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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632275/architectures-of-soft-robotic-locomotion-enabled-by-simple-mechanical-principles
#1
Liangliang Zhu, Yunteng Cao, Yilun Liu, Zhe Yang, Xi Chen
In nature, a variety of limbless locomotion patterns flourish, from the small or basic life forms (Escherichia coli, amoebae, etc.) to the large or intelligent creatures (e.g., slugs, starfishes, earthworms, octopuses, jellyfishes, and snakes). Many bioinspired soft robots based on locomotion have been developed in the past few decades. In this work, based on the kinematics and dynamics of two representative locomotion modes (i.e., worm-like crawling and snake-like slithering), we propose a broad set of innovative designs for soft mobile robots through simple mechanical principles...
June 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631986/accuracy-statistics-in-predicting-independent-activities-of-daily-living-iadl-capacity-with-comprehensive-and-brief-neuropsychological-test-batteries
#2
Peter Karzmark, Gayle K Deutsch
This investigation was designed to determine the predictive accuracy of a comprehensive neuropsychological and brief neuropsychological test battery with regard to the capacity to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Accuracy statistics that included measures of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted power and positive likelihood ratio were calculated for both types of batteries. The sample was drawn from a general neurological group of adults (n = 117) that included a number of older participants (age >55; n = 38)...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629178/active2gether-a-personalized-m-health-intervention-to-encourage-physical-activity
#3
Michel C A Klein, Adnan Manzoor, Julia S Mollee
Lack of physical activity is an increasingly important health risk. Modern mobile technology, such as smartphones and digital measurement devices, provides new opportunities to tackle physical inactivity. This paper describes the design of a system that aims to encourage young adults to be more physically active. The system monitors the user's behavior, uses social comparison and provides tailored and personalized feedback based on intelligent reasoning mechanisms. As the name suggests, social processes play an important role in the Active2Gether system...
June 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626431/artificial-intelligence-assisted-online-social-therapy-for-youth-mental-health
#4
Simon D'Alfonso, Olga Santesteban-Echarri, Simon Rice, Greg Wadley, Reeva Lederman, Christopher Miles, John Gleeson, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez
Introduction: Benefits from mental health early interventions may not be sustained over time, and longer-term intervention programs may be required to maintain early clinical gains. However, due to the high intensity of face-to-face early intervention treatments, this may not be feasible. Adjunctive internet-based interventions specifically designed for youth may provide a cost-effective and engaging alternative to prevent loss of intervention benefits. However, until now online interventions have relied on human moderators to deliver therapeutic content...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618803/effects-of-linear-and-nonlinear-speech-rate-changes-on-speech-intelligibility-in-stationary-and-fluctuating-maskers
#5
Martin Cooke, Vincent Aubanel
Algorithmic modifications to the durational structure of speech designed to avoid intervals of intense masking lead to increases in intelligibility, but the basis for such gains is not clear. The current study addressed the possibility that the reduced information load produced by speech rate slowing might explain some or all of the benefits of durational modifications. The study also investigated the influence of masker stationarity on the effectiveness of durational changes. Listeners identified keywords in sentences that had undergone linear and nonlinear speech rate changes resulting in overall temporal lengthening in the presence of stationary and fluctuating maskers...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606338/forensic-intelligence-applied-to-questioned-document-analysis-a-model-and-its-application-against-organized-crime
#6
Josep De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Katherine A Roberts
The capability of forensic sciences to fight crime, especially against organized criminal groups, becomes relevant in the recent economic downturn and the war on terrorism. In view of these societal challenges, the methods of combating crime should experience critical changes in order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the current resources available. It is obvious that authorities have serious difficulties combating criminal groups of transnational nature. These are characterized as well structured organizations with international connections, abundant financial resources and comprised of members with significant and diverse expertise...
July 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599016/comparing-the-impact-of-specific-strength-training-vs-general-fitness-training-on-professional-symphony-orchestra-musicians-a-feasibility-study
#7
Lotte Nygaard Andersen, Stephanie Mann, Birgit Juul-Kristensen, Karen Søgaard
Musculoskeletal symptoms, especially in the upper body, are frequent among professional symphony orchestra musicians. Physical exercise may relieve pain but might also interfere with playing performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and effect of "specific strength training" (SST) versus "general fitness training" (GFT). METHODS: A feasibility study using randomized controlled methods. Primarily, evaluations involved self-reported impact on instrument playing and satisfaction with the interventions...
