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Infective endocarditis in intravenous drug users

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346925/marvelous-but-morbid-infective-endocarditis-due-to-serratia-marcescens
#1
Varun K Phadke, Jesse T Jacob
A 46-year-old man with HIV infection and active intravenous drug use presented with approximately two weeks of fevers and body aches. On physical examination he was somnolent, had a new systolic murmur, bilateral conjunctival hemorrhages, diffuse petechiae, and left-sided arm weakness. Echocardiography revealed a large mitral valve vegetation and brain imaging demonstrated numerous embolic infarctions. Blood cultures grew Serratia marcescens. Despite aggressive treatment with meropenem the patient died due to intracranial hemorrhage complicated by herniation...
May 2016: Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: IDCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148386/occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-a-previously-vaccinated-injection-drug-user
#2
Eleanor A Powell, Sanam Razeghi, Stephen Zucker, Jason T Blackard
INTRODUCTION: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) is defined by the presence of HBV DNA in patient sera in the absence of HBsAg. Occult HBV has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, reactivation during immune suppression, and transmission to others. While the hepatitis B vaccine is very effective at preventing chronic HBV infection, recent studies indicate it is less effective at preventing occult HBV following infant vaccination. No studies, however, have examined the efficacy of adult HBV vaccination at preventing occult HBV...
February 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27068439/surgical-outcomes-of-infective-endocarditis-among-intravenous-drug-users
#3
Joon Bum Kim, Julius I Ejiofor, Maroun Yammine, Masahiko Ando, Janice M Camuso, Ilan Youngster, Sandra B Nelson, Arthur Y Kim, Serguei I Melnitchouk, James D Rawn, Thomas E MacGillivray, Lawrence H Cohn, John G Byrne, Thoralf M Sundt
BACKGROUND: With increasing prevalence of injected drug use in the United States, a growing number of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) are at risk for infective endocarditis (IE) that may require surgical intervention; however, few data exist about clinical outcomes of these individuals. METHODS: We evaluated consecutive adult patients undergoing surgery for active IE between 2002 and 2014 pooled from 2 prospective institutional databases. Death and valve-related events, including reinfection or heart valve reoperation, thromboembolism, and anticoagulation-related hemorrhage were evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053903/isolated-streptococcus-agalactiae-tricuspid-endocarditis-in-elderly-patient-without-known-predisposing-factors-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Leila Abid, Salma Charfeddine, Samir Kammoun
Group B streptococcal (GBS) tricuspid infective endocarditis is a very rare clinical entity. It affects intravenous drug users, pregnant, postpartum women, and the elderly. We report the case of a 68-year-old patient without known predisposing factors who presented a GBS tricuspid endocarditis treated by penicillin and aminoglycosides with no response. The patient was operated with a good evolution. Our case is the 25th reported in the literature. GBS disease is increasing in the elderly and is mainly associated to comorbid conditions...
April 2016: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034562/infective-endocarditis-caused-by-klebsiella-oxytoca-in-an-intravenous-drug-user-with-cancer
#5
Ashref Mohamed, Connor Hall, Michael Hatch, Mohamed Ayan, Richard Winn
Infective endocarditis caused by Klebsiella species is rare, with most isolates being K. pneumoniae. We report the case of a 24-year-old intravenous drug user with newly diagnosed seminoma who developed K. oxytoca endocarditis. In addition to having K. oxytoca isolated from blood culture, cultures of that species were obtained from a retroperitoneal metastasis found on original presentation.
April 2016: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700022/a-retrospective-review-significance-of-vegetation-size-in-injection-drug-users-with-right-sided-infective-endocarditis
#6
Ohide Otome, Stephen Guy, Adrian Tramontana, Garry Lane, Harin Karunajeewa
BACKGROUND: Previously described prognostic markers in right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) include vegetation size ≥1cm, fever for more than three weeks, cardiac failure and severe sepsis. This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of medical therapy for vegetations ≥1cm and explore determinants of outcome in a representative population of intravenous drug users (IDUs) at a metropolitan Australian health service. METHODS: Retrospective review of consecutive IDUs presenting to our institution with native-valve RSIE (by modified Duke criteria) over seven years (2005-2011)...
