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Athletes sudden cardiac death

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711608/do-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-have-performance-enhancing-effects-in-female-athletes
#1
REVIEW
Grace Huang, Shehzad Basaria
Doping with anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) is common among both male and female athletes and is a growing public health problem. Review of historical data of systematic state-sponsored doping programs implemented by the German Democratic Republic in elite female athletes and from clinical trials of testosterone administration in non-athlete women suggests that AAS have ergogenic effects in women. The use of AAS in female athletes has been associated with adverse effects that include acne, hirsutism, deepening of the voice and menstrual disturbances; life-threatening adverse effects such as cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death have also been reported...
July 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706583/cardiac-damage-in-athlete-s-heart-when-the-supernormal-heart-fails
#2
REVIEW
Andreina Carbone, Antonello D'Andrea, Lucia Riegler, Raffaella Scarafile, Enrica Pezzullo, Francesca Martone, Raffaella America, Biagio Liccardo, Maurizio Galderisi, Eduardo Bossone, Raffaele Calabrò
Intense exercise may cause heart remodeling to compensate increases in blood pressure or volume by increasing muscle mass. Cardiac changes do not involve only the left ventricle, but all heart chambers. Physiological cardiac modeling in athletes is associated with normal or enhanced cardiac function, but recent studies have documented decrements in left ventricular function during intense exercise and the release of cardiac markers of necrosis in athlete's blood of uncertain significance. Furthermore, cardiac remodeling may predispose athletes to heart disease and result in electrical remodeling, responsible for arrhythmias...
June 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699707/-electrocardiographic-interpretation-in-athletes-2017-recommendations-for-non-cardiologists
#3
Philippe Meyer, Vincent Gabus
A resting electrocardiogram (ECG) is recommended for screening of sudden cardiac death in young athletes. However, ECG interpretation in athletes requires an adequate training because normal physiological training adaptations in athletes can sometimes be hardly distinguished from abnormal findings suggestive of underlying pathology. In 2017, a consensus of international experts established new recommendations for a clear and accurate interpretation of ECGs in athletes. This article aims to guide non-cardiologists according to these new data, allowing a better triage of anomalies requiring further investigations...
July 12, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670826/current-practices-are-variable-in-the-evaluation-and-management-of-patients-with-anomalous-aortic-origin-of-a-coronary-artery-results-of-a-survey
#4
Hitesh Agrawal, Carlos M Mery, Patrick E Day, S Kristen Sexson Tejtel, E Dean McKenzie, Charles D Fraser, Athar M Qureshi, Silvana Molossi
BACKGROUND: Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) is the second leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young athletes in the USA. Long-term outcome data for these patients are lacking to date. There is insufficient knowledge on the best approach to these patients and they are managed in a nonuniform manner. METHODS: An online survey of 15 questions regarding management of AAOCA was sent out to 198 cardiac healthcare providers. The goal was to define gaps in knowledge to justify a dedicated scientific forum for discussion of AAOCA...
July 2, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625016/brugada-syndrome-and-exercise-practice-current-knowledge-shortcomings-and-open-questions
#5
Giuseppe Mascia, Elena Arbelo, Jaime Hernández Ojeda, Francesco Solimene, Ramon Brugada, Josep Brugada
Since its recognition as a clinical entity in 1992, the Brugada Syndrome (BrS), a hereditary disease characterized by a typical electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern potentially predisposing to sudden cardiac death (SCD), has attracted the attention of many physicians for its circadian pattern of ventricular arrhythmias (VA), mostly occurring at rest. Exercise may potentially worsen the ECG abnormalities in BrS patients, resulting in higher peak J-point amplitudes during the vasovagal reaction of the recovery period, possibly leading to an increased risk of cardiac events...
July 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618149/sudden-cardiac-death-in-the-young-epidemiology-and-overview
#6
Mark S Link
Sudden cardiac death (SCD), particularly in the young athlete, is a rare though devastating event for families, institutions, and communities at large. It can also affect the nonathlete and occur at rest, although most commonly associated with exercise activities and/or sports participation. Common causes of SCD include cardiomyopathies, particularly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the United States, congenital coronary artery anomalies, channelopathies, among others. This report will explore an overview of the prevalence and causes of SCD in the young...