June 2017: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590351/a-novel-approach-to-optimal-placement-of-new-trauma-centers-within-an-existing-trauma-system-using-geospatial-mapping
#8
Michael A Horst, Frederick B Rogers, Brian W Gross, Alan D Cook, Turner M Osler, Eric H Bradburn
BACKGROUND: Trauma system expansion is a complex process often governed by financial and health care system imperatives. We sought to propose a new, informed approach to trauma system expansion through the use of geospatial mapping. We hypothesized that geospatial mapping set to specific parameters could effectively identify optimal placement of new trauma centers (TC) within an existing trauma system. METHODS: We used Pennsylvania Trauma Systems Foundation (PTSF) registry data of adult (age ≥ 15) trauma for calendar years 2003-2015 (n=408,432), hospital demographics, road networks, and US Census data files...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585983/exploring-the-correlation-between-nontraditional-variables-and-student-success-a-longitudinal-study
#9
Haley Perkins Strickland, Michelle Haney Cheshire
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this project was to determine whether a correlation exists between the traditional admission criteria of grade point averages with the potential admission criteria of emotional intelligence (EI) scores or critical thinking (CT) scores to predict upper division student outcomes. METHOD: A quantitative, longitudinal design was selected to examine the identified variables to predict undergraduate student success. The recruiting sample included a convenience sample drawn from 112 junior-level undergraduate nursing students beginning their first of a five-semester nursing program...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585961/multi-responsive-actuators-based-on-a-graphene-oxide-composite-intelligent-robot-and-bioinspired-applications
#10
Luzhuo Chen, Mingcen Weng, Peidi Zhou, Lingling Zhang, Zhigao Huang, Wei Zhang
Carbon-based electrothermal or photothermal actuators have attracted intense attention recently. They can directly convert electrical or light energy into thermal energy and exhibit obvious deformations. However, if the actuation mechanism is only limited to thermal expansion, the deformation amplitude is difficult to increase further. Moreover, complex shape-deformation is still challenging. Although a few materials were reported to realize twisting or untwisting actuation by cutting the samples into strips along different orientations, each single strip could perform only one shape-deformation mode...
June 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583902/ph-responsive-self-healing-injectable-hydrogel-based-on-n-carboxyethyl-chitosan-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-therapy
#11
Jin Qu, Xin Zhao, Peter X Ma, Baolin Guo
Injectable hydrogels with pH-responsiveness and self-healing ability have great potential for anti-cancer drug delivery. Herein, we developed a series of polysaccharide-based self-healing hydrogels with pH-sensitivity as drug delivery vehicles for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy. The hydrogels were prepared by using N-carboxyethyl chitosan (CEC) synthesized via Michael reaction in aqueous solution and dibenzaldehyde-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGDA). Doxorubicin (Dox), as a model of water-soluble small molecule anti-cancer drug was encapsulated into the hydrogel in situ...
June 2, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582982/the-role-of-emotional-intelligence-and-organisational-support-on-work-stress-of-nurses-in-ibadan-nigeria
#12
Abiodun M Lawal, Erhabor S Idemudia
BACKGROUND: Universally, nurses have been reported to be a group at high risk of workplace stress. However, nurses' responses to stressful situations at work could be the outcomes of individual differences and organisational factors. OBJECTIVES: We examined the independent and joint contributions of four dimensions of emotional intelligence and perceived organisational support in work stress of nurses in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional survey research design, which selected 228 (41 male and 187 female nurses) nurses through the use of convenience sampling...
May 23, 2017: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575706/the-impact-of-undergraduate-clinical-teaching-models-on-the-perceptions-of-work-readiness-among-new-graduate-nurses-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Emma E B Patterson, Leanne Boyd, George Mnatzaganian
BACKGROUND: Clinical Placements are an essential component of bridging the gap between academic theory and nursing practice. There are multiple clinical models designed to ease the transition from student to professional, yet there has been little exploration of such models and their impact on graduates' perceptions of work-readiness. OBJECTIVES: This cross sectional study examined perceptions of work-readiness of new graduate nurses who attended one of the following clinical teaching models: the University Fellowship Program (UFP), the Traditional Multi-facility Clinical Model (TMCPM), and the Mixed Program (MP)...
May 17, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575552/supervised-machine-learning-reveals-that-old-and-obese-people-achieve-low-dapsone-concentrations
#14
Ronald G Hall, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Mark A Swancutt, Claudia Meek, Richard Leff, Tawanda Gumbo
The human species is becoming increasingly obese. Dapsone, which is extensively used across the globe for dermatological disorders, arachnid bites, and for treatment of several bacterial, fungal and parasitic diseases, could be affected by obesity. We performed a clinical experiment, using optimal design, in volunteers weighing 44-150 kilograms, to identify the effect of obesity on dapsone pharmacokinetic parameters based on maximum-likelihood solution via the expectation-maximization algorithm. Artificial intelligence-based multivariate adaptive regression splines were used for covariate selection, and identified weight and/or age as predictors of absorption, systemic clearance and volume of distribution...
