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Intelligent design

Qiuxia Fu, Cheng Duan, Zishuo Yan, Yan Li, Yang Si, Lifang Liu, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
Nanofiber-based hydrogels (NFHGs) prepared by the combination of traditional hydrogels and novel nanofibers have demonstrated great potential in various application fields, owing to their integrated advantages of superhydrophilicity, high water-holding capacity, good biocompatibility, enhanced mechanical strength, and excellent structural tenability. In this review, a comprehensive overview of the structure design and synthetic strategy of NFHGs derived from electrospinning technique, weaving, freeze-drying, 3D printing, and molecular self-assembling method is provided...
April 14, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Fatemeh Hajiaghababa, Hamid R Marateb, Saeed Kermani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implants (CIs) are electronic devices restoring partial hearing to deaf individuals with profound hearing loss. In this paper, a new plug-in for traditional IIR filter-banks (FBs) is presented for cochlear implants based on wavelet neural networks (WNNs). Having provided such a plug-in for commercially available CIs, it is possible not only to use available hardware in the market but also to optimize their performance compared with the-state-of-the-art...
June 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Junhua Chen, Jiafeng Pan, Shu Chen
A complete set of binary basic logic gates (OR, AND, NOR, NAND, INHIBT, IMPLICATION, XOR and XNOR) is realized on a label-free and enzyme-free sensing platform using caged G-quadruplex as the signal transducer. In the presence of an appropriate input, the temporarily blocked G-rich sequence in the hairpin DNA is released through cleavage by the synergetically-stabilized Mg2+ -dependent DNAzyme which can be made to function via the input-guided cooperative conjunction of the DNAzyme subunits. In the presence of hemin, the unblocked G-quadruplex DNAzyme catalyzes the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H2 O2 to generate a colored readout signal which can be readily distinguished by the naked eye...
January 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Angel Jimenez-Molina, Jorge Gaete-Villegas, Javier Fuentes
New advances in telemedicine, ubiquitous computing, and artificial intelligence have supported the emergence of more advanced applications and support systems for chronic patients. This trend addresses the important problem of chronic illnesses, highlighted by multiple international organizations as a core issue in future healthcare. Despite the myriad of exciting new developments, each application and system is designed and implemented for specific purposes and lacks the flexibility to support different healthcare concerns...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Slim Smaoui, Karim Ennouri, Ahlem Chakchouk-Mtibaa, Imen Sellem, Kameleddine Bouchaala, Ines Karray-Rebai, Rayda Ben Ayed, Florence Mathieu, Lotfi Mellouli
A new aerobic bacterium TN71 was isolated from Tunisian Saharan soil and has been selected for its antimicrobial activity against phytopathogenic bacteria. Based on cellular morphology, physiological characterization and phylogenetic analysis, this isolate has been assigned as Streptomyces sp. TN71 strain. In an attempt to increase its anti-Agrobacterium tumefaciens activity, GYM + S (glucose, yeast extract, malt extract and starch) medium was selected out of five different production media and the medium composition was optimized...
April 4, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Hannah Gerwinn, Simone Weiß, Gilian Tenbergen, Till Amelung, Carina Födisch, Alexander Pohl, Claudia Massau, Jonas Kneer, Sebastian Mohnke, Christian Kärgel, Matthias Wittfoth, Stefanie Jung, Krassimira Drumkova, Kolja Schiltz, Martin Walter, Klaus M Beier, Henrik Walter, Jorge Ponseti, Boris Schiffer, Tillmann H C Kruger
Contrary to public perception, child sex offending (CSO) and paedophilia are not the same. Only half of all cases of CSO are motivated by paedophilic preference, and a paedophilic preference does not necessarily lead to CSO. However, studies that investigated clinical factors accompanying and contributing to paedophilia so far mainly relied on paedophiles with a history of CSO. The aim of this study was to distinguish between factors associated with sexual preference (paedophile versus non-paedophile) and offender status (with versus without CSO)...
April 3, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Daniel Chukwuemeka Ogbuabor, Obinna Emmanuel Onwujekwe
BACKGROUND: Significant knowledge gaps exist in the functioning of institutional designs and organisational practices in purchasing within free healthcare schemes in low resource countries. The study provides evidence of the governance requirements to scale up strategic purchasing in free healthcare policies in Nigeria and other low-resource settings facing similar approaches. METHODS: The study was conducted at the Ministry of Health and in two health districts in Enugu State, Nigeria, using a qualitative case study design...
April 5, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Han-You Jeong, Hoa-Hung Nguyen, Adhitya Bhawiyuga
Vehicle positioning plays an important role in the design of protocols, algorithms, and applications in the intelligent transport systems. In this paper, we present a new framework of spatiotemporal local-remote sensor fusion (ST-LRSF) that cooperatively improves the accuracy of absolute vehicle positioning based on two state estimates of a vehicle in the vicinity: a local sensing estimate, measured by the on-board exteroceptive sensors, and a remote sensing estimate, received from neighbor vehicles via vehicle-to-everything communications...
April 4, 2018: Sensors
Natasha Merat, Tyron Louw, Ruth Madigan, Marc Wilbrink, Anna Schieben
As the desire for deploying automated ("driverless") vehicles increases, there is a need to understand how they might communicate with other road users in a mixed traffic, urban, setting. In the absence of an active and responsible human controller in the driving seat, who might currently communicate with other road users in uncertain/conflicting situations, in the future, understanding a driverless car's behaviour and intentions will need to be relayed via easily comprehensible, intuitive and universally intelligible means, perhaps presented externally via new vehicle interfaces...
