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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343329/stress-fractures-of-the-foot-and-ankle-part-2-site-specific-etiology-imaging-and-treatment-and-differential-diagnosis
#1
Jacob C Mandell, Bharti Khurana, Stacy E Smith
Stress fractures of the foot and ankle are a commonly encountered problem among athletes and individuals participating in a wide range of activities. This illustrated review, the second of two parts, discusses site-specific etiological factors, imaging appearances, treatment options, and differential considerations of stress fractures of the foot and ankle. The imaging and clinical management of stress fractures of the foot and ankle are highly dependent on the specific location of the fracture, mechanical forces acting upon the injured site, vascular supply of the injured bone, and the proportion of trabecular to cortical bone at the site of injury...
March 25, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330740/estimating-body-size-in-early-primates-the-case-of-archicebus-and-teilhardina
#2
Marian Dagosto, Daniel Gebo, Xijun Ni, Thierry Smith
Obtaining accurate estimations of the body mass of fossil primates has always been a subject of interest in paleoanthropology because mass is an important determinant for so many other aspects of biology, ecology, and life history. This paper focuses on the issues involved in attempting to reconstruct the mass of two early Eocene haplorhine primates, Teilhardina and Archicebus, which pose particular problems due to their small size and temporal and phylogenetic distance from extant primates. In addition to a ranking of variables from more to less useful, the effect of using models of varying taxonomic and size compositions is examined...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327634/scleraxis-is-required-for-maturation-of-tissue-domains-for-proper-integration-of-the-musculoskeletal-system
#3
Yuki Yoshimoto, Aki Takimoto, Hitomi Watanabe, Yuji Hiraki, Gen Kondoh, Chisa Shukunami
Scleraxis (Scx) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is expressed persistently in tendons/ligaments, but transiently in entheseal cartilage. In this study, we generated a novel Scx(Cre) knock-in (KI) allele, by in-frame replacement of most of Scx exon 1 with Cre recombinase (Cre), to drive Cre expression using Scx promoter and to inactivate the endogenous Scx. Reflecting the intensity and duration of endogenous expression, Cre-mediated excision occurs in tendinous and ligamentous tissues persistently expressing Scx...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326398/the-hemisoleus-rotational-flap-provides-a-novel-superior-autograft-reconstructive-option-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-extensor-mechanism-disruption
#4
Jean-Charles Auregan, James D Lin, Joseph M Lombardi, Eugene Jang, William Macaulay, Melvin P Rosenwasser
Chronic disruption of the extensor mechanism is a devastating problem after total knee arthroplasty. Quadriceps tendon ruptures occur at an estimated 0.1% prevalence in the setting of total knee arthroplasty. Complete tears of the quadriceps tendon generally have poor results and high rates of rerupture. We present a case of a quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty which reruptured after initial direct repair. The patient presented to us with a chronically retracted rerupture and was subsequently reconstructed successfully with a novel extended medial gastrocnemius-soleus-calcaneus local rotational pedicle flap...
June 2016: Arthroplasty Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326157/partial-calcanectomy-and-ilizarov-external-fixation-may-reduce-amputation-need-in-severe-diabetic-calcaneal-ulcers
#5
Mehmet Orçun Akkurt, Ismail Demirkale, Ali Öznur
Objective: The treatment of diabetic hindfoot ulcers is a challenging problem. In addition to serial surgical debridements, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and local wound care play important roles in the surgeon's armamentarium, for both superficial infection and gangrene of the soft tissue, often complicated by osteomyelitis of the calcaneus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of an aggressive approach from diagnosis to treatment of calcaneal osteomyelitis in foot-threatening diabetic calcaneal ulcers...
