, however 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) has shown efficacy for treating the disease in both mouse and feline NPC models and is currently being investigated in late stage clinical trials. Despite promising results, therapeutic use of HPβCD is limited by the need for high doses, ototoxicity and intrathecal administration. These limitations can be attributed to its poor pharmacokinetic profile...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniele Tolomeo, Edoardo Micotti, Sonia Colombo Serra, Michael Chappell, Anniina Snellman, Gianluigi Forloni
Glucose is the central nervous system's only energy source. Imaging techniques capable to detect pathological alterations of the brain metabolism are useful in different diagnostic processes. Such techniques are also beneficial for assessing the evaluation efficacy of therapies in pre-clinical and clinical stages of diseases. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a possible alternative to positron emission tomography (PET) imaging that has been widely explored in cancer research in humans and animal models...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sebastian Rauer, Lidia Stork, Horst Urbach, Angeliki Stathi, Anna Marx, Patrick Süß, Marco Prinz, Wolfgang Brück, Imke Metz
OBJECTIVE: To report on 2 women with multiple sclerosis (MS) who developed severe neurologic deterioration and a drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) after treatment with 2 and 4 subcutaneous injections of daclizumab, respectively. METHODS: This report includes clinical, MRI, and histopathologic data. RESULTS: Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds the interleukin-2 receptor. It was approved for the treatment of relapsing MS...
June 22, 2018: Neurology
Loïc Chaigneau, Anna Patrikidou, Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Thibaud Valentin, Claude Linassier, Jacques Olivier Bay, Laurence Moureau Zabotto, Emmanuelle Bompas, Sophie Piperno-Neumann, Nicolas Penel, Thierry Alcindor, Maryline Laigre, Cecile Guillemet, Sebastien Salas, Anne Hugli, Julien Domont, Marie Pierre Sunyach, Axel Lecesne, Jean Yves Blay, Virginie Nerich, Nicolas Isambert
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BM) from adult soft tissue or bone sarcomas are rare, and sparse data exist on their prognostic factors and management. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 15 centers of the French Sarcoma Group, plus one Canadian and one Swiss center, to report on clinical, histological, and treatment characteristics and to identify predictive factors of outcome. RESULTS: Between 1992 and 2012, 246 patients with a median age of 50 years (range: 16-86) were managed for BM...
June 22, 2018: Oncologist
Elad Lax, Moshe Szyf
Drug addiction is a devastating health problem that is a very heavy burden on the individual affected and the society in general. Recent research defines addiction as a neurobehavioral disorder. Underpinning biological mechanisms of drug addiction are abnormal neuronal and brain activity following acute and repeated drug exposure. Abnormal gene expression is found in reward and decision-making brain regions of addicts and in animal models and is possibly responsible for changes in brain function. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that regulates gene expression...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Alessandro Marra
Pancoast or superior pulmonary sulcus tumour is a subset of lung carcinoma that invades the structures of the thoracic inlet - first ribs, distal roots of the brachial plexus, stellate ganglion, vertebrae, and subclavian vessels. The first symptom is usually shoulder pain; consequently, most patients are initially treated for osteoarthritis. Late diagnosis is common. Success of therapy depends on an accurate staging: standard imaging with CT scan of the chest, PET-CT scan, brain MRI are needed to rule out distant metastases, endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle biopsy (EBUS-TBNA) or mediastinoscopy are mandatory for reliable nodal staging...
June 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Fusun Citak-Er, Zeynep Firat, Ilhami Kovanlikaya, Ugur Ture, Esin Ozturk-Isik
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of multi-parametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantitative features in the machine learning-based grading of gliomas with a multi-region-of-interests approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients who were newly diagnosed as having a glioma were included in this study. The patients were scanned prior to any therapy using a standard brain tumor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol that included T1 and T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, diffusion tensor, MR perfusion and MR spectroscopic imaging...
June 15, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Wesley Thevathasan, Elena Moro
Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an experimental treatment for in Parkinson's disease (PD) which offers a fairly circumscribed benefit for gait freezing and perhaps balance impairment. The benefit on gait freezing is variable and typically incomplete, which may reflect that the clinical application is yet to be optimised or reflect a fundamental limitation of the therapeutic mechanism. Thus, a better understanding of the therapeutic mechanism of PPN DBS may guide the further development of this therapy...
June 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Milos D Ikonomovic, Eric E Abrahamson, Shaun W Carlson, Steven H Graham, C Edward Dixon
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for development of chronic neurodegenerative disorders later in life. This review summarizes the current knowledge and concepts regarding the connection between long-term consequences of TBI and aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), and Parkinsonism, with implications for novel therapy targets. Several aggregation-prone proteins such as the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, tau proteins, and α-synuclein protein are involved in secondary pathogenic cascades initiated by a TBI and are also major building blocks of the hallmark pathological lesions in chronic human neurodegenerative diseases with dementia...