May 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26690071/infective-endocarditis-in-patients-with-hepatic-diseases
#7
E Seminari, A De Silvestri, V Ravasio, S Ludovisi, R Utili, N Petrosillo, F Castelli, M Bassetti, F Barbaro, P Grossi, N Barzaghi, M Rizzi, L Minoli
Few data have been published regarding the epidemiology and outcome of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with chronic hepatic disease (CHD). A retrospective analysis of the Studio Endocarditi Italiano (SEI) database was performed to evaluate the epidemiology and outcome of CHD+ patients compared with CHD- patients. The diagnosis of IE was defined in accordance with the modified Duke criteria. Echocardiography, diagnosis, and treatment procedures were in accordance with current clinical practice. Among the 1722 observed episodes of IE, 300 (17...
February 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26687478/surgical-and-medical-management-of-isolated-tricuspid-valve-infective-endocarditis-in-intravenous-drug-users
#8
Nabha Shetty, Dave Nagpal, Sharon Koivu, Marko Mrkobrada
BACKGROUND: Tricuspid valve (TV) infective endocarditis (IE) is a known complication of intravenous drug use (IVDU). This study assessed long-term outcomes of surgically and medically treated cases of TV IE. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all cases of native TV IE treated in London, Ontario between 2008 and 2011. Outcomes for medically and surgically managed cases were assessed at two years. Outcomes related to the timing of surgery were also assessed...
February 2016: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26611486/proteus-endocarditis-in-an-intravenous-drug-user
#9
Rohan Goel, Baskar Sekar, Mark N Payne
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening condition with adverse consequences and increased mortality, despite improvements in treatment options. Diagnosed patients usually require a prolonged course of antibiotics, with up to 40-50% requiring surgery during initial hospital admission. We report a case of a 42-year-old intravenous drug user who presented feeling generally unwell, with lethargy, rigours, confusion and a painful swollen right leg. He was subsequently diagnosed with Proteus mirabilis endocarditis (fulfilling modified Duke criteria for possible IE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT)...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26571480/-isolated-pulmonary-valve-endocarditis
#10
Antonio Davide Scardigno, Giovanni Deluca, Domenico Riccardo Rosario Chieppa, Veronica Carbonara
We report a case of isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis evaluated with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in a previous intravenous drug user. Although right-sided infective endocarditis is common in this population, the involvement of the pulmonary valve without infection of the tricuspid valve is a rare condition.
November 2015: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26417654/infective-endocarditis-in-an-hiv-infected-intravenous-drug-user
#11
Karolina Mėlinytė, Jurgita Savickaitė, Daiva Emilija Rekienė, Albinas Naudžiūnas, Aušra Burkauskienė, Laima Jankauskienė
Infective endocarditis is a common complication among injecting drug users. Disease risk among these patients is increased by the spread of HIV infection. In the following article, we discuss the exceptional clinical presentation of a 28-year-old patient who used intravenous drugs (heroin) for 10 years, had been infected with HIV for seven years and as a complication had developed Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis. The patient came to the hospital in serious condition, complaining of bodily pain, swelling of the legs and general weakness...
October 2015: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26413022/the-preoperative-evaluation-of-infective-endocarditis-via-3-dimensional-transesophageal-echocardiography
#12
REVIEW
Matthew S Yong, Pankaj Saxena, Ammar M Killu, Sean Coffey, Harold M Burkhart, Siu-Hin Wan, Joseph F Malouf
Transesophageal echocardiography continues to have a central role in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and its sequelae. Recent technological advances offer the option of 3-dimensional imaging in the evaluation of patients with infective endocarditis. We present an illustrative case and review the literature regarding the potential advantages and limitations of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of complicated infective endocarditis. A 51-year-old man, an intravenous drug user who had undergone bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement 5 months earlier, presented with prosthetic valve endocarditis...
August 2015: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26146571/a-complicated-case-of-triple-valve-infective-endocarditis-in-an-iv-drug-user-with-a-bicuspid-aortic-valve-requiring-three-separate-salvage-operations-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Shahzad Khan, Athanasios Smyrlis, Dmitry Yaranov, David Oelberg, Eric Jimenez
Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the endocardium that involves valves and adjacent mural endocardium or a septal defect. Local complications include severe valvular insufficiency, which may lead to intractable congestive heart failure and myocardial abscesses. If left untreated, IE is generally fatal. Diagnosing IE can be straightforward in patients with the typical oslerian manifestations such as bacteremia, evidence of active valvulitis, peripheral emboli, and immunologic vascular phenomena...