2017: Diabetic Foot & Ankle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323798/supplemental-perioperative-oxygen-to-reduce-surgical-site-infection-after-high-energy-fracture-surgery-oxygen-study
#6
Robert V OʼToole, Manjari Joshi, Anthony R Carlini, Robert A Sikorski, Armagan Dagal, Clinton K Murray, Michael J Weaver, Ebrahim Paryavi, Alec C Stall, Daniel O Scharfstein, Julie Agel, Mary Zadnik, Michael J Bosse, Renan C Castillo
Supplemental perioperative oxygen (SPO) therapy has been proposed as one approach for reducing the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). Current data are mixed regarding efficacy in decreasing SSI rates and hospital inpatient stays in general and few data exist for orthopaedic trauma patients. This study is a phase III, double-blind, prospective randomized clinical trial with a primary goal of assessing the efficacy of 2 different concentrations of perioperative oxygen in the prevention of SSIs in adults with tibial plateau, pilon (tibial plafond), or calcaneus fractures at higher risk of infection and definitively treated with plate and screw fixation...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318605/achilles-tendon-moment-arm-length-is-smaller-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-than-in-typically-developing-children
#7
Barbara M Kalkman, Lynn Bar-On, Francesco Cenni, Constantinos N Maganaris, Alfie Bass, Gill Holmes, Kaat Desloovere, Gabor J Barton, Thomas D O'Brien
When studying muscle and whole-body function in children with cerebral palsy (CP), knowledge about both internal and external moment arms is essential since they determine the mechanical advantage of a muscle over an external force. Here we asked if Achilles tendon moment arm (MAAT) length is different in children with CP and age-matched typically developing (TD) children, and if MAAT can be predicted from anthropometric measurements. Sixteen children with CP (age: 10y 7m±3y, 7 hemiplegia, 12 diplegia, GMFCS level: I (11) and II (8)) and twenty TD children (age: 10y 6m±3y) participated in this case-control study...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291142/lower-extremity-avulsion-fractures-in-the-pediatric-and-adolescent-athlete
#8
Jonathan Schiller, Steven DeFroda, Travis Blood
Lower extremity avulsion fractures are uncommon in the pediatric population and can be misdiagnosed without proper imaging and/or clinical suspicion for these injuries. The most common locations of avulsion injuries are the ischial tuberosity, anterior superior iliac spine, and anterior inferior iliac spine. Less often, avulsion fractures occur in the tibial tubercle, calcaneus, and greater and lesser trochanters. When treated properly with rest and altered weight bearing, most of these injuries heal without complication...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290305/a-rare-probable-chondroblastoma-of-the-calcaneus-in-a-pre-columbian-subadult-from-illinois
#9
Maria Ostendorf Smith, Christopher E Nicosia
Discrete cystic or tumorous intraosseous lesions can arise from a variety of benign and malignant conditions as well as trauma and infection. They are clinically rarely observed in the calcaneus. A fourteen-to-seventeen-year-old subadult recovered from a Late Woodland (∼AD 800-1100) period mortuary context in the Mississippi River Valley of central Illinois presents with a single lytic intraosseous lesion on the posterior right calcaneus that bilaterally perforates the cortex. The lesion, although primarily anterior to the epiphyseal plate, does breach it...
March 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288612/cementoma-of-the-calcaneus-a-case-report
#10
Xiaona Li, Zhigang Peng, Mahrukh Latif, Abhinav Kumar, Wei Chen, Zekun Zhang
BACKGROUND: The cementoma is a common disease of the dental root apex, which generally occurs in the maxilla and the mandible, but the cementoma occurring in the long bone is rare. Moreover, the incidence of cementoma in the calcaneus is extremely infrequent. CASE PRESENTATION: The present study reports an unusual case of a 19-year-old girl, who complained of pain in the left heel. Subsequent radiographs and computed tomography (CT) were used in the diagnosis. The imaging features of the lesion included a radiopaque matrix and radiolucent tissue, particularly an arc-shaped fat band...
March 14, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276650/comparison-of-arthrodesis-and-non-fusion-to-treat-lisfranc-injuries
#11
Yu-Sen Qiao, Jun-Kun Li, Hao Shen, Hai-Yan Bao, Ming Jiang, Yan Liu, Wasim Kapadia, Hong-Tao Zhang, Hui-Lin Yang
OBJECTIVE: "Lisfranc joint injury" is comprised of a tarsometatarsal joint-complex injury. The Lisfranc complex injury is always a challenge for orthopedists, and the optimum treatment is still up for debate. Anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation prove to have no satisfactory outcomes. This research aims to compare the clinical curative effects, complications and radiographic features of arthrodesis and non-fusion of the Lisfranc joint in the follow-up of the patients who suffered Lisfranc injuries...
March 9, 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276647/clinical-comparison-of-extensile-lateral-approach-and-sinus-tarsi-approach-combined-with-medial-distraction-technique-for-intra-articular-calcaneal-fractures
#12
Hai-Chao Zhou, Tao Yu, Hao-Yang Ren, Bing Li, Kai Chen, You-Guang Zhao, Yun-Feng Yang
OBJECTIVE: To study and compare the clinical outcomes of open reduction and internal fixation via extensile L-shape incision and limited open reduction via the sinus tarsi approach using the medial distraction technique for intra-articular calcaneal fractures. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 65 intra-articular calcaneal fractures treated operatively between March 2012 and February 2015. Patients were divided into two groups: 28 were in the sinus tarsi approach group and 37 were in the extensile lateral approach group...
March 9, 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270861/computed-tomography-derived-bone-density-measurement-in-the-diabetic-foot
#13
Alex Barwick, John Tessier, James Mirow, Xanne Janse de Jonge, Vivienne Chuter
BACKGROUND: The accurate and reliable measurement of foot bone density is challenging and there is currently no gold standard technique. Such measurement is particularly valuable in populations at risk of foot bone pathology such as in those with long term diabetes. With research and development, computed tomography may prove to be a useful tool for this assessment. The aim of this study was to establish the reliability of a novel method of foot bone density measurement in people with diabetes using computed tomography...
