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Intelligent design

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036604/accomplishing-reform-successful-case-studies-drawn-from-the-health-systems-of-60-countries
#1
Jeffrey Braithwaite, Russell Mannion, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Paul Shekelle, Stuart Whittaker, Samir Al-Adawi, Kristiana Ludlow, Wendy James, Hsuen P Ting, Jessica Herkes, Louise A Ellis, Kate Churruca, Wendy Nicklin, Clifford Hughes
Healthcare reform typically involves orchestrating a policy change, mediated through some form of operational, systems, financial, process or practice intervention. The aim is to improve the ways in which care is delivered to patients. In our book 'Health Systems Improvement Across the Globe: Success Stories from 60 Countries', we gathered case-study accomplishments from 60 countries. A unique feature of the collection is the diversity of included countries, from the wealthiest and most politically stable such as Japan, Qatar and Canada, to some of the poorest, most densely populated or politically challenged, including Afghanistan, Guinea and Nigeria...
September 20, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035296/a-wireless-monitoring-system-using-a-tunneling-sensor-array-in-a-smart-oral-appliance-for-sleep-apnea-treatment
#2
Kun-Ying Yeh, Chao-Chi Yeh, Chun-Chang Wu, Kuan Tang, Jyun-Yi Wu, Yun-Ting Chen, Ming-Xin Xu, Yunn-Jy Chen, Yao-Joe Yang, Shey-Shi Lu
Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder, and the most common type is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Untreated OSA will cause lots of potential health problems. Oral appliance therapy is an effective and popular approach for OSA treatment, but making a perfect fit for each patient is time-consuming and decreases its efficiency considerably. This paper proposes a System-on-a-Chip (SoC) enabled sleep monitoring system in a smart oral appliance, which is capable of intelligently collecting the physiological data about tongue movement through the whole therapy...
October 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035220/robot-training-with-vector-fields-based-on-stroke-survivors-individual-movement-statistics
#3
Zachary A Wright, Emily Lazzaro, Kelly O Thielbar, James L Patton, Felix C Huang
The wide variation in upper extremity motor impairments among stroke survivors necessitates more intelligent methods of customized therapy. However, current strategies for characterizing individual motor impairments are limited by the use of traditional clinical assessments (e.g. Fugl-Meyer) and simple engineering metrics (e.g. goal-directed performance). Our overall approach is to statistically identify the range of volitional movement capabilities, and then apply a robot-applied force vector field intervention that encourages under-expressed movements...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032507/a-novel-lab-on-a-chip-platform-for-spheroid-metabolism-monitoring
#4
Frank Alexander, Sebastian Eggert, Joachim Wiest
Sensor-based cellular microphysiometry is a technique that allows non-invasive, label-free, real-time monitoring of living cells that can greatly improve the predictability of toxicology testing by removing the influence of biochemical labels. In this work, the Intelligent Mobile Lab for In Vitro Diagnostics (IMOLA-IVD) was utilized to perform cellular microphysiometry on 3D multicellular spheroids. Using a commercial 3D printer, 3 × 3 microwell arrays were fabricated to maintain nine previously cultured HepG2 spheroids on a single BioChip...
October 14, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030225/an-intelligent-re-shieldable-targeting-system-for-enhanced-tumor-accumulation
#5
Zhenpeng Hu, Jinlong Ma, Fei Fu, Chen Cui, Xiaomin Li, Xinyu Wang, Wei Wang, Yeda Wan, Zhi Yuan
Programmed ligand targeting strategy promotes the blood circulation stability of nanoparticles by shielding the ligand. However, the irreversible shielding causes the deshielded nanoparticles to be easily recognized and cleared by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), impeding their further retention in the tumor. Here, we for the first time prove the superiority of the intelligent re-shieldable targeting system that is based on the pH-responsive self-assembly/disassembly of gold nanoparticles. The system can enhance the stability of gold nanoparticles in the blood circulation (2...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027511/evaluation-of-a-frequency-lowering-algorithm-for-adults-with-high-frequency-hearing-loss
#6
Marina Salorio-Corbetto, Thomas Baer, Brian C J Moore
The objective was to determine the effects of a frequency-lowering algorithm (frequency composition, Fcomp) on consonant identification, word-final /s, z/ detection, the intelligibility of sentences in noise, and subjective benefit, for people with high-frequency hearing loss, including people with dead regions (DRs) in the cochlea. A single-blind randomized crossover design was used. Performance with Bernafon Acriva 9 hearing aids was compared with Fcomp off and Fcomp on. Participants wore the hearing aids in each condition in a counterbalanced order...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027410/-quality-by-design-approaches-for-pharmaceutical-development-and-manufacturing-of-chinese-medicine
#7
