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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646813/hepatoprotective-activity-of-satwa-an-ayurvedic-formulation-against-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-rats
#1
Tejaswi Chavan, Abhijit Ghadge, Manjiri Karandikar, Vijaya Pandit, Prabhakar Ranjekar, Omkar Kulkarni, Aniket Kuvalekar, Nitin Mantri
Context • Guduchi Satwa is an Ayurvedic formulation prepared from Tinospora species. It has been used since ancient times to treat liver disorders. Objectives • The study intended to assess the hepatoprotective potential of Satwa prepared from 3 forms of Tinospora against alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity. Design • Male, albino Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups, with 6 rats each: 3 control groups-healthy controls, negative controls, and positive controls-and 3 intervention groups-Tinospora cordifolia, Tinospora sinensis, and Neem-Guduchi...
July 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646427/tanshinone-iia-attenuates-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-infected-with-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#2
Yan Xuan, Yue Gao, Hao Huang, Xiaoxuan Wang, Yu Cai, Qing Xian Luan
Tanshinone IIA (TSA), a pharmacologically active component isolated from Danshen, may prevent cardiovascular diseases due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-adipogenic effects. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major periodontal pathogen, may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we studied the effects of TSA on atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice with P. gingivalis infection. Eight-week-old ApoE(-/-) mice were randomized to (a) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), (b) P. gingivalis, and (c) P...
June 23, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646105/the-glycolytic-enzyme-phosphofructokinase-1-assembles-into-filaments
#3
Bradley A Webb, Anne M Dosey, Torsten Wittmann, Justin M Kollman, Diane L Barber
Despite abundant knowledge of the regulation and biochemistry of glycolytic enzymes, we have limited understanding on how they are spatially organized in the cell. Emerging evidence indicates that nonglycolytic metabolic enzymes regulating diverse pathways can assemble into polymers. We now show tetramer- and substrate-dependent filament assembly by phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK1), which is considered the "gatekeeper" of glycolysis because it catalyzes the step committing glucose to breakdown. Recombinant liver PFK1 (PFKL) isoform, but not platelet PFK1 (PFKP) or muscle PFK1 (PFKM) isoforms, assembles into filaments...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646078/stereospecific-metabolism-of-r-and-s-warfarin-by-human-hepatic-cytosolic-reductases
#4
Dustyn A Barnette, Bryce Johnson, Dakota L Pouncey, Robert Nshimiyimana, Linda Desrochers, Thomas E Goodwin, Grover Paul Miller
Coumadin (rac-warfarin) is the most commonly used anticoagulant in the world, yet its clinical use is often challenging due to a narrow therapeutic range and inter-individual variations in response. A critical contributor to the uncertainty is variability in warfarin metabolism, which includes mostly oxidative but also reductive pathways. Reduction of each warfarin enantiomer yields two warfarin alcohol isomers, and the corresponding four alcohols retain varying levels of anticoagulant activity. Studies on the kinetics of warfarin reduction have often lacked resolution of parent drug enantiomers and suffered from co-elution of pairs of alcohol metabolites; thus, those studies fail to establish the importance of individual, stereospecific reductive pathways...
June 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645863/toxicology-of-octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane-d4
#5
Allison Franzen, Tracy Greene, Cynthia Van Landingham, Robinan Gentry
Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) is a volatile cyclic siloxane used primarily as a monomer or intermediate in the production of some silicon-based polymers widely used in industrial and consumer applications and may be present as a residual impurity in a variety of consumer products. A robust toxicological data set exists for D4. Treatment-related results from a chronic inhalation study conducted in rats are limited to mild effects on the respiratory tract, increases in liver weight, increases in the incidence of uterine endometrial epithelial hyperplasia, and a dose-related trend in the incidence of endometrial adenomas...
