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Athletes sudden cardiac death

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782639/sudden-cardiac-death-in-athletes-and-the-value-of-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance
#1
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, Flora Bacopoulou, Despoina Apostolaki, George P Chrousos
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the non-traumatic death, due to loss of heart function that occurs suddenly and unexpectedly within 6 hours of a previously normal state of health. It is related to intense competitive sports promoting ventricular tachycardia (VT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF) in the presence of underlying abnormal substrate. A serial evaluation of cardiac physiologic changes taking place during training will allow the better understanding of athlete's heart and will facilitate its discrimination from other gray-zone cardiomyopathies...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720507/comprehensive-assessment-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-sports-related-sudden-cardiac-arrest
#2
Nicole Karam, Louis Pechmajou, Florence Dumas, Wulfran Bougouin, Ardalan Sharifzadehgan, Frankie Beganton, Guillaume Bonnet, Daniel Jost, Lionel Lamhaut, Olivier Varenne, Pierre Aubry, Georgios Sideris, Christian Spaulding, Alain Cariou, Eloi Marijon, Xavier Jouven
Despite the cardiovascular benefits of regular sports, sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) risk is increased during or shortly after exercise. Association with coronary artery disease (CAD) has been described in small studies, mainly autopsic with potential bias given the high sports-related SCA survival, and focusing on young competitive athletes, whereas sports-related SCA occurs mostly in recreational athletes.1-5 Through the Paris Sudden Death Expertise Center prospective registry that includes all SCAs in Paris and suburbs since May 2011, we performed the first broad comprehensive CAD description in sports-related SCAs, with a comparison with matched non-sports-related SCAs...
May 2, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705387/sudden-cardiac-death-in-athletes
#3
REVIEW
Joanna Sweeting, Christopher Semsarian
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes is a rare but tragic complication of a number of cardiovascular diseases. Inherited causes such as the structural and arrhythmogenic genetic heart conditions are often found or suspected to be the underlying cause of death at post mortem examination. Physical activity and intense exercise may trigger cardiac arrhythmias in individuals with these conditions leading to SCD. Prevention and treatment strategies include individual athlete management strategies, coupled with public health measures such as universal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training and availability of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) in public places, thereby preventing SCD in both athletes and the general population...
April 5, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705385/diagnosis-of-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy-progress-and-pitfalls
#4
REVIEW
Ad W G J Oomen, Christopher Semsarian, Rajesh Puranik, Raymond W Sy
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy that predominantly affects the right ventricle. With a prevalence in the range of 1:5000 to 1:2000 persons, ARVC is one of the leading causes of sudden cardiac death in young people and in athletes. Although early detection and treatment is important, the diagnosis of ARVC remains challenging. There is no single pathognomonic diagnostic finding in ARVC; rather, current international task force criteria specify diagnostic major and minor criteria in six categories: right ventricular imaging (including echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), histology, repolarisation abnormalities, depolarisation and conduction abnormalities, arrhythmias and family history (including genetic testing)...
April 4, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693422/radius-of-care-in-secondary-schools-in-the-midwest-are-automated-external-defibrillators-sufficiently-accessible-to-enable-optimal-patient-care
#5
Michael Osterman, Tina Claiborne, Victor Liberi
CONTEXT:   Sudden cardiac arrest is the leading cause of death among young athletes. According to the American Heart Association, an automated external defibrillator (AED) should be available within a 1- to 1.5-minute brisk walk from the patient for the highest chance of survival. Secondary school personnel have reported a lack of understanding about the proper number and placement of AEDs for optimal patient care. OBJECTIVE:   To determine whether fixed AEDs were located within a 1- to 1...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678777/a-10-year-review-of-sudden-death-during-sporting-activities
#6
Mark Dennis, Alexander Elder, Christopher Semsarian, John Orchard, Isabel Brouwer, Rajesh Puranik
BACKGROUND: Sudden death during sport is a rare but devastating event. Previous research has mostly focused on sudden deaths in young competitive athletes. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the demographics and aetiology of sudden cardiac death (SCD) during sport in Australia. METHODS: All autopsies conducted at our forensic medicine facility between the years 2006-2015 (inclusive) were reviewed. Sporting related deaths amongst those 7-65 years of age were identified...