March 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Konstantinos N Genikomsakis, Nikolaos-Fivos Galatoulas, Panagiotis I Dallas, Luis Miguel Candanedo Ibarra, Dimitris Margaritis, Christos S Ioakimidis
Recent developments in the field of low-cost sensors enable the design and implementation of compact, inexpensive and portable sensing units for air pollution monitoring with fine-detailed spatial and temporal resolution, in order to support applications of wider interest in the area of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). In this context, the present work advances the concept of developing a low-cost portable air pollution monitoring system (APMS) for measuring the concentrations of particulate matter (PM), in particular fine particles with a diameter of 2...
April 1, 2018: Sensors
Jiawen Ye, Dannii Y Yeung, Elaine S C Liu, Tina L Rochelle
Past research has often focused on the effects of emotional intelligence and received social support on subjective well-being yet paid limited attention to the effects of provided social support. This study adopted a longitudinal design to examine the sequential mediating effects of provided and received social support on the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and subjective happiness. A total of 214 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduates were asked to complete two assessments with a 6-month interval in between...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
M Srividya, S Mohanavalli, N Bhalaji
Mental health is an indicator of emotional, psychological and social well-being of an individual. It determines how an individual thinks, feels and handle situations. Positive mental health helps one to work productively and realize their full potential. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from childhood and adolescence through adulthood. Many factors contribute to mental health problems which lead to mental illness like stress, social anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, drug addiction, and personality disorders...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Yongqi Yang, Lin Guan, Guanghui Gao
Traditional optoelectronic devices without stretchable performance could be limited for substrates with irregular shape. Therefore, it is urgent to explore a new generation of flexible, stretchable and low-cost intelligent vehicles as visual display and storage devices, such as hydrogels. In the investigation, a novel photochromic hydrogel was developed by introducing negatively charged ammonium molybdate as a photochromic unit into polyacrylamide via ionic and covalent crosslinking. The hydrogel exhibited excellent properties of low cost, easy preparation, stretchable deformation, fatigue-resistance, high transparence, and second order response to external signals...
April 2, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Roozbeh Soleymani, Ivan W Selesnick, David M Landsberger
We introduce a new wavelet-based algorithm to enhance the quality of speech corrupted by multi-talker babble noise. The algorithm comprises three stages: The first stage classifies short frames of the noisy speech as speech-dominated or noise-dominated. We design this classifier specifically for multi-talker babble noise. The second stage performs preliminary de-nosing of noisy speech frames using oversampled wavelet transforms and parallel group thresholding. The final stage performs further denoising by attenuating residual high frequency components in the signal produced by the second stage...
February 2018: Speech Communication
James M Kates, Shashidhar Prabhu
Auditory filterbanks are an integral part of many metrics designed to predict speech intelligibility and speech quality. Considerations in these applications include accurate reproduction of auditory filter shapes, the ability to reproduce the impact of hearing loss as well as normal hearing, and computational efficiency. This paper presents an alternative method for implementing a dynamic compressive gammachirp (dcGC) auditory filterbank [Irino and Patterson (2006). IEEE Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Proc. 14, 2222-2232]...
March 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Piia Lönnberg, Ulla Niutanen, L Diane Parham, Elina Wolford, Sture Andersson, Marjo Metsäranta, Aulikki Lano
BACKGROUND: Children born preterm are prone to motor problems. Research on their motor performance has, however, rarely been integrated with sensory processing. AIM: To examine sensory-motor performance in children born extremely preterm (EPT). METHOD: In a longitudinal prospective cohort study, 49 EPT (born <28 gestational weeks; 32 boys and 17 girls) and 33 term-born (16 boys and 17 girls) children were assessed with six individual subtests from the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests at the age of 7...
March 28, 2018: Early Human Development
Yankang Jing, Yuemin Bian, Ziheng Hu, Lirong Wang, Xiang-Qun Sean Xie
Over the last decade, deep learning (DL) methods have been extremely successful and widely used to develop artificial intelligence (AI) in almost every domain, especially after it achieved its proud record on computational Go. Compared to traditional machine learning (ML) algorithms, DL methods still have a long way to go to achieve recognition in small molecular drug discovery and development. And there is still lots of work to do for the popularization and application of DL for research purpose, e.g., for small molecule drug research and development...
March 30, 2018: AAPS Journal
Lin Shao, Yang Cao, Zhanying Li, Wenbin Hu, Shize Li, Lingbin Lu
In this paper, we designed a novel intelligent polysaccharide aerogel made from the graft copolymer ALG-g-P(NIPAM-co-NHMAM) with thermo/pH sensitive properties for drug controlled release. LCST of the copolymer covered a wide temperature range, including the human body temperature. The intelligent aerogel was three-dimensional network structure with high porosity. As a drug controlled release system, the aerogel responded to both temperature and pH. The drug release profiles were well fitted with both the Higuchi model and the first-order model...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yassine Rabhi, Makrem Mrabet, Farhat Fnaiech
A new control system of a hand gesture-controlled wheelchair (EWC) is proposed. This smart control device is suitable for a large number of patients who cannot manipulate a standard joystick wheelchair. The movement control system uses a camera fixed on the wheelchair. The patient's hand movements are recognized using a visual recognition algorithm and artificial intelligence software; the derived corresponding signals are thus used to control the EWC in real time. One of the main features of this control technique is that it allows the patient to drive the wheelchair with a variable speed similar to that of a standard joystick...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Igor Ruiz Gomes, Cristiane Ruiz Gomes, Herminio Simões Gomes, Gervásio Protásio Dos Santos Cavalcante
The establishment and improvement of transmission systems rely on models that take into account, (among other factors), the geographical features of the region, as these can lead to signal degradation. This is particularly important in Brazil, where there is a great diversity of scenery and climates. This article proposes an outdoor empirical radio propagation model for Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band, that estimates received power values that can be applied to non-homogeneous paths and different climates, this last being of an innovative character for the UHF band...
2018: PloS One
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