June 15, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598033/decision-making-in-anomalous-aortic-origin-of-a-coronary-artery
#7
Carlos M Mery
Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) is the second most common cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes in United States. The exact pathophysiological mechanisms of SCD are unknown. There is lack of long-term outcome data on repaired and unrepaired AAOCA and our current risk stratification scheme for these patients is suboptimal. These patients are evaluated in a nonuniform manner across institutions in United States, and even by different providers residing in the same institution...
June 9, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587536/commotio-cordis-a-review
#8
Ritesh G Menezes, Huda Fatima, Syed Ather Hussain, Saba Ahmed, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Magdy A Kharoshah, Mohammed Madadin, Pradhum Ram, Sadip Pant, Sushil Allen Luis
Commotio cordis is an increasingly reported fatal mechano-electric syndrome and is the second most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young athletes. It is most commonly associated with a sports-related injury, wherein, there is a high-velocity impact between a projectile and the precordium. By virtue of this impact, malignant arrhythmias consequently develop leading to the individual's immediate demise, accompanied by a relatively normal post-mortem analysis. The importance of an autopsy remains paramount to exclude other causes of sudden death...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538763/myosin-binding-protein-c-compound-heterozygous-variant-effect-on-the-phenotypic-expression-of-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#9
Julianny Freitas Rafael, Fernando Eugênio Dos Santos Cruz, Antônio Carlos Campos de Carvalho, Ilan Gottlieb, José Guilherme Cazelli, Ana Paula Siciliano, Glauber Monteiro Dias
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins. It is the major cause of sudden cardiac death in young high-level athletes. Studies have demonstrated a poorer prognosis when associated with specific mutations. The association between HCM genotype and phenotype has been the subject of several studies since the discovery of the genetic nature of the disease. This study shows the effect of a MYBPC3 compound variant on the phenotypic HCM expression...
April 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502848/exercise-training-in-athletes-with-heart-disease
#10
REVIEW
Antonio B Fernandez, Paul D Thompson
Exercise events and sport participation have increased over recent decades. The average age of sports participants has also increased with a potential parallel increase in the number of exercise participants with both occult and diagnosed cardiovascular disease (CVD). Habitual physical activity and exercise training reduce atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk in a curvilinear fashion by affecting multiple ASCVD risk factors. Nonetheless, exercise also increases the risk of sudden cardiac death in both young and adult individuals with occult CVD making it important to balance the risks and benefits of exercise and exercise training in these individuals...
May 12, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498465/identification-of-a-novel-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-associated-mutation-using-targeted-next-generation-sequencing
#11
Yue Zhao, Yue Feng, Xiaoxue Ding, Shuwei Dong, Hong Zhang, Jiahuan Ding, Xueshan Xia
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), one of the most common forms of myocardial diseases, is the major cause of sudden cardiac death in young adults and competitive athletes. Analyses of gene mutations associated with HCM are valuable for its molecular diagnosis, genetic counseling, and management of familial HCM. To dissect the relationship between the clinical presentation and gene mutations of HCM, the genetic characterizations of 19 HCM-related genes in 18 patients (8 cases from 6 pedigrees with familial HCM and 10 cases without familial HCM) were detected using next-generation sequencing (NGS)...
July 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452637/incidence-and-etiology-of-sudden-cardiac-death-new-updates-for-athletic-departments
#12
REVIEW
Irfan M Asif, Kimberly G Harmon
CONTEXT: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in a young athlete is a tragic event and is the leading medical cause of death in this population. The precise incidence of SCD in young athletes has been subject of debate, with studies reporting drastically different rates (1:917,000 athlete-years (AYs) to 1:3000 AYs) depending on the methodological design of the investigation or the targeted population. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was performed in PubMed using the terms: incidence, sudden cardiac death, sudden death, sudden cardiac arrest, etiology, pathology, registry, athlete, young, children, and adolescents...
May 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424438/using-cardiovascular-imaging-modalities-to-determine-cardiac-disorders-before-starting-sports-activities
#13
Özgür Ceylan, Timur Meşe, Alper Hazım Gürsu
OBJECTIVE: We re-examined children who had previously been declared eligible to participate in competitive sports activities for cardiac disorders, using cardiac investigation protocol. METHODS: Total of 250 children (224 males [89.6%], and 26 females [10.4%]) between the ages of 8 and 17 years who had just started or were already engaged in sports activities were included in the study. Participants had detailed physical examination evaluated by a pediatric cardiologist...
