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Calcaneus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141022/trabecular-bone-in-the-calcaneus-of-runners
#1
Andrew Best, Brigitte Holt, Karen Troy, Joseph Hamill
Trabecular bone of the human calcaneus is subjected to extreme repetitive forces during endurance running and should adapt in response to this strain. To assess possible bone functional adaptation in the posterior region of the calcaneus, we recruited forefoot-striking runners (n = 6), rearfoot-striking runners (n = 6), and non-runners (n = 6), all males aged 20-41 for this institutionally approved study. Foot strike pattern was confirmed for each runner using a motion capture system. We obtained high resolution peripheral computed tomography scans of the posterior calcaneus for both runners and non-runners...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135646/foot-structure-and-function-in-habitually-barefoot-and-shod-adolescents-in-kenya
#2
Herje Aibast, Paul Okutoyi, Timothy Sigei, Walter Adero, Danny Chemjor, Neford Ongaro, Noriyuki Fuku, Kenn Konstabel, Carol Clark, Daniel E Lieberman, Yannis Pitsiladis
Habitually barefoot (HB) children from the Kalenjin tribe of Kenya are known for their high physical activity levels. To date, there has been no comprehensive assessment of foot structure and function in these highly active and HB children/adolescents and link with overuse injuries. PURPOSE: The aim of this research is to assess foot structure, foot function, injury and physical activity levels in Kenyan children and adolescents who are HB compared with those who were habitually shod (HS)...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134100/three-dimensional-innate-mobility-of-the-human-foot-bones-under-axial-loading-using-biplane-x-ray-fluoroscopy
#3
Kohta Ito, Koh Hosoda, Masahiro Shimizu, Shuhei Ikemoto, Takeo Nagura, Hiroyuki Seki, Masateru Kitashiro, Nobuaki Imanishi, Sadakazu Aiso, Masahiro Jinzaki, Naomichi Ogihara
The anatomical design of the human foot is considered to facilitate generation of bipedal walking. However, how the morphology and structure of the human foot actually contribute to generation of bipedal walking remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the three-dimensional kinematics of the foot bones under a weight-bearing condition using cadaver specimens, to characterize the innate mobility of the human foot inherently prescribed in its morphology and structure. Five cadaver feet were axially loaded up to 588 N (60 kgf), and radiographic images were captured using a biplane X-ray fluoroscopy system...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129315/fixation-methods-for-calcaneus-fractures-a-systematic-review-of%C3%A2-biomechanical-studies-using-cadaver-specimens
#4
REVIEW
Siem A Dingemans, Floris W Sintenie, Vincent M de Jong, Jan S K Luitse, Tim Schepers
Calcaneal fractures are notoriously difficult to treat and wound complications occur often. However, owing to the rare nature of these fractures, clinical trials on this subject are lacking. Thus, biomechanical studies form a viable source of information on this subject. With our systematic review of biomechanical studies, we aimed to provide an overview of all the techniques available and guide clinicians in their choice of method of fracture fixation. A literature search was conducted using 3 online databases to find biomechanical studies investigating methods of fixation for calcaneal fractures...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126042/successful-treatment-of-infected-wound-dehiscence-after-minimally-invasive-locking-plate-osteosynthesis-of-tibial-pilon-and-calcaneal-fractures-by-plate-preservation-surgical-debridement-and-antibiotics
#5
Giandavide Ieropoli, Jorge Hugo Villafañe, Silvia Chiara Zompi, Umberto Morozzo, Riccardo D'Ambrosi, Federico Giuseppe Usuelli, Pedro Berjano
OBJECTIVE: The aim is to present a case series that illustrates possible benefits from combining minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO), plastic surgery and antibiotic therapy, in order to treat and eradicate infection in patients with tibial pilon or calcaneal fractures. METHODS: Eleven consecutive patients with dehiscence of the surgical wound in outcomes MIPO using a Locking Compression Plate (LCP) for tibial pilon, or calcaneus fractures. The patients had developed a documented infection of the surgical wound...
October 23, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126038/magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-of-chronic-plantar-fasciitis-before-and-after-extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy
#6
Masahiro Maki, Kazuya Ikoma, Masamitsu Kido, Yusuke Hara, Koshiro Sawada, Suzuyo Ohashi, Toshikazu Kubo
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to examine the relationships between treatment outcome and changes in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings after extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for chronic plantar fasciitis. METHODS: The subjects were 23 feet of 23 patients of refractory plantar fasciitis. The mean age was 53.7 years. The thickness of the plantar fascia (PF) and findings of a high-signal intensity area (HSIA) inside the PF, edema around the PF, and bone marrow edema (BME) of the calcaneus were investigated on MR images...