Bing Xu, Xin-Yuan Shi, Zhi-Sheng Wu, Yan-Ling Zhang, Yun Wang, Yan-Jiang Qiao
The pharmaceutical quality was built by design, formed in the manufacturing process and improved during the product's lifecycle. Based on the comprehensive literature review of pharmaceutical quality by design (QbD), the essential ideas and implementation strategies of pharmaceutical QbD were interpreted. Considering the complex nature of Chinese medicine, the "4H" model was innovated and proposed for implementing QbD in pharmaceutical development and industrial manufacture of Chinese medicine product. "4H" corresponds to the acronym of holistic design, holistic information analysis, holistic quality control, and holistic process optimization, which is consistent with the holistic concept of Chinese medicine theory...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023298/appraisal-of-function-after-rehabilitation-with-tongue-prosthesis
#8
Pankaj Kharade, Kanchan Dholam, Gurmit Bachher
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Prosthetic rehabilitation following total glossectomy is very complex procedure from clinical as well as laboratory point of view. The basic objective of prosthodontic rehabilitation is to deliver a comfortable as well as esthetically suitable prosthesis, which restores the impaired speech and deglutition function. PURPOSE: Prosthetic rehabilitation of patients after total glossectomy with tongue prosthesis to evaluate improvement in speech as well as swallowing function...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022841/designing-cellulosic-and-nanocellulosic-sensors-for-interface-with-a-protease-sequestrant-wound-dressing-prototype-implications-of-material-selection-for-dressing-and-protease-sensor-design
#9
Krystal R Fontenot, J Vincent Edwards, David Haldane, Nicole Pircher, Falk Liebner, Brian D Condon, Huzaifah Qureshi, Dorne Yager
Interfacing nanocellulosic-based biosensors with chronic wound dressings for protease point of care diagnostics combines functional material properties of high specific surface area, appropriate surface charge, and hydrophilicity with biocompatibility to the wound environment. Combining a protease sensor with a dressing is consistent with the concept of an intelligent dressing, which has been a goal of wound-dressing design for more than a quarter century. We present here biosensors with a nanocellulosic transducer surface (nanocrystals, nanocellulose composites, and nanocellulosic aerogels) immobilized with a fluorescent elastase tripeptide or tetrapeptide biomolecule, which has selectivity and affinity for human neutrophil elastase present in chronic wound fluid...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021591/highly-sensitive-self-powered-and-wearable-electronic-skin-based-on-pressure-sensitive-nanofiber-woven-fabric-sensor
#10
Yuman Zhou, Jianxin He, Hongbo Wang, Kun Qi, Nan Nan, Xiaolu You, Weili Shao, Lidan Wang, Bin Ding, Shizhong Cui
The wearable electronic skin with high sensitivity and self-power has shown increasing prospects for applications such as human health monitoring, robotic skin, and intelligent electronic products. In this work, we introduced and demonstrated a design of highly sensitive, self-powered, and wearable electronic skin based on a pressure-sensitive nanofiber woven fabric sensor fabricated by weaving PVDF electrospun yarns of nanofibers coated with PEDOT. Particularly, the nanofiber woven fabric sensor with multi-leveled hierarchical structure, which significantly induced the change in contact area under ultra-low load, showed combined superiority of high sensitivity (18...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019720/sustainability-and-transformation-plans-translating-the-perspectives
#11
Sonali V Thakrar, Diane Bell
Each local health economy has been tasked with producing a sustainability and transformation plan. A health economy is a system that controls and contributes to health-care resource and the effects of health services on its population. This includes commissioners, acute providers, primary care providers, community services, public health and the voluntary sector. Sustainability and transformation plans represent a shift in the way health care is planned for in England. The aim of each sustainability and transformation plan is to deliver care within existing resource limits by improving quality of care, developing new models of care and improving efficiency of care provision...
October 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994571/facile-coordination-precipitation-route-to-insoluble-metal-roussin-s-black-salts-for-nir-responsive-release-of-no-for-anti-metastasis
#12
Lijuan Chen, Qianjun He, Minyi Lei, Liwei Xiong, Kun Shi, Liwei Tan, Zhaokui Jin, Tianfu Wang, Zhiyong Qian
A facile and general coordination-precipitation method is developed to synthesize insoluble metal Roussin's black salts (Me-RBSs) as a new type of NIR-responsive NORMs. The weak-field ligand coordination of metal(+)-RBS(-) brings a NIR absorption effect of Me-RBSs, and further gives rise to the NIR adsorption-dependent NIR-responsive NO release profile. Intratumoral NIR-responsive release of NO effectively inhibits the growth and metastasis of the metastatic breast cancer. Aqueous insolubility of Me-RBSs ensures lower cytotoxicity and higher thermostability compared with traditional soluble RBSs...