March 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350812/sports-related-sudden-cardiac-deaths-in-the-young-population-of-switzerland
#14
Babken Asatryan, Cristina Vital, Christoph Kellerhals, Argelia Medeiros-Domingo, Christoph Gräni, Lukas D Trachsel, Christian M Schmied, Ardan M Saguner, Prisca Eser, David Herzig, Stephan Bolliger, Katarzyna Michaud, Matthias Wilhelm
BACKGROUND: In Switzerland, ECG screening was first recommended for national squad athletes in 1998. Since 2001 it has become mandatory in selected high-risk professional sports. Its impact on the rates of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SCD) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the incidence, causes and time trends of sports-related SCD in comparison to SCD unrelated to exercise in Switzerland. METHODS: We reviewed all forensic reports of SCDs of the German-speaking region of Switzerland in the age group of 10 to 39 years, occurring between 1999 and 2010...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339827/pre-participation-cardiovascular-evaluation-for-athletic-participants-to-prevent-sudden-cardiac-death
#15
Herbert Hans Löllgen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329355/international-recommendations-for-electrocardiographic-interpretation-in-athletes
#16
Sanjay Sharma, Jonathan A Drezner, Aaron Baggish, Michael Papadakis, Mathew G Wilson, Jordan M Prutkin, Andre La Gerche, Michael J Ackerman, Mats Borjesson, Jack C Salerno, Irfan M Asif, David S Owens, Eugene H Chung, Michael S Emery, Victor F Froelicher, Hein Heidbuchel, Carmen Adamuz, Chad A Asplund, Gordon Cohen, Kimberly G Harmon, Joseph C Marek, Silvana Molossi, Josef Niebauer, Hank F Pelto, Marco V Perez, Nathan R Riding, Tess Saarel, Christian M Schmied, David M Shipon, Ricardo Stein, Victoria L Vetter, Antonio Pelliccia, Domenico Corrado
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of mortality in athletes during sport. A variety of mostly hereditary, structural, or electrical cardiac disorders are associated with SCD in young athletes, the majority of which can be identified or suggested by abnormalities on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Whether used for diagnostic or screening purposes, physicians responsible for the cardiovascular care of athletes should be knowledgeable and competent in ECG interpretation in athletes. However, in most countries a shortage of physician expertise limits wider application of the ECG in the care of the athlete...
February 20, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318658/sudden-death-in-athletes
#17
Domenico Corrado, Alessandro Zorzi
Competitive sports activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiovascular death (SCD) in adolescents and young adults with clinically silent cardiovascular disorders. While in middle-aged/senior athletes atherosclerotic coronary artery disease accounts for the vast majority of SCDs, in young athletes the spectrum of substrates is wider and includes inherited (cardiomyopathies) and congenital (anomalous origin of coronary arteries) structural heart diseases. Inherited ion channel diseases have been implicated in SCDs occurring with an apparently normal heart at autopsy...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306678/the-complex-phenotype-of-the-athlete-s-heart-implications-for-preparticipation-screening
#18
Benjamin Brown, John Somauroo, Daniel J Green, Mathew Wilson, Jonathan Drezner, Keith George, David Oxborough
Preparticipation screening is vital to exclude inherited cardiac conditions that have the potential to cause sudden cardiac death in seemingly healthy athletes. Recent research has questioned traditional theories of load-induced, dichotomous cardiac adaptation. We therefore considered whether a one-size-fits-all approach to screening can account for interindividual differences brought about by sporting discipline, training volume, ethnicity, body size, sex, and age.
April 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287681/the-preparticipation-physical-evaluation
#19
Patrick J Lehman, Rebecca L Carl
With rising rates of sports participation among children and adolescents, pediatricians are increasingly being called upon to perform preparticipation physical evaluations (PPEs) for young athletes. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the general structure of a comprehensive PPE and how the PPE differs from a typical health maintenance visit. The PPE focuses attention on screening for cardiac conditions that predispose athletes to sudden cardiac death with exercise. This review also addresses the debate over whether electrocardiogram screening should be a routine required part of the PPE...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282353/the-use-of-echocardiograms-in-preparticipation-examinations
#20
Caroline Lucas, Deanna L Kerkhof, Jacilyn E Briggs, Gianmichel D Corrado
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death during exercise in young athletes. Preparticipation physical examinations were developed to maintain the health and safety of athletes, including the prompt identification of those at risk for SCD. The use of medical history and physical examinations, electrocardiography, and echocardiography, or some combination thereof, is the source of continued debate. This article provides an overview of the etiology of SCD and reviews literature relating to preparticipation echocardiography, with a focus on its evolution, utility, and effectiveness...
March 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
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