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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802566/alcohol-use-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Lisa B VanWagner, Hongyan Ning, Norrina B Allen, Veeral Ajmera, Cora E Lewis, John Jeffrey Carr, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Norah A Terrault, Juned Siddique
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Moderate drinking (vs abstinence) is associated with lower risk of CVD in the general population. We assessed whether alcohol use is associated with CVD risk in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: We analyzed data from participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults longitudinal cohort study of 5115 black and white young adults, 18-30 years old, recruited from 4 cities in the United States from 1985 through 1986...
August 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777164/mr-imaging-of-mediastinal-masses
#2
Brett W Carter, Sonia L Betancourt, Marcelo F Benveniste
The mediastinum contains vital vascular and nonvascular structures and organs, and a wide variety of abnormalities may arise from this region of the thorax. Although mediastinal masses may be initially detected on chest radiography, cross-sectional imaging plays an important role in the identification and evaluation of mediastinal lesions, enabling the formulation of focused differential diagnoses and ultimately guiding management. Computed tomography (CT) is considered the imaging modality of choice for evaluating most mediastinal masses; however, the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging continues to expand, as it is superior to CT in differentiating between cystic and solid masses, identifying cystic and solid components within complex lesions, and distinguishing thymic hyperplasia and normal thymus from thymic epithelial neoplasms and other neoplasms...
August 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747938/computed-tomography-angiography-for-imaging-results-of-neochordal-mitral-valve-repair
#3
Radosław Zwoliński, Anna Marcinkiewicz, Konrad Szymczyk, Jarosław Drożdż, Ryszard Jaszewski, Bogdan Jegier
INTRODUCTION: Degenerative mitral regurgitation is currently the most frequent indication for mitral valve repair. AIM: To visualize and assess the mid-term results of mitral valve repair with neochordae implantation, using computed tomography angiography (CTA) imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The CTA with ECG gating and without modulation was applied in 10 patients to assess the results of a mitral valve sparing procedure. The results of 3 patients are presented...
June 2017: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730151/comparison-of-thoracic-radiography-and-computed-tomography-in-calves-with-naturally-occurring-respiratory-disease
#4
Jennifer Fowler, Susanne M Stieger-Vanegas, Jorge A Vanegas, Gerd Bobe, Keith P Poulsen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the severity and extent of lung disease using thoracic computed radiography (CR) compared to contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) of the thorax in calves with naturally occurring respiratory disease and to evaluate the feasibility and safety of performing contrast-enhanced thoracic multi-detector MDCT examinations in sedated calves. Furthermore, to evaluate if combining CR or MDCT with respiratory scoring factors will improve prediction of the chronicity of pulmonary disease in calves...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687285/a-jafroc-study-of-nodule-detection-performance-in-ct-images-of-a-thorax-acquired-during-pet-ct
#5
J D Thompson, A Wareing, K R Szczepura, S Vinjamuri, P Hogg
PURPOSE: Two types of CT images (modalities) are acquired in PET/CT: for attenuation correction (AC) and diagnosis. The purpose of the study was to compare nodule detection and localization performance between these two modalities. METHODS: CT images, using both modalities, of an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing zero or more simulated spherical nodules of 5, 8, 10 and 12 mm diameters and contrasts -800, -630 and 100 HU were acquired. An observer performance study using nine observers interpreting 45 normal (zero nodules) images and 47 abnormal images (1-3 nodules; average 1...
August 2017: Radiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668419/dose-reduction-techniques-in-coronary-calcium-scoring-the-effect-of-iterative-reconstruction-combined-with-low-tube-voltage-on-calcium-scores-in-a-thoracic-phantom
#6
Marleen Vonder, Gert Jan Pelgrim, Mathias Meyer, Thomas Henzler, Matthijs Oudkerk, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart
OBJECTIVES: To define a dose-reduced coronary calcium CT protocol that provides similar calcium score values as a conventional 120kVp protocol. METHODS: A thorax phantom containing 100 calcifications was scanned with the reference protocol (120kVp, 90 ref mAs, FBP) and 30 dose-reduced protocols (70-110kVp, 90 ref mAs, FBP and iterative reconstruction (IR) levels 1-5) with 3rd generation dual-source CT. For protocols that yielded similar detectability and calcium scores as the reference protocol, additional scans were acquired at reduced ref mAs...
August 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658505/fast-kvp-switching-dual-energy-contrast-enhanced-thorax-and-cardiac-ct-a-phantom-study-on-the-accuracy-of-iodine-concentration-and-effective-atomic-number-measurement
#7
Antonios E Papadakis, John Damilakis
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of vessel diameter and exposure parameters on the estimation accuracy of concentration and effective atomic number (Zeff ) of iodine (I) in contrast-enhanced thorax and cardiac dual-energy CT using a modern fast kVp-switching CT scanner. METHODS: A standard semi-anthropomorphic cardiac CT phantom devised to simulate the human chest at three different body habitus i.e. medium-sized, large-sized, and obese, was scanned using a fast kVp-switching Revolution-GSI GE CT scanner...