October 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992036/associations-between-sedentary-behaviours-and-cognitive-function-cross-sectional-and-prospective-findings-from-the-uk-biobank
#13
Kishan Bakrania, Charlotte L Edwardson, Kamlesh Khunti, Stephan Bandelow, Melanie J Davies, Thomas Yates
We investigate the cross-sectional and prospective associations between different sedentary behaviours and cognitive function in a large sample of UK Biobank adults. Baseline data were available on 502,643 participants (years 2006-2010). Cognitive tests included prospective memory [n = 171,585 (baseline only)], visual-spatial memory [round 1 (n = 483,832); round 2 (n = 482,762)], fluid intelligence [n = 165,492], and short-term numeric memory [n = 50,370]. After a mean period of 5.3-years, between 12,091 and 114,373 participants also provided follow-up cognitive data...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990839/a-review-of-intelligent-systems-for-heart-sound-signal-analysis
#14
Mohammed Nabih-Ali, El-Sayed A El-Dahshan, Ashraf S Yahia
Intelligent computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems can enhance the diagnostic capabilities of physicians and reduce the time required for accurate diagnosis. CAD systems could provide physicians with a suggestion about the diagnostic of heart diseases. The objective of this paper is to review the recent published preprocessing, feature extraction and classification techniques and their state of the art of phonocardiogram (PCG) signal analysis. Published literature reviewed in this paper shows the potential of machine learning techniques as a design tool in PCG CAD systems and reveals that the CAD systems for PCG signal analysis are still an open problem...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988522/intellectual-performance-of-kidney-transplant-recipients-offspring-a-cross-sectional-multicenter-study
#15
Luis Eduardo Morales-Buenrostro, Josefina Alberu, Eduardo Mancilla-Urrea, Alicia Vélez-García, Ramon Espinoza-Pérez, Jose Cruz-Santiago, Renato Parra-Michel, Idalia Parra-Avila, Gerardo Flores-Nava, Gabriela Caballero-Andrade, Alfonssina Niebla-Cardenas, Roberto Pérez-Avendaño, Alejandro Angulo-Dominguez, Silvia Lascarez, Sofía Sánchez-Román
OBJECTIVE: The number of successful pregnancies in kidney transplant (KT) recipients has increased in recent years. Little evidence is available about the risk of in utero immunosuppressive exposure for long-term cognitive consequences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of immunosuppression during pregnancy on intellectual performance of children born to KT recipients. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, women who had undergone KT and their children (aged 4+ years) were recruited at the outpatient follow-up in five transplant centers...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971950/quantum-bayesian-perspective-for-intelligence-reservoir-characterization-monitoring-and-management
#16
Miguel Ángel Lozada Aguilar, Andrei Khrennikov, Klaudia Oleschko, María de Jesús Correa
The paper starts with a brief review of the literature about uncertainty in geological, geophysical and petrophysical data. In particular, we present the viewpoints of experts in geophysics on the application of Bayesian inference and subjective probability. Then we present arguments that the use of classical probability theory (CP) does not match completely the structure of geophysical data. We emphasize that such data are characterized by contextuality and non-Kolmogorovness (the impossibility to use the CP model), incompleteness as well as incompatibility of some geophysical measurements...
November 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968426/neuroimaging-of-decoding-and-language-comprehension-in-young-very-low-birth-weight-vlbw-adolescents-indications-for-compensatory-mechanisms
#17
Helene van Ettinger-Veenstra, Carin Widén, Maria Engström, Thomas Karlsson, Ingemar Leijon, Nina Nelson
In preterm children with very low birth weight (VLBW ≤ 1500 g), reading problems are often observed. Reading comprehension is dependent on word decoding and language comprehension. We investigated neural activation-within brain regions important for reading-related to components of reading comprehension in young VLBW adolescents in direct comparison to normal birth weight (NBW) term-born peers, with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that the decoding mechanisms will be affected by VLBW, and expect to see increased neural activity for VLBW which may be modulated by task performance and cognitive ability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966416/the-relationship-between-intelligence-and-reaction-time-varies-with-age-results-from-three-representative-narrow-age-age-cohorts-at-30-50-and-69%C3%A2-years
#18
Geoff Der, Ian J Deary
BACKGROUND: Reaction time (RT) has played a prominent part in research on mental ability for over a century. Throughout this time a number of questions have been repeatedly posed: what is the relationship of RT to general mental ability, and is this the same for simple and choice RT? Does the relationship change with age? How important is RT variability compared with mean values? Here we examine these questions in three population representative cohorts. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study, a longitudinal population based study designed to investigate socially structured health inequalities...
September 2017: Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961688/the-use-of-short-versions-of-the-japanese-wais-iii-to-aid-in-differentiation-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#19
Kazumi Ota, Eizo Iseki, Norio Murayama, Kiyoshi Sato, Heii Arai
Objective: We examined the cognitive characteristics of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) using the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III). In addition, the utility of short versions of WAIS-III for estimating IQ scores and index scores were examined. Methods: The subjects were 83 patients with probable AD, 33 patients with probable DLB, and 83 cognitively normal individuals. Results: Patients with DLB showed significantly lower scores in Performance IQ and Processing Speed compared with those with AD...
August 31, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961213/fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer-systems-in-supramolecular-macrocyclic-chemistry
#20
REVIEW
Xin-Yue Lou, Nan Song, Ying-Wei Yang
The fabrication of smart materials is gradually becoming a research focus in nanotechnology and materials science. An important criterion of smart materials is the capacity of stimuli-responsiveness, while another lies in selective recognition. Accordingly, supramolecular host-guest chemistry has proven a promising support for building intelligent, responsive systems; hence, synthetic macrocyclic hosts, such as calixarenes, cucurbiturils, cyclodextrins, and pillararenes, have been used as ideal building blocks...
September 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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