April 17, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622970/sudden-cardiac-death-with-triple-pathologies-a-case-report
#7
R Razuin, F Nurquin, M N Shahidan, M N Julina
Sudden cardiac death in young adults may be associated with rare cardiomyopathies such as left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular (ARVC) cardiomyopathies. LVNC is characterised by hypertrabeculations and deep recesses of the left ventricle. ARVC presents with thin myocardium as a result of extensive fibro-fatty infiltrations. In both conditions, death may be due to arrhythmia, thromboembolic events or heart failure. We report a case of a 21-year old athletic young man who collapsed at the futsal court right after the game...
June 2017: Egypt Heart J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621050/sudden-cardiac-death-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#8
Daria M Adamczak, Zofia Oko-Sarnowska
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heart disease characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricular myocardium and is most often caused by mutations in sarcomere genes. The structural and functional abnormalities are not explained by flow-limiting coronary artery disease or loading conditions. The disease affects at least 0.2% of the population worldwide and is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young people and competitive athletes because of fatal ventricular arrhythmia. In some patients, however, HCM has a benign course...
May 2018: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606362/usefulness-of-genetic-study-by-next-generation-sequencing-in-high-risk-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy
#9
Amalio Ruiz Salas, José Peña Hernández, Carmen Medina Palomo, Alberto Barrera Cordero, Fernando Cabrera Bueno, José Manuel García Pinilla, Ana Guijarro, Luis Morcillo-Hidalgo, Manuel Jiménez Navarro, Juan José Gómez Doblas, Eduardo de Teresa, Javier Alzueta
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of predominantly right ventricular myocardium. This cardiomyopathy is a frequent cause of sudden cardiac death in young people and athletes. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of pathological or likely pathological desmosomal mutations in patients with high-risk definite ARVC. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective cohort study, which included 36 patients diagnosed with high-risk ARVC in our hospital between January 1998 and January 2015...
March 29, 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575042/monitoring-morphologic-changes-in-male-rowers-using-limited-portable-echocardiography-performed-by-a-frontline-physician
#10
Deanna L Kerkhof, Caroline Lucas, Gianmichel D Corrado
Athletes' hearts have been studied for adaptive changes in response to exercise. Physiologic changes are normal responses to intense athletic training regimens, whereas pathologic changes predispose athletes to sudden cardiac death. The two alterations overlap in clinical presentation. Research continues to investigate the upper limits of cardiac remodeling to aid clinical decision making. Studying normal changes that occur in response to exercise will advance physicians' understanding of physiologic responses to exercise and potentially improve clinical distinction...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551755/a-guideline-update-for-the-practice-of-echocardiography-in-the-cardiac-screening-of-sports-participants-a-joint-policy-statement-from-the-british-society-of-echocardiography-and-cardiac-risk-in-the-young
#11
David Oxborough, Daniel Augustine, Sabiha Gati, Keith George, Allan Harkness, Thomas Mathew, Michael Papadakis, Liam Ring, Shaun Robinson, Julie Sandoval, Rizwan Sarwar, Sanjay Sharma, Vishal Sharma, Nabeel Sheikh, John Somauroo, Martin Stout, James Willis, Abbas Zaidi
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an athlete is a rare but tragic event. In view of this, pre-participation cardiac screening is mandatory across many sporting disciplines to identify those athletes at risk. Echocardiography is a primary investigation utilized in the pre-participation setting and in 2013 the British Society of Echocardiography and Cardiac Risk in the Young produced a joint policy document providing guidance on the role of echocardiography in this setting. Recent developments in our understanding of the athlete's heart and the application of echocardiography have prompted this 2018 update...
March 2018: Echo Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532331/athlete-s-heart-and-left-heart-disease
#12
Cesare de Gregorio, Dalia Di Nunzio, Gianluca Di Bella
Physical activity comprises all muscular activities that require energy expenditure. Regular sequence of structured and organized exercise with the specific purpose of improving wellness and athletic performance is defined as a sports activity.Exercise can be performed at various levels of intensity and duration. According to the social context and pathways, it can be recreational, occupational, and competitive. Therefore, the training burden varies inherently and the heart adaptation is challenging.Although a general agreement on the fact that sports practice leads to metabolic, functional and physical benefits, there is evidence that some athletes may be subjected to adverse outcomes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525648/diagnostic-criteria-genetics-and-molecular-basis-of-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy
#13
REVIEW
Cristina Basso, Kalliopi Pilichou, Barbara Bauce, Domenico Corrado, Gaetano Thiene
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is an inherited heart muscle disease characterized by myocardial atrophy and fibrofatty replacement of the ventricular myocardium, at risk of sudden cardiac death, particularly in the young and athletes. Because there is no "gold standard" to reach the diagnosis of AC, multiple categories of diagnostic information have been combined, including imaging, electrocardiographic changes, arrhythmias, tissue characterization, and family history. However, the routine use of contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance increasingly revealed left dominant AC, a variant that is not well addressed in the diagnostic criteria and still escapes clinical identification...