June 28, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623748/occupant-thorax-response-variations-due-to-arm-position-and-restraint-systems-in-side-impact-crash-scenarios
#8
Donata Gierczycka, Duane S Cronin
Recent epidemiological studies have identified that thoracic side airbags may vary in efficacy to reduce injury severity in side impact crash scenarios, while previous experimental and epidemiological studies have presented contrasting results. This study aimed to quantify the variations in occupant response in side impact conditions using a human body computational model integrated with a full vehicle model. The model was analyzed for a Moving Deformable Barrier side impact at 61km/h to assess two pre-crash arm positions, the incorporation of a seatbelt, and a thorax air bag on thorax response...
June 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615080/locomotor-circumvention-strategies-are-altered-by-stroke-ii-postural-coordination
#9
Anuja Darekar, Anouk Lamontagne, Joyce Fung
BACKGROUND: Locomotor strategies for obstacle circumvention require appropriate postural coordination that depends on sensorimotor integration within the central nervous system. It is not known how these strategies are affected by a stroke. The objective of this study was to contrast postural coordination strategies used for obstacle circumvention between post-stroke participants (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). METHODS: Participants walked towards a target in a virtual environment (11 × 8 m room) with cylindrical obstacles that were stationary or approaching from head-on, or diagonally 30° left/right...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615044/comparison-of-transportation-related-injury-mechanisms-and-outcome-of-young-road-users-and-adult-road-users-a-retrospective-analysis-on-24-373-patients-derived-from-the-traumaregister-dgu-%C3%A2
#10
Thomas Brockamp, Uli Schmucker, Rolf Lefering, Manuel Mutschler, Arne Driessen, Christian Probst, Bertil Bouillon, Paola Koenen
BACKGROUND: Most young people killed in road crashes are known as vulnerable road users. A combination of physical and developmental immaturity as well as inexperience increases the risk of road traffic accidents with a high injury severity rate. Understanding injury mechanism and pattern in a group of young road users may reduce morbidity and mortality. This study analyzes injury patterns and outcomes of young road users compared to adult road users. The comparison takes into account different transportation related injury mechanisms...
June 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611938/anatomic-study-of-the-vascular-perfusion-of-the-sternum-and-its-clinical-relevance-in-deep-sternal-wound-infection
#11
Nick Spindler, Florian Kaatz, Christine Feja, Christian Etz, Friedrich-Wilhelm Mohr, Ingo Bechmann, Christoph Josten, Stefan Langer, Sabine Loeffler
Introduction: Deep sternal wound infections (DSWI) are a rare but devastating complication after median sternotomy. Minor perfusion in bone and soft tissue, especially after recruiting the internal mammary artery for bypass supports the development of wound infection and nonunion of the sternal bone. The aim of the study was the macroscopic and radiological presentation of the vascular system supplying the sternum, in particular the compensating blood supply routes in the event that the internal mammary artery is no longer available after use as a bypass vessel...
2017: GMS Interdisciplinary Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery DGPW
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583644/improved-detection-of-melanoma-metastases-by-iodine-maps-from-dual-energy-ct
#12
Monika Uhrig, David Simons, David Bonekamp, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer
OBJECTIVE: Metastatic disease in melanoma has an unpredictable nature with deposits in rare locations such as musculature. Dual energy CT (DECT) provides high contrast-visualization of enhancement by using spectral properties of iodine. Purpose of this study was to evaluate whether iodine maps from DECT improve lesion detection in staging examinations of melanoma patients. METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by IRB and written informed consent was obtained from all patients...
May 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522155/fibroelastic-pseudotumour-elastofibroma-dorsi-detected-by-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-and-by-posttherapy-radioiodine-spect-ct
#13
M Oporto, F Cepa, N Orta, S Rubí, H Navalón, C Peña
Radioiodine uptake in the thyroid tissue, metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), and in other tissues, depends on the expression of sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). Vascular permeability, effusions, inflammation, and other mechanisms may also play a role in the accumulation of radioactive iodine. A 63-year-old woman underwent radioiodine therapy, as well as a post-therapy whole-body scan,as she was suspected of having lung metastasis from thyroid carcinoma. The scan not only showed uptake at the lung metastasis but also a faint diffuse bilateral uptake in the posterior thorax...
May 15, 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475490/reducing-4dcbct-imaging-time-and-dose-the-first-implementation-of-variable-gantry-speed-4dcbct-on-a-linear-accelerator
#14
Ricky T O'Brien, Uros Stankovic, Jan-Jakob Sonke, Paul J Keall
Four dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) uses a constant gantry speed and imaging frequency that are independent of the patient's breathing rate. Using a technique called respiratory motion guided 4DCBCT (RMG-4DCBCT), we have previously demonstrated that by varying the gantry speed and imaging frequency, in response to changes in the patient's real-time respiratory signal, the imaging dose can be reduced by 50-70%. RMG-4DCBCT optimally computes a patient specific gantry trajectory to eliminate streaking artefacts and projection clustering that is inherent in 4DCBCT imaging...