2015: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25938498/endocarditis-tricuspid-sub-aigue-of-post-abortion-report-of-a-case
#14
Léopold Houétondji Codjo, Kofi-Mensa Savi de Tove, Fanny Ahouingnan Hounkponou, Serge Hugues Mahougnon Dohou, Martin Dàdonougbo Houenassi
Tricuspid infective endocarditis is rare and represents five to 10% of all cases of infective endocarditis. It occurs predominantly in intravenous drug users, and patients with central venous catheters or intracardiac probes. We report on the case of subacute tricuspid infective endocarditis in a girl of 17 years. She had no particular cardiovascular history. She was admitted for a persistent fever with cachexy, cough and thoracic pains, and right heart failure that appeared one month after a clandestine abortion...
March 23, 2015: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25934159/incidence-and-outcome-of-staphylococcus-aureus-endocarditis-a-10-year-single-centre-northern-european-experience
#15
H Asgeirsson, A Thalme, M Kristjansson, O Weiland
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Little has been published on the outcome and epidemiology of S. aureus endocarditis (SAE) in the twenty-first century. Our aim was to evaluate the short-term and long-term outcome of SAE in Stockholm, Sweden, and assess its incidence over time. Patients treated for SAE from January 2004 through December 2013 were retrospectively identified at the Karolinska University Hospital. Clinical data were obtained from medical records and the diagnosis was verified according to the modified Duke criteria...
August 2015: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25904083/purulent-pericarditis-with-quadruple-valve-endocarditis
#16
Huliyurdurga S Setty Natrajsetty, Ishwarappa B Vijayalakshmi, Chitra Narasimhan, Cholenahalli N Manjunath
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease with a highly varied clinical picture. Spread of the infection to the pericardium from the infective endocardium is uncommon and IE involving all 4 cardiac valves is also a very rare occurrence, being more common in intravenous drug users (IVDU). CASE REPORT: A 7-year-old boy had purulent pericarditis with infective endocarditis (IE) on all 4 cardiac valves and vegetation in the left ventricular and right atrial cavity...
April 23, 2015: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25846656/current-profile-of-infective-endocarditis-in-intravenous-drug-users-the-prognostic-relevance-of-the-valves-involved
#17
LETTER
Carlos Ortiz-Bautista, Javier López, Pablo Elpidio García-Granja, Teresa Sevilla, Isidre Vilacosta, Cristina Sarriá, Carmen Olmos, Carlos Ferrera, Carmen Sáez, Itziar Gómez, José Alberto San Román
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25688306/cardiac-tamponade-following-mitral-valve-replacement-for-active-infective-endocarditis-with-ring-abscess
#18
R Ranjan, T Lawrence
Periannular extension and abscess formation are rare but deadly complications of infective endocarditis (IE) with high mortality. Multimodality cardiac imaging, invasive and noninvasive, is needed to accurately define the extent of the disease. Debridement, reconstruction, and valve replacement, often performed in an emergent setting, remain the treatment of choice. Here we present a case of severe IE in a 29-year-old intravenous drug user who after undergoing debridement of the abscess, annular reconstruction, and mitral valve replacement (MVR) presented with recurrence of shortness of breath and pedal edema...
2015: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25545735/evolving-epidemiology-of-injecting-drug-use-associated-infective-endocarditis-a-regional-centre-experience
#19
Matthew K Y Tung, Melanie Light, Rinky Giri, Stephen Lane, Alan Appelbe, Craig Harvey, Eugene Athan
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Injecting drug use (IDU) is a major risk factor for infective endocarditis (IE). An understanding of the epidemiology of IE and IDU is vital for delivery of health care for this disease. Our aim was to examine the rates of IDU-associated IE (IDU-IE) in a single centre over the last 12 years. DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of two cohorts of consecutive patients (n = 226) admitted with IE from 2002 to 2013. Numbers of cases and rates of IE were compared between two cohorts (2002-2006 and 2009-2013)...
July 2015: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25501052/clinical-classification-and-prognosis-of-isolated-right-sided-infective-endocarditis
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Carlos Ortiz, Javier López, Héctor García, Teresa Sevilla, Ana Revilla, Isidre Vilacosta, Cristina Sarriá, Carmen Olmos, Carlos Ferrera, Pablo Elpidio García, Carmen Sáez, Itziar Gómez, José Alberto San Román
From an epidemiologic point of view, right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) affects different types of patients: intravenous drug users (IDUs), cardiac device carriers (pacemakers and implantable automatic defibrillators), and the "3 noes" endocarditis group: no left-sided, no IDUs, no cardiac devices. Our objective is to describe and compare the clinical profile and outcome of these groups of patients. Every episode of infective endocarditis (IE) consecutively diagnosed in 3 tertiary centers from 1996 to 2012 was included in an ongoing multipurpose database...
December 2014: Medicine (Baltimore)
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