June 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Tomomi Shijo, Hitoshi Warita, Naoki Suzuki, Kensuke Ikeda, Shio Mitsuzawa, Tetsuya Akiyama, Hiroya Ono, Ayumi Nishiyama, Rumiko Izumi, Yasuo Kitajima, Masashi Aoki
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, fatal neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by the systemic loss of motor neurons with prominent astrocytosis and microgliosis in the spinal cord and brain. Astrocytes play an essential role in maintaining extracellular microenvironments that surround motor neurons, and are activated by various insults. Growing evidence points to a non-cell autonomous neurotoxicity caused by chronic and sustained astrocytic activation in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Neurology
George Vasquez-Rios, Hani Alkhankan, Boutros Peter Sawaya, Javier A Neyra
INTRODUCTION: Methanol intoxication is an infrequent cause of poisoning in the United Sates. It can present with prominent stroke-like features and acute kidney injury. Despite the life-threatening nature of this condition, it is poorly identified by clinicians. We aim to present a case of rapidly progressive mental decline and renal involvement, discuss a diagnostic work-up and provide a critical review on therapeutic strategies. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old patient presented to the emergency department with acute encephalopathy and diffuse muscular rigidity...
June 22, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Leonardo A Frizon, Sean J Nagel, Francis J May, Jianning Shao, Andres L Maldonado-Naranjo, Hubert H Fernandez, Andre G Machado
OBJECTIVE The number of patients who benefit from deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) has increased significantly since the therapy was first approved by the FDA. Suboptimal outcomes, infection, or device failure are risks of the procedure and may require lead removal or repositioning. The authors present here the results of their series of revision and reimplantation surgeries. METHODS The data were reviewed from all DBS intracranial lead removals, revisions, or reimplantations among patients with PD over a 6-year period at the authors' institution...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Qunqun Bao, Ping Hu, Yingying Xu, Tiansheng Cheng, Chenyang Wei, Limin Pan, Jianlin Shi
Cerebral vasculature and neuronal networks will be largely destroyed due to the oxidative damages by over-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) during stroke, accompanied by the symptoms of ischemic injury and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Ceria nanoparticles, acting as an effective and recyclable ROS scavenger, have been showing high effectiveness in neuroprotection. However, the brain access of nanoparticles can only be achieved by targeting the damaged area of BBB, leading to the disrupted BBB unprotected and turbulence of microenvironment in brain...
June 22, 2018: ACS Nano
Rahul Ladwa, Victoria Atkinson
AIM: Improved systemic treatment has improved the prognosis of metastatic melanoma (MM). However, brain metastases (BMs) are a frequent complication. We aimed to explore the outcome of these patients with modern therapeutic options. METHOD: We retrospectively analyzed 142 patients diagnosed with BM from MM at two institutions in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia during 2009-2016. Basic clinico-pathological parameters, treatments used and mortality data were collected...
June 22, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Rachel K Peterson, Jason M Ashford, Sarah M Scott, Fang Wang, Hui Zhang, Julie A Bradley, Thomas E Merchant, Heather M Conklin
BACKGROUND: Childhood brain tumor diagnoses are stressful for families. Children diagnosed with craniopharyngioma (Cp) present with particularly challenging medical and cognitive problems due to tumor location and associated biophysiologic comorbidities. This study examined parental distress in a sample of families of patients with Cp treated with proton beam therapy to identify factors for targeting psychological intervention. PROCEDURE: Prior to (n = 96) and 1 year after (n = 73) proton therapy, parents of children diagnosed with Cp (9...
June 22, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Olivia G Calancie, Sarosh Khalid-Khan, Linda Booij, Douglas P Munoz
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a form of psychotherapy for individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), has long been a controversial topic, hampered in part by a lack of understanding of the neural mechanisms that contribute to its remedial effect. Here, we review current theories describing EMDR's potential neurobiological mechanisms of action involving working memory, interhemispheric communication, de-arousal, and memory reconsolidation. We then discuss recent studies describing the temporal and spatial aspects of smooth pursuit and predictive saccades, which resemble those made during EMDR, and their neural correlates within the default mode network (DMN) and cerebellum...
June 21, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Lori A Ramkissoon, Nicholas Britt, Alexander Guevara, Emily Whitt, Eric Severson, Pratheesh Sathyan, Laurie Gay, Julia Elvin, Jeffrey S Ross, Charlotte Brown, Kimberly Stogner-Underwood, Ryan Mott, David Kram, Roy Strowd, Glenn J Lesser, Shakti H Ramkissoon
In recent years, large-scale genomic studies have expanded our knowledge regarding genomic drivers in tumors of the central nervous system. While histopathologic analysis of brain tumors remains the primary method for tumor classification, the clinical utility of molecular and genomic testing to support and/or complement tumor classification continues to expand. This approach enhances diagnostic accuracy and provides clinicians with objective data to facilitate discussions regarding prognosis and treatment decisions, including selection of clinical trials...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Sern Wei Yeoh, Alex C N Holmes, Michael M Saling, Ian P Everall, Amanda J Nicoll
Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection experience a range of symptoms including depression, fatigue and neurocognitive deficits, impairing quality of life. Depression, in particular, may be reactive to increased psychosocial stress, and the physical symptoms of advanced HCV or associated comorbidities. However, even patients at an early stage of HCV infection, with minimal hepatic inflammation or comorbidities, report more depressive symptoms and fatigue than the general population. Similarly, specific neurocognitive deficits occur in early stage HCV infection and are independent of the presence of depression or encephalopathy...
June 21, 2018: Hepatology International
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