May 5, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452761/respiratory-gated-kes-imaging-of-a-rat-model-of-acute-lung-injury-at-the-canadian-light-source
#15
P Deman, S Tan, G Belev, N Samadi, M Martinson, D Chapman, N L Ford
In this study, contrast-enhanced X-ray tomographic imaging for monitoring and quantifying respiratory disease in preclinical rodent models is proposed. A K-edge imaging method has been developed at the Canadian Light Source to very accurately obtain measurements of the concentration of iodinated contrast agent in the pulmonary vasculature and inhaled xenon in the airspaces of rats. To compare the iodine and xenon concentration maps, a scout projection image was acquired to define the region of interest within the thorax for imaging and to ensure the same locations were imaged in each K-edge subtraction (KES) acquisition...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432407/the-arterial-supply-of-the-nipple-areola-complex-nac-and-its-relations-an-analysis-of-angiographic-ct-imaging-for-breast-pedicle-design
#16
Aaron D Stirling, Conor P Murray, Mark A Lee
PURPOSE: To investigate the blood supply to the nipple areola complex (NAC) on thoracic CT angiograms (CTA) to improve breast pedicle design in reduction mammoplasty. METHODS: In a single centre, CT scans of the thorax were retrospectively reviewed for suitability by a cardiothoracic radiologist. Suitable scans had one or both breasts visible in extended fields, with contrast enhancement of breast vasculature in a female patient. The arterial sources, intercostal space perforated, glandular/subcutaneous course, vessel entry point, and the presence of periareolar anastomoses were recorded for the NAC of each breast...
April 21, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403899/hepato-bronchial-fistula-secondary-to-perforated-sigmoid-diverticulitis-a-case-report
#17
Jun Sunny Yin, Shaylan Govind, Daniele Wiseman, Richard Inculet, Raymond Kao
BACKGROUND: Patients with diverticulitis are predisposed to hepatic abscesses via seeding through the portal circulation. Hepatic abscesses are well-documented sequelae of diverticulitis, however instances of progression to hepato-bronchial fistulization are rare. We present a case of diverticulitis associated with hepatic abscess leading to hepato-bronchial fistulization, which represents a novel disease course not yet reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old Caucasian man presented with a history of unintentional weight loss and dyspnea both at rest and with exertion...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397429/detection-of-the-adamkiewicz-artery-in-computed-tomography-of-the-thorax-and-abdomen
#18
Maciej Guziński, Maciej Bryl, Katarzyna Ziemińska, Kamila Wolny, Marek Sąsiadek, Jerzy S Garcarek
BACKGROUND: The great anterior radiculomedullary artery, also known as the artery of Adamkiewicz (AKA), is a small-caliber vessel which arises from the intercostal or lumbar arteries branching out from the aorta. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate detection of the AKA, as well as its level and side of origin, with multi-slice contrast enhanced computed tomography (MSCT) of the abdomen and thorax performed during everyday clinical practice, and to compare the results with the literature...
January 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396224/-%C3%A3-tienne-destot-1864-1918-or-the-other-father-of-french-radiology
#19
N Foray, M Amiel, R Mornex
Étienne Destot is a French physician from Burgundy who benefited, during his studies in Lyon, from the quality of teaching of the best specialists of the time: Augagneur for hygiene, Testut for anatomy, Ollier for surgery, Lépine for the medical applications of electricity and the Lumière brothers for the technological development. During its experiments, he met Despeignes, the first radiation oncologist, Regaud pioneer of radiobiology and Bouchacourt who pointed out individual radiosensitivity. Less than two months after the X-rays discovery by Roentgen, he produced one of the first French radiographic views that were at the origin of our current knowledge in bone and cartilage anatomy and traumatology...
April 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367612/management-of-wilms-tumor-icmr-consensus-document
#20
REVIEW
Maya Prasad, Tushar Vora, Sandeep Agarwala, Siddharth Laskar, Brijesh Arora, Deepak Bansal, Gauri Kapoor, Girish Chinnaswamy, Venkatraman Radhakrishnan, Tanvir Kaur, G K Rath, Sameer Bakhshi
Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common renal tumor of childhood. Although multidisciplinary care including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy have greatly improved the survival rates in WT, there is a scope for further improvement in India and other resource-poor settings. In resource-limited settings, the majority of patients present with large tumors, which may either be unresectable or risky to resect; making preoperative chemotherapy followed by delayed surgery the preferred approach. Histology and staging are used for risk stratification...
April 3, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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