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Thorax enhanced CT

Ruben V C Buijs, Eva L Leemans, Marcel Greuter, Ignace F J Tielliu, Clark J Zeebregts, Tineke P Willems
OBJECTIVE: Quantification software for coronary calcification is often used to measure abdominal aortic calcification on computed tomography (CT) images. However, there is no evidence substantiating the reliability and accuracy of these tools in this setting. Differences in coronary and abdominal CT acquisition and presence of intravascular contrast may affect the results of these tools. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of CT acquisition parameters and iodine contrast on automated quantification of aortic calcium on CT...
2018: PloS One
Daniel Paech, Kerstin Klopries, Sara Doll, Ralph Nawrotzki, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Frederik L Giesel, Thomas Kuner
OBJECTIVES: To establish contrast-enhanced (CE) cadaver-specific post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) in first-year gross anatomy teaching and quantitatively evaluate its learning benefit. METHODS: 132 first-year medical students were included in this IRB-approved study and randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=59) provided with continuous access to CE and non-enhanced (NE) cadaver-specific PMCT-scans during the first-semester gross anatomy course, and a control group (n=73) that had only NE cadaver-specific PMCT data available...
January 30, 2018: European Radiology
Johannes Clemens Godt, Torsten Eken, Anselm Schulz, Cathrine K Johansen, Anette Aarsnes, Johann Baptist Dormagen
Background Split-bolus computed tomography (CT) is a recent development in trauma imaging. Instead of multiple scans in different contrast phases after a single contrast bolus, split-bolus protocols consist of one single scan of the thorax and abdomen after two or three contrast injections at different points of time. Purpose To evaluate and compare image quality and injury findings of a new triple-split-bolus CT (TS-CT) protocol of thorax and abdomen with those of a portal venous phase CT (PV-CT) in the same patient group...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Hizuru Amano, Jun Fujishiro, Akinari Hinoki, Hiroo Uchida
BACKGROUND: Intralobar pulmonary sequestration (ILS) is defined as a portion of parenchyma that is contained within the normal pleural investment of the lung but not connected to the tracheobronchial tree, and supplied by anomalous systemic arteries. As ILS is enveloped within the lobe of the normal lung, it is extremely rare for ILS to invade into the mediastinum. We report two atypical cases of infants with ILS expanded toward the posterior mediastinum and contralateral thorax through the pulmonary ligament...
November 28, 2017: BMC Surgery
Alastair J Moss, Renzo Pessotto, Andrew D Flapan
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A retired 59-year-old woman presented to the cardiology clinic concerned with cardiac pulsations that were visible on her chest wall. These were not associated with dyspnoea, syncope or chest discomfort.Of note, 8 years previously, she complained of recurrent nocturnal diaphoresis and 5 kg weight loss. Blood sampling at that time revealed a microcytic anaemia, reactive thrombocytosis and raised inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate 99 mm/hour, C-reactive protein 161 mg/L)...
November 3, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Qian Li, Jongphil Kim, Yoganand Balagurunathan, Jin Qi, Ying Liu, Kujtim Latifi, Eduardo G Moros, Matthew B Schabath, Zhaoxiang Ye, Robert J Gillies, Thomas J Dilling
BACKGROUND: Predicting recurrence after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is problematic, but critical for the decision of following treatment. This study aims to investigate the association of imaging features derived from the first follow-up computed tomography (CT) on lung cancer patient outcomes following SBRT, and identify patients at high risk of recurrence. METHODS: Fifty nine biopsy-proven non-small cell lung cancer patients were qualified for this study...
September 25, 2017: Radiation Oncology
Yoshiharu Ohno, Yasuko Fujisawa, Naoki Sugihara, Yuji Kishida, Shinichiro Seki, Hisanobu Koyama, Takeshi Yoshikawa
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to directly compare the capability of dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced (CE) perfusion area-detector CT (ADCT) and FDG PET/CT for differentiation of metastatic from nonmetastatic lymph nodes and assessment of N stage in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven consecutive patients, 45 men (mean age ± SD, 70.4 ± 5.9 years) and 32 women (71.2 ± 7.7 years), underwent dynamic first-pass CE-perfusion ADCT at two or three different positions for covering the entire thorax, FDG PET/CT, surgical treatment, and pathologic examination...