June 20, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645653/catalase-overexpression-modulates-metabolic-parameters-in-a-new-stress-less-leptin-deficient-mouse-model
#6
Deborah L Amos, Tanner Robinson, Melissa B Massie, Carla Cook, Alexis Hoffsted, Courtney Crain, Nalini Santanam
Oxidative stress plays a key role in obesity by modifying the function of important biological molecules, thus altering obesogenic pathways such as glucose and lipid signaling. Catalase, is an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme that catabolizes hydrogen peroxide produced by the dismutation of superoxide. Recent studies have shown knockdown of catalase exacerbates insulin resistance and leads to obesity. We hypothesized that overexpressing catalase in an obese mouse will modulate obesogenic pathways and protect against obesity...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644367/oral-cholic-acid-is-efficacious-and-well-tolerated-in-patients-with-bile-acid-synthesis-and-zellweger-spectrum-disorders
#7
James E Heubi, Kevin E Bove, Kenneth D R Setchell
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with bile acid synthesis disorders (BASD) due to single enzyme defects (SED) or Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSD) accumulate hepatotoxic atypical bile acids resulting in potentially fatal progressive liver disease. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral cholic acid in patients with BASD. METHODS: In this phase 3, open-label, single-arm, nonrandomized, noncomparative study conducted over 18 years, patients were administered cholic acid orally 10 to 15 mg/kg/day...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644353/extraintestinal-manifestations-of-celiac-disease-effectiveness-of-the-gluten-free-diet
#8
Hilary Jericho, Naire Sansotta, Stefano Guandalini
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the gluten-free diet (GFD) on extraintestinal symptoms in pediatric and adult celiac populations at the University of Chicago. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of the University of Chicago Celiac Center clinic charts from January 2002 to October 2014. Demographics, serologic testing, intestinal biopsies, and extraintestinal symptoms at presentation, 12, 24, and >24 months were recorded...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642489/post-exposure-treatment-of-non-human-primates-lethally-infected-with-ebola-virus-with-ebotab-a-purified-ovine-igg-product
#9
Stuart D Dowall, Frédéric Jacquot, John Landon, Emma Rayner, Graham Hall, Caroline Carbonnelle, Hervé Raoul, Delphine Pannetier, Ian Cameron, Ruth Coxon, Ibrahim Al Abdulla, Roger Hewson, Miles W Carroll
Despite sporadic outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV) over the last 4 decades and the recent public health emergency in West Africa, there are still no approved vaccines or therapeutics for the treatment of acute EBOV disease (EVD). In response to the 2014 outbreak, an ovine immunoglobulin therapy was developed, termed EBOTAb. After promising results in the guinea pig model of EBOV infection, EBOTAb was tested in the cynomolgus macaque non-human primate model of lethal EBOV infection. To ensure stringent therapeutic testing conditions to replicate likely clinical usage, EBOTAb was first delivered 1, 2 or 3 days post-challenge with a lethal dose of EBOV...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642195/how-lipid-droplets-tag-along-glycerolipid-synthetic-enzymes-and-lipid-storage
#10
REVIEW
Huan Wang, Michael V Airola, Karen Reue
Triacylglycerols (TAG) serve as the predominant form of energy storage in mammalian cells, and TAG synthesis influences conditions such as obesity, fatty liver, and insulin resistance. In most tissues, the glycerol 3-phosphate pathway enzymes are responsible for TAG synthesis, and the regulation and function of these enzymes is therefore important for metabolic homeostasis. Here we review the sites and regulation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT), lipin/phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme action...
June 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641560/functional-and-catalytic-characterization-of-the-detoxifying-enzyme-haloalkane-dehalogenase-from-rhizobium-leguminosarum
#11
Nikolaos Georgakis, Evangelia Chronopoulou, Maria Anna Gad, Dimitrios Skliros, Rodica Efrose, Emmanouil Flemetakis, Nikolaos E Labrou
Haloalkanes are acutely toxic to animals and humans and their toxic effects are mainly observed in the liver, kidneys and central nervous system. In the present work, the haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (DrlA) was characterized. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and enzyme activity assays revealed that the DrlA gene expression in R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii is induced by 1,2-dibromoethane (1,2-DBE) during the early exponential phase. The gene of the enzyme was isolated, cloned and expressed in E...
June 20, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640802/peroxisomal-biogenesis-is-genetically-and-biochemically-linked-to-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-drosophila-and-mouse
#12
Michael F Wangler, Yu-Hsin Chao, Vafa Bayat, Nikolaos Giagtzoglou, Abhijit Babaji Shinde, Nagireddy Putluri, Cristian Coarfa, Taraka Donti, Brett H Graham, Joseph E Faust, James A McNew, Ann Moser, Marco Sardiello, Myriam Baes, Hugo J Bellen
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a group of multi-system human diseases due to mutations in the PEX genes that are responsible for peroxisome assembly and function. These disorders lead to global defects in peroxisomal function and result in severe brain, liver, bone and kidney disease. In order to study their pathogenesis we undertook a systematic genetic and biochemical study of Drosophila pex16 and pex2 mutants. These mutants are short-lived with defects in locomotion and activity. Moreover these mutants exhibit severe morphologic and functional peroxisomal defects...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640600/horse-liver-alcohol-dehydrogenase-zinc-coordination-and-catalysis
#13
Bryce V Plapp, Baskar Raj Savarimuthu, Daniel J Ferraro, Jon K Rubach, Eric N Brown, Subramanian Ramaswamy
: During catalysis by liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), a water bound to the catalytic zinc is replaced by the oxygen of the substrates. The mechanism may involve a pentacoordinated zinc or a double displacement reaction with participation by a nearby glutamate residue, as suggested by studies of human ADH3, yeast ADH1 and some other tetrameric ADHs. Zinc coordination and participation of water in the enzyme mechanism were investigated by X-ray crystallography. Apoenzyme and its complex with adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose have an open protein conformation with the catalytic zinc in one position, tetracoordinated by Cys-46, His-67, Cys-174 and a water molecule...