October 26, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126035/histomorphological-and-biochemical-properties-of-plantar-soft-tissue-in-diabetes
#7
Yak-Nam Wang, Kara Lee, Jane B Shofer, William R Ledoux
BACKGROUND: Diabetes results in pathophysiological changes, leading to tissue that is unable to withstand and adapt to the same loads, resulting in breakdown. Certain locations are more susceptible to breakdown, yet differences between locations are largely not well understood. The authors performed a histological and biochemical analysis of isolated plantar adipose tissue at six relevant locations. METHODS: Tissue from six plantar locations (hallux, first, third and fifth metatarsal heads, lateral midfoot and calcaneus) was taken from fresh cadaveric feet of older diabetic and older non-diabetic intact donors...
June 7, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116324/displaced-intra-articular-calcaneal-fractures-classification-and-treatment
#8
Ning Wei, Yabin Zhou, Wenli Chang, Yingze Zhang, Wei Chen
The calcaneus is the most commonly fractured tarsal bone. Displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures are usually caused by a fall from height with one or both heels directly hitting the ground. Displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures are complex and highly disabling injuries. There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal treatment for each type of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fracture. This review aims to summarize the classification of, various treatment options for, prevention of perioperative complications in, and management algorithms for displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures...
November 1, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102369/2d-and-3d-assessment-of-sustentaculum-tali-screw-fixation-with-or-without-screw-targeting-clamp
#9
A Siebe De Boer, Esther M M Van Lieshout, Leonie Vellekoop, Simon P Knops, Gert-Jan Kleinrensink, Michael H J Verhofstad
INTRODUCTION: Precise placement of sustentaculum tali screw(s) is essential for restoring anatomy and biomechanical stability of the calcaneus. This can be challenging due to the small target area and presence of neurovascular structures on the medial side. The aim was to evaluate the precision of positioning of the subchondral posterior facet screw and processus anterior calcanei screw with or without a Screw Targeting Clamp. The secondary aim was to evaluate the added value of peroperative 3D imaging over 2D radiographs alone...
October 26, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093757/movement-coordination-patterns-between-the-foot-joints-during-walking
#10
John B Arnold, Paolo Caravaggi, François Fraysse, Dominic Thewlis, Alberto Leardini
Background: In 3D gait analysis, kinematics of the foot joints are usually reported via isolated time histories of joint rotations and no information is provided on the relationship between rotations at different joints. The aim of this study was to identify movement coordination patterns in the foot during walking by expanding an existing vector coding technique according to an established multi-segment foot and ankle model. A graphical representation is also described to summarise the coordination patterns of joint rotations across multiple patients...
2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079242/fibulocalcaneal-impingement-in-a-growing-child-with-otherwise-asymptomatic-talocalcaneal-coalition
#11
G Ulrich Exner, Hilaire A C Jacob, Gerardo J Maquieira
Subfibular impingement has been described in patients with flatfoot. It possibly occurs with valgus deformity associated with talocalcaneal coalition. We observed symptomatic unilateral fibular impingement initially on the left foot of an 11-year-old female with an otherwise asymptomatic bilateral talocalcaneal coalition. From the age of 8 years, she had complained of pain around the left fibular tip. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a partial talocalcaneal coalition. At 10 years of age, it was questioned whether the pain was related to the coalition...
November 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079237/surgical-treatment-of-confirmed-intraosseous-lipoma-of-the-calcaneus-a-case-series
#12
Osman Emre Aycan, Abdi Keskin, Sami Sökücü, Devrim Özer, Fevziye Kabukçuoğlu, Yavuz Selim Kabukçuoğlu
Intraosseous lipoma of the calcaneus is a benign lesion formed by mature adipose tissue. When the lesion is symptomatic, the most frequent presentation is localized pain and soft tissue swelling. Because these lesions can regress spontaneously, conservative treatment methods are recommended. Operative excision is mostly required for painful lesions and pathologic fractures. The data from 14 patients with calcaneal intraosseous lipoma, who had undergone surgery in our clinic, were evaluated retrospectively. Using Milgram's classification system, 9 lesions were classified as stage 1, 4 as stage 2, and 1 as stage 3...
November 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078829/what-do-you-do-with-the-achilles-if-you-have-no-fancy-toys
#13
REVIEW
Rajiv Shah, Sampat Dumbre Patil
Surgical management of Achilles disorders warrants excision of the degenerated tendon and removal of impinging bone. Resulting defects can be bridged by various methods. Although FHL is the most commonly used tendon for transfer, large defects in cases of chronic Achilles ruptures may be bridged by use of a distant donor tendon. Bony anchorage of a lengthened or transferred tendon into the calcaneus can be done with suture anchors or with interference screws. In developing countries, such implants may not be available or affordable, necessitating the adoption of innovative ways to anchor tendons into the calcaneus...