April 2018: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522557/cardiac-electrophysiological-adaptations-in-the-equine-athlete-restitution-analysis-of-electrocardiographic-features
#14
Mengye Li, Karan R Chadda, Gareth D K Matthews, Celia M Marr, Christopher L-H Huang, Kamalan Jeevaratnam
Exercising horses uniquely accommodate 7-8-fold increases in heart rate (HR). The present experiments for the first time analysed the related adaptations in action potential (AP) restitution properties recorded by in vivo telemetric electrocardiography from Thoroughbred horses. The horses were subjected to a period of acceleration from walk to canter. The QRS durations, and QT and TQ intervals yielded AP conduction velocities, AP durations (APDs) and diastolic intervals respectively. From these, indices of active, λ = QT/(QRS duration), and resting, λ0 = TQ/(QRS duration), AP wavelengths were calculated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496389/congenital-anomalies-of-the-coronary-arteries
#15
REVIEW
Andrea Silva, Maria João Baptista, Emanuel Araújo
Congenital coronary artery anomalies are modifications of their origin, course or structure and its incidence varies between 0,2 and 5,6% of the general population. Although the majority is asymptomatic, they are the second leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young athletes. The aim of this study is to highlight the main anomalies with hemodynamic significance, including the anomalous origin of a coronary artery from the opposite sinus and anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from pulmonary artery...
April 2018: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463140/premature-ventricular-beats-in-the-athlete-management-considerations
#16
Tamanna K Singh, Aaron L Baggish
Premature ventricular beats (PVBs) in competitive athletes are incidentally found during pre-participation ECG screening. Their clinical significance remains debatable with several studies suggesting they are a benign reflection of athlete's heart, and others proposing they may indicate underlying structural heart disease and heightened risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD). Areas covered: Effective management of athletes with PVBs may best be accomplished using an algorithmic approach for risk stratification with a goal of differentiating benign PVBs from those reflective of underlying cardiomyopathies...
April 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463075/adverse-effects-of-doping-with-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-aas-in-competitive-athletics-recreational-sports-and-bodybuilding
#17
Elena Vorona, Eberhard Nieschlag
Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455769/prevention-of-sudden-cardiac-death-in-athletes-sportspersons-and-marathoners-in-india
#18
REVIEW
Amit Vora, Nitin Burkule, Ashish Contractor, Kartikeya Bhargava
The annual incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes is significantly lower than the general population. However, when SCD occurs in an athlete during sporting event or training, it sends shockwaves in the society and raises questions about cardiovascular effects of sports and exercise. This document reviews the causes and mechanism of SCD in sports and exercise in young and older athletes. In the Indian context, we suggest a 'pre-participation screening' of young and older athletes and consider a 'supervised, graded exercise regime' for the uninitiated, older sports participant...
January 2018: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423771/inherited-cardiomyopathies-and-sports-participation
#19
REVIEW
A Zorzi, A Pelliccia, D Corrado
Competitive sports activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiovascular death in adolescents and young adults with inherited cardiomyopathies. Many young subjects aspire to continue competitive sport after a diagnosis of cardiomyopathy and the clinician is frequently confronted with the problem of eligibility and the request of designing specific exercise programs. Since inherited cardiomyopathies are the leading cause of sudden cardiovascular death during sports performance, a conservative approach implying disqualification of affected athletes from most competitive athletic disciplines is recommended by all the available international guidelines...
March 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414256/updated-recommendations-for-athletes-with-heart-disease
#20
Rachel Lampert, Douglas P Zipes
Professional society recommendations to decrease sudden cardiac death in athletes, including eligibility requirements with disqualification for athletes with diagnosed disease as well as preparticipation screening and emergency preparedness, were updated in 2015. The update includes new sections on aortic disease, channelopathies, and sickle cell trait, as well as a change in format from the previous binary yes/no format to the more nuanced and contemporary "class and level of evidence" format. Eighty-four of the 246 recommendations now carry Class II designation-"reasonable," or "may be considered...
January 29, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
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