June 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640238/treatment-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii-hunter-syndrome-results-from-a-systematic-evidence-review
#14
REVIEW
Linda A Bradley, Hamish R M Haddow, Glenn E Palomaki
PurposeA pilot systematic evidence review to establish methodology utility in rare genetic diseases, support clinical recommendations, and identify important knowledge gaps.MethodsBroad-based published/gray-literature searches through December 2015 for studies of males with confirmed mucopolysaccharidosis type II (any age, phenotype, genotype, family history) treated with enzyme replacement therapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Preset inclusion criteria employed for abstract and full document selection, and standardized methods for data extraction and assessment of quality and strength of evidence...
June 22, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640225/herb-drug-interaction-between-the-traditional-hepatoprotective-formulation-and-sorafenib-on-hepatotoxicity-histopathology-and-pharmacokinetics-in-rats
#15
Chin-Tsung Ting, Yung-Yi Cheng, Tung-Hu Tsai
Sorafenib has been used as a standard therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In Asia, patients with HCC are potentially treated with the combination of sorafenib and Chinese herbal medicines to improve the efficiency and reduce the side effects of sorafenib. However, limited information about the herb-drug interactions is available. We hypothesize that the Chinese herbal medicine may exert hepatoprotective effects on the sorafenib-treated group. The aim of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetic mechanism of drug-drug interactions of sorafenib including interacting with hepatoprotective formulation, Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang formulation (LDXGT) and with two cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors, grapefruit juice and ketoconazole...
June 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640110/case-report-of-a-modified-meso-rex-bypass-as-a-treatment-technique-for-late-onset-portal-vein-cavernous-transformation-with-portal-hypertension-after-adult-deceased-donor-liver-transplantation
#16
Dongdong Han, Rui Tang, Liang Wang, Ang Li, Xin Huang, Shan Shen, Jiahong Dong
RATIONALE: Portal vein thrombosis is a complication after liver transplantation and cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) is a result of portal vein thrombosis, with symptoms of portal hypertension revealed by an enhanced CT scan. Meso-Rex bypass is an artificial shunt connecting the left portal vein to the superior mesenteric vein and is mainly used for idiopathic cavernomas. This technique is also used for post-transplant portal vein thrombosis in pediatric patients thereby bypassing obstructed sites of the extrahepatic portal vein...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639379/the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-biological-activities-of-the-leaf-of-cape-myrtle-myrsine-africana-l
#17
Hina Gul, Mushtaq Ahmad, Muhammad Zafar, M Shareez Ahmad, AmbreenAbid, Syeda Hira, Imam Shah, Muhammad Gulfraz
The cape myrtle, Myrsine africana L., is a widely used medicinal plant, which has not been well investigated. We assessed the in vivo hepatoprotective and in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of leaf extracts of M. africana chemically profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography. Three flavonoids were quantified, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of common fatty acids. The animal study was conducted on mice treated with CCl4, using three doses each of the methanol and chloroform extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b...
June 22, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639033/functional-restoration-of-cd56-bright-nk-cells-facilitates-immune-control-via-il-15-and-nkg2d-in-patients-under-antiviral-treatment-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#18
Tao Chen, Lin Zhu, Aichao Shi, Lin Ding, Xiaoping Zhang, Zhenmin Tan, Wei Guo, Weiming Yan, Meifang Han, Jidong Jia, Xiaoping Luo, Detlef Schuppan, Qin Ning
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is intrinsically immunogenic, with long-lasting immune control in many patients. However, the mechanisms and key cell types underlying effective immune control are incompletely understood. METHODS: We studied the restoration of natural killer (NK) cell numbers and function post antiviral treatment in 52 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who received telbivudine (LdT) for 48 weeks...
June 20, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638943/elevated-serum-heat-shock-protein-70-and-liver-stiffness-reflect-hepatic-dysfunction-and-severity-in-postoperative-biliary-atresia
#19
Sittisak Honsawek, Wanvisa Udomsinprasert, Napaphat Jirathanathornnukul, Voranush Chongsrisawat, Yong Poovorawan
BACKGROUND: Biliary atresia (BA) is a severe chronic liver disease characterized by progressive obstructive cholangiopathy of biliary tract. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is involved in protecting cells against a wide variety of stress and plays a protective role in tissue damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate serum HSP70 and liver stiffness in BA and determine the association of serum HSP70, liver stiffness, and outcome parameters in post-Kasai BA patients. METHODS: One hundred post-Kasai BA patients and 40 controls were enrolled...
June 21, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638880/efficiency-of-borage-seeds-oil-against-gamma-irradiation-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-male-rats-possible-antioxidant-activity
#20
Hala A H Khattab, Inas Z A Abdallah, Fatimah M Yousef, Etimad A Huwait
BACKGROUND: Borage (Borago officinal L.) is an annual herbaceous plant of great interest because its oil contains a high percentage of γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The present work was carried out to detect fatty acids composition of the oil extracted from borage seeds (BO) and its potential effectiveness against γ-irradiation- induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GC-MS analysis of fatty acids methyl esters of BO was performed to identify fatty acids composition...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
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