December 2017: Foot and Ankle Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077506/a-rare-case-of-chondroblastoma-with-revision-after-graft-rejectiona-case-report
#14
Brandon Gumbiner, Elizabeth Jacobsen, Mary Stancukas, Ngan Nguyen
We present a rare case of calcaneal chondroblastoma with subsequent surgical revision after graft rejection in a 13-year-old boy. Complications were encountered after the injectable bone graft filler was placed in the calcaneus after curettage. With noted subsequent sinus tract formation, revision surgery was performed that involved dissection of the sinus tract, removal of bone void filler, and application of demineralized bone matrix sponge human allograft soaked in vancomycin-impregnated saline. Sixteen weeks after the revision surgical intervention, the patient resumed normal athletic activities without pain or restrictions...
September 2017: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059592/classification-of-the-trabecular-bone-structure-of-osteoporotic-patients-using-machine-vision
#15
Anushikha Singh, Malay Kishore Dutta, Rachid Jennane, Eric Lespessailles
Osteoporosis is a common bone disease which often leads to fractures. Clinically, the major challenge for the automatic diagnosis of osteoporosis is the complex architecture of bones. The clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis is conventionally done using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). This method has specific limitations, however, such as the large size of the instrument, a relatively high cost and limited availability. The method proposed here is based on the automatic processing of X-ray images. The bone X-ray image was statistically processed and strategically reformed to extract discriminatory statistical features of different orders...
October 13, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056492/prevalence-risk-factors-and-clinical-characteristics-of-osteoporosis-in-chinese-inpatients-with-schizophrenia
#16
Jingyi Cui, Huaqing Liu, Jing Shao, Dong-Mei Xu, Yi Wang, Zheng Fei, Jiyu Wei, Wei Lu, Chun-Rong Wang, Rui He, Yangya Tan, Yi Fan, Yuping Ning, Ryan M Cassidy, Jair C Soares, Xingbing Huang, Xiang Yang Zhang
Patients with schizophrenia have a high prevalence of developing osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures. We examined the prevalence of osteoporosis and its clinical correlates in Chinese patients with schizophrenia, which is not well-studied. A total of 199 inpatients (males/females=132/67; average age: 54.5±11.1years) and 107 healthy controls (males/females=22/85; average age: 41.7±11.9years) were recruited. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by ultrasonography of the calcaneus. The prevalence of osteoporosis and low BMD (osteoporosis and osteopenia) was 23...
October 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054163/new-dental-and-postcranial-material-of-agerinia-smithorum-primates-adapiformes-from-the-type-locality-casa-retjo-1-early-eocene-iberian-peninsula
#17
Joan Femenias-Gual, Judit Marigó, Raef Minwer-Barakat, Salvador Moyà-Solà
New material attributed to Agerinia smithorum from Casa Retjo-1 (early Eocene, NE Iberian Peninsula), consisting of 13 isolated teeth and a fragment of calcaneus, is studied in this work. These fossils allow the first description of the calcaneus and the upper premolars for the genus Agerinia, as well as the first description of the P2 and M(2) for A. smithorum. The newly recovered lower teeth are virtually identical to the holotype of A. smithorum and are clearly distinguishable from the other species of Agerinia...
December 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037927/short-term-outcomes-of-open-reduction-and-internal-fixation-for-sanders-type-iii-calcaneal-fractures-with-and-without-bone-grafts
#18
Hong Cao, Yun-Guang Li, Qing An, Bo Gou, Wei Qian, Xiao-Peng Guo, Ying Zhang
Calcaneal fractures, often caused by a fall from a height, are the most common injuries encountered by orthopedic surgeons. Currently, open anatomic reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is considered a valuable treatment of displaced intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus; however, the need for bone grafting in the treatment is still controversial. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the outcomes of 2 methods (with and without bone grafting) used for the surgical treatment of Sanders type III calcaneal fractures...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037925/radiographic-union-scoring-scale-for-determining-consolidation-rates-in-the-calcaneus
#19
Michael L Sganga, N Jake Summers, Brandon Barrett, Michael Matthews, Timothy Karthas, Lindsay Johnson, Jeremy J Cook, Philip Basile, Emily A Cook
The reliable evaluation of osseous consolidation after hindfoot osteotomy can be difficult. Concomitant hindfoot osteotomies often dictate the advancement of weightbearing, and radiographs are the mainstay imaging tool owing to cost, efficiency, and radiation exposure. Understanding the radiographic parameters that can be used to reliably determine osseous healing is paramount. However, currently, no reliable or validated method is available to determine osseous healing of hindfoot osteotomies in irregular bones of the foot...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034875/treatment-of-displaced-intra-articular-calcaneus-fractures-a-current-concepts-review
#20
Mandeep S Dhillon, Sharad Prabhakar
Displaced Intra-Articular Calcaneus fractures (DIACFs) represent a source of tremendous disability to the patient, economic burden to the society and a treatment challenge to the average orthopaedic surgeon. To date, no single approach is universally applicable to all calcaneus fractures. Despite a plethora of published meta-analyses and recent randomized controlled trials, the literature is still unclear and offers conflicting recommendations. The aim of this current concepts review is to assess the latest available data and offer pragmatic and practical recommendations to address some of the issues surrounding DIACFs...
2017: SICOT-J
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