November 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Isamu Watanabe, Naoki Kanauchi, Hikaru Watanabe, Akira Hamada
Cases of rescue after rupture of pyogenic liver abscess into the thorax are rare. Here, we report 2 cases of rescue in patients with acute empyema due to rupture of a suppurative abscess into the thorax. Case 1:A 61-year-old male had high fever of 39 °C and right abdominal pain. Thoracic computed tomography(CT) showed encapsulated pleural effusion in the right thorax and ring-like enhancement in the right liver. The diagnosis was acute empyema caused by rupture of liver abscess. The pathogenic bacteria were Streptococcus group...
August 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Brett W Carter, Sonia L Betancourt, Marcelo F Benveniste
The mediastinum contains vital vascular and nonvascular structures and organs, and a wide variety of abnormalities may arise from this region of the thorax. Although mediastinal masses may be initially detected on chest radiography, cross-sectional imaging plays an important role in the identification and evaluation of mediastinal lesions, enabling the formulation of focused differential diagnoses and ultimately guiding management. Computed tomography (CT) is considered the imaging modality of choice for evaluating most mediastinal masses; however, the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging continues to expand, as it is superior to CT in differentiating between cystic and solid masses, identifying cystic and solid components within complex lesions, and distinguishing thymic hyperplasia and normal thymus from thymic epithelial neoplasms and other neoplasms...
August 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Antonios E Papadakis, John Damilakis
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of vessel diameter and exposure parameters on the estimation accuracy of concentration and effective atomic number (Zeff ) of iodine (I) in contrast-enhanced thorax and cardiac dual-energy CT using a modern fast kVp-switching CT scanner. METHODS: A standard semi-anthropomorphic cardiac CT phantom devised to simulate the human chest at three different body habitus i.e., medium-sized, large-sized, and obese, was scanned using a fast kVp-switching Revolution-GSI GE CT scanner...
June 28, 2017: Medical Physics
Monika Uhrig, David Simons, David Bonekamp, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer
OBJECTIVE: Metastatic disease in melanoma has an unpredictable nature with deposits in rare locations such as musculature. Dual energy CT (DECT) provides high contrast-visualization of enhancement by using spectral properties of iodine. Purpose of this study was to evaluate whether iodine maps from DECT improve lesion detection in staging examinations of melanoma patients. METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by IRB and written informed consent was obtained from all patients...
May 2017: European Journal of Radiology
Jian Wang, Roman Schaffert, Anja Borsdorf, Benno Heigl, Xiaolin Huang, Joachim Hornegger, Andreas Maier
In image-guided interventional procedures, live 2-D X-ray images can be augmented with preoperative 3-D computed tomography or MRI images to provide planning landmarks and enhanced spatial perception. An accurate alignment between the 3-D and 2-D images is a prerequisite for fusion applications. This paper presents a dynamic rigid 2-D/3-D registration framework, which measures the local 3-D-to-2-D misalignment and efficiently constrains the update of both planar and non-planar 3-D rigid transformations using a novel point-to-plane correspondence model...
September 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Aaron D Stirling, Conor P Murray, Mark A Lee
PURPOSE: To investigate the blood supply to the nipple areola complex (NAC) on thoracic CT angiograms (CTA) to improve breast pedicle design in reduction mammoplasty. METHODS: In a single centre, CT scans of the thorax were retrospectively reviewed for suitability by a cardiothoracic radiologist. Suitable scans had one or both breasts visible in extended fields, with contrast enhancement of breast vasculature in a female patient. The arterial sources, intercostal space perforated, glandular/subcutaneous course, vessel entry point, and the presence of periareolar anastomoses were recorded for the NAC of each breast...