2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267907/-imaging-of-the-calcaneus-applied-to-the-internal-fixation-of-fractures-by-a-sinus-tarsi-approach
#14
G Slullitel, J Calvi, A Calvo, M Seletti, V López, V Álvarez
OBJECTIVE: The mini-invasive technique, through a sinus tarsi approach (STA), has become an increasingly popular choice for the treatment of calcaneal fractures. However, despite the good results reported, the complications related with internal fixation have not yet been analyzed. Using 3D reconstruction CT scans, we proposed doing biometric description of the calcaneus with the purpose of performing osteosynthesis as treatment for calcaneal fractures. METHODS: A total of 24 CT scans were retrospectively obtained from 22 consecutive patients with healthy calcanei and no history of surgery or fracture...
July 2016: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258946/achilles-impingement-tendinopathy-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Mark J Bullock, Jan Mourelatos, Alice Mar
Haglund's syndrome is impingement of the retrocalcaneal bursa and Achilles tendon caused by a prominence of the posterosuperior calcaneus. Radiographic measurements are not sensitive or specific for diagnosing Haglund's deformity. Localization of a bone deformity and tendinopathy in the same sagittal section of a magnetic resonance imaging scan can assist with the diagnosis in equivocal cases. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of Haglund's syndrome in patients presenting with Achilles tendinopathy and note any associated findings to determine the criteria for a diagnosis of Haglund's syndrome...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252575/rankl-rank-opg-polymorphisms-and-heel-quantitative-ultrasound-in-young-adults
#16
María Correa-Rodríguez, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle, Blanca Rueda-Medina
BACKGROUND: The receptor activator of the nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK), and the osteoprotegerin (OPG) signaling pathway play an important role in the regulation of bone remodeling and osteoclast differentiation. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a relatively recent and noninvasive method providing structural information on microstructure, bone elasticity, and connectivity. However, in contrast to bone mineral density measurements, the possible association of the RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway with heel QUS has not been analyzed...
March 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224074/arthroscopic-resection-of-too-long-anterior-process-of-the-calcaneus
#17
Tun Hing Lui
A too-long anterior process (TLAP) of the calcaneus is an elongated anteromedial process of the calcaneus impinging the navicular or the talar head. TLAP can cause recurrent ankle sprain, peroneal muscle spasm, or persistent tarsal pain in adolescents. Arthroscopic resection is indicated if the symptoms do not respond to conservative treatment. It has the advantage of assessment of completeness of bone resection and treatment of associated lesions of the adjacent joints. The purpose of this technical note is to report an arthroscopic approach of the resection of the TLAP with the lateral midtarsal portal as the viewing portal...
October 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222618/three-dimensional-printing-in-the-surgical-treatment-of-osteoid-osteoma-of-the-calcaneus-a-case-report
#18
Xiang Ren, Liu Yang, Xiao-Jun Duan
Surgical excision is the traditional treatment for osteoid osteoma. However, the complexity of the foot anatomy makes a satisfactory outcome challenging. Difficulty in localizing the lesion intraoperatively may result in either incomplete tumor resection or excessive bone loss. To date, no published report has described the use of three-dimensional printing in the surgical treatment of osteoid osteoma of the calcaneus. In this case, we printed a three-dimensional model of the calcaneus of a 17-year-old female patient with a 2-year history of night pain in the lateral aspect of the hindfoot and ankle, evaluated the lesion as an osteoid osteoma, and designed a surgical guiding plate...
February 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219302/relations-between-quantitative-ultrasound-assessment-of-calcaneus-and-grip-and-key-pinch-power-in-japanese-mountain-village-residents
#19
Ayako Nagai, Tsuyoshi Tajika, Atsushi Yamamoto, Chisa Okura, Saeko Kanazawa, Kenji Takagishi
PURPOSE: It seems to be important to recognize bone health condition using a simple method in Japanese super-aged society. The aim of our study was to investigate whether grip and key pinch strength were associated with bone quality. METHODS: Medical examinations were conducted of 337 adult residents (123 men, 214 women; average age of 64.7 years) of a mountain village. Bilateral grip and key pinch strength were measured. The sound of speed (SOS) of calcaneus was assessed using an ultrasound bone densitometer...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210050/a-study-of-the-relationships-of-changes-in-pain-and-gait-after-tourniquet-induced-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#20
Kazuki Aihara, Takeya Ono, Namiko Umei, Wakako Tsumiyama, Atsushi Tasaka, Hideki Ishikura, Yuta Sato, Tomohiro Matsumoto, Sadaaki Oki
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships of changes in pain and gait after ischemia reperfusion was induced by tourniquet in rats. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were six ten-week-old male Wistar rats. Ischemia was induced in the left lower limbs of the experimental rats at a pressure of 300 mmHg for 90 minutes. Pain behavior evaluations were measured using the von Frey test in all the rats' hind limbs. A consistently increasing plantar stimulus was applied until the rats exhibited an escape behavior...
January 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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