June 2, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574156/prediction-of-lithium-response-in-first-episode-mania-using-the-lithium-intelligent-agent-lithia-pilot-data-and-proof-of-concept
#15
David E Fleck, Nicholas Ernest, Caleb M Adler, Kelly Cohen, James C Eliassen, Matthew Norris, Richard A Komoroski, Wen-Jang Chu, Jeffrey A Welge, Thomas J Blom, Melissa P DelBello, Stephen M Strakowski
OBJECTIVES: Individualized treatment for bipolar disorder based on neuroimaging treatment targets remains elusive. To address this shortcoming, we developed a linguistic machine learning system based on a cascading genetic fuzzy tree (GFT) design called the LITHium Intelligent Agent (LITHIA). Using multiple objectively defined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) inputs, we tested whether LITHIA could accurately predict the lithium response in participants with first-episode bipolar mania...
June 2, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571105/visualising-emergency-department-capacity-in-an-emergency-department-capacity-clock-a-novel-tool-to-assess-and-communicate-overcrowding-and-access-block
#16
Ohad Dar, Jacques Loubser
Hospital-wide engagement is required to alleviate the problem of ED crowding and its associated adverse effects. To this end, the article describes a novel visualisation termed 'the ED Capacity Clock', which can be formatted using business intelligence software. This radial diagram represents ED capacity and its consumption in a format that can be understood intuitively and at a glance. The ED Capacity Clock is designed to promote common understanding and discussion between relevant hospital services and also acts as an auditing tool to monitor processes implemented to alleviate ED crowding...
June 1, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571028/integration-of-the-forensic-dimension-into-anti-doping-strategies
#17
François Marclay, Martial Saugy
Traditionally, research in anti-doping has been stimulated by the need for technological improvements to accommodate the expansion of the list of prohibited substances and methods. Nevertheless, in recent years, anti-doping found itself at a crossroads due to the increasing complexity and constant refinement of doping methods. As illustrated by the 2012 USADA (United States Anti-Doping Agency) versus Lance Armstrong case, a change in paradigm was necessary. The exploration of new scientific avenues to understand the mechanisms of doping and pinpoint its practice was most needed to allow designing more efficient preventive or disruptive strategies...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556817/the-lateral-tracking-control-for-the-intelligent-vehicle-based-on-adaptive-pid-neural-network
#18
Gaining Han, Weiping Fu, Wen Wang, Zongsheng Wu
The intelligent vehicle is a complicated nonlinear system, and the design of a path tracking controller is one of the key technologies in intelligent vehicle research. This paper mainly designs a lateral control dynamic model of the intelligent vehicle, which is used for lateral tracking control. Firstly, the vehicle dynamics model (i.e., transfer function) is established according to the vehicle parameters. Secondly, according to the vehicle steering control system and the CARMA (Controlled Auto-Regression and Moving-Average) model, a second-order control system model is built...
May 30, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555612/development-of-an-advanced-radioactive-airborne-particle-monitoring-system-to-use-in-early-warning-networks
#19
A Baeza, Jose Angel Corbacho, José Manuel Caballero, María Ángeles Ontalba, José Vasco, David Valencia
Automatic real-time warning networks are essential for the almost immediate detection of anomalous levels of radioactivity in the environment. In the case of Extremadura region (SW Spain), a radiological network (RARE) has been operational in the vicinity of the Almaraz nuclear power plant and in other areas farther away since 1992. There are ten air monitoring stations equipped with Geiger-Müller counters in order to evaluate the external ambient gamma dose rate. Four of those stations have a commercial system that provides estimates of the total artificial alpha and beta activity concentrations in aerosols and the 131 I activity (gaseous fraction)...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555512/the-use-of-neuropsychological-tests-to-assess-intelligence
#20
David A Gansler, Mark Varvaris, David J Schretlen
OBJECTIVE: We sought to derive a 'neuropsychological intelligence quotient' (NIQ) to replace IQ testing in some routine assessments. METHOD: We administered neuropsychological testing and a seven-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale to a community sample of 394 adults aged 18-96 years. We regressed Wechsler Full Scale IQs (W-FSIQ) on 23 neuropsychological scores and derived an NIQ from 9 measures that explained significant variance in W-FSIQ...
May 30, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
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