October 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Maciej Guziński, Maciej Bryl, Katarzyna Ziemińska, Kamila Wolny, Marek Sąsiadek, Jerzy S Garcarek
BACKGROUND: The great anterior radiculomedullary artery, also known as the artery of Adamkiewicz (AKA), is a small-caliber vessel which arises from the intercostal or lumbar arteries branching out from the aorta. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate detection of the AKA, as well as its level and side of origin, with multi-slice contrast enhanced computed tomography (MSCT) of the abdomen and thorax performed during everyday clinical practice, and to compare the results with the literature...
January 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Maya Prasad, Tushar Vora, Sandeep Agarwala, Siddharth Laskar, Brijesh Arora, Deepak Bansal, Gauri Kapoor, Girish Chinnaswamy, Venkatraman Radhakrishnan, Tanvir Kaur, G K Rath, Sameer Bakhshi
Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common renal tumor of childhood. Although multidisciplinary care including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy have greatly improved the survival rates in WT, there is a scope for further improvement in India and other resource-poor settings. In resource-limited settings, the majority of patients present with large tumors, which may either be unresectable or risky to resect; making preoperative chemotherapy followed by delayed surgery the preferred approach. Histology and staging are used for risk stratification...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Milan Milovancev, Sarah Nemanic, Gerd Bobe
OBJECTIVE To assess dimensions and attenuation of sternal lymph nodes (SLNs) observed by means of CT in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 12 healthy adult research dogs. PROCEDURES Precontrast and postcontrast enhanced CT of the thorax was performed on each dog. Objective and subjective contrast-enhanced CT measurements were obtained. RESULTS By use of CT, 2 SLNs were identified in 10 of the 12 dogs and 1 SLN was identified in 2. Median SLN length, height, and width were 8.5 mm (range, 4 to 22 mm), 6.0 mm (range, 3 to 10 mm), and 5...
March 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Benjamin Schullcke, Bo Gong, Sabine Krueger-Ziolek, Merryn Tawhai, Andy Adler, Ullrich Mueller-Lisse, Knut Moeller
PURPOSE: Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is an imaging modality used to generate two-dimensional cross-sectional images representing impedance change in the thorax. The impedance of lung tissue changes with change in air content of the lungs; hence, EIT can be used to examine regional lung ventilation in patients with abnormal lungs. In lung EIT, electrodes are attached around the circumference of the thorax to inject small alternating currents and measure resulting voltages. In contrast to X-ray computed tomography (CT), EIT images do not depict a thorax slice of well defined thickness, but instead visualize a lens-shaped region around the electrode plane, which results from diffuse current propagation in the thorax...
February 2017: Medical Physics
Keishi Sugino, Masahiro Kobayashi, Yasuhiko Nakamura, Kyoko Gocho, Fumiaki Ishida, Kazutoshi Isobe, Nobuyuki Shiraga, Sakae Homma
BACKGROUND: Little has been reported on the feasibility of xenon-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (Xe-DECT) in the visual and quantitative analysis of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). OBJECTIVES: We compared CPFE with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as correlation with parameters of pulmonary function tests (PFTs). METHODS: Studied in 3 groups were 25 patients with CPFE, 25 with IPF without emphysema (IPF alone), 30 with COPD...
2017: PloS One
J M Slagowski, Dap Dunkerley
PURPOSE: To obtain ECG-gated CT images from truncated projection data acquired with a C-arm based inverse geometry fluoroscopy system, for the purpose of cardiac chamber mapping in interventional procedures. METHODS: Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopy system with a scanned multisource x-ray tube and a photon-counting detector mounted to a C-arm. In the proposed method, SBDX short-scan rotational acquisition is performed followed by inverse geometry CT (IGCT) reconstruction and segmentation of contrast-enhanced objects...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Q Xu, H Han, L Xing
PURPOSE: Dictionary learning based method has attracted more and more attentions in low-dose CT due to the superior performance on suppressing noise and preserving structural details. Considering the structures and noise vary from region to region in one imaging object, we propose a region-specific dictionary learning method to improve the low-dose CT reconstruction. METHODS: A set of normal-dose images was used for dictionary learning. Segmentations were performed on these images, so that the training patch sets corresponding to different regions can be extracted out...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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