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Paranormal belief

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434562/latent-profile-analysis-of-schizotypy-and-paranormal-belief-associations-with-probabilistic-reasoning-performance
#1
Andrew Denovan, Neil Dagnall, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker
This study assessed the extent to which within-individual variation in schizotypy and paranormal belief influenced performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks. A convenience sample of 725 non-clinical adults completed measures assessing schizotypy (Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences; O-Life brief), belief in the paranormal (Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; RPBS) and probabilistic reasoning (perception of randomness, conjunction fallacy, paranormal perception of randomness, and paranormal conjunction fallacy)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402179/the-moderating-effect-of-mental-toughness-perception-of-risk-and-belief-in-the-paranormal
#2
Kenneth Drinkwater, Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Andrew Parker
This research demonstrates that higher levels of mental toughness provide cognitive-perceptual processing advantages when evaluating risk. No previous research, however, has examined mental toughness in relation to perception of risk and paranormal belief (a variable associated with distorted perception of causality and elevated levels of perceived risk). Accordingly, the present paper investigated relationships between these factors. A sample of 174 participants completed self-report measures assessing mental toughness, general perception of risk, and paranormal belief...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385184/a-short-educational-intervention-diminishes-causal-illusions-and-specific-paranormal-beliefs-in-undergraduates
#3
Itxaso Barberia, Elisabet Tubau, Helena Matute, Javier Rodríguez-Ferreiro
Cognitive biases such as causal illusions have been related to paranormal and pseudoscientific beliefs and, thus, pose a real threat to the development of adequate critical thinking abilities. We aimed to reduce causal illusions in undergraduates by means of an educational intervention combining training-in-bias and training-in-rules techniques. First, participants directly experienced situations that tend to induce the Barnum effect and the confirmation bias. Thereafter, these effects were explained and examples of their influence over everyday life were provided...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379631/validation-of-the-paranormal-health-beliefs-scale-for-adults
#4
Anna Rosa Donizzetti, Giovanna Petrillo
We present the validation study of the Paranormal Health Beliefs Scale adult version, aimed to measure illusory beliefs about health. The scale was administered to 643 participants (54.3% females), having an average age of 29.7 years (standard deviation = 18.31). The results of the analyses confirmed the dimensions of the Paranormal Health Beliefs Scale as developed in the previous adolescent study (Beliefs: Religious, Superstitious, in Extraordinary Events, Parapsychological, and Pseudo-scientific of a biomedical nature), as well as the convergent and discriminant validity through the correlation with other constructs (locus of control and self-efficacy)...
July 2017: Health Psychology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032111/paranormal-belief-and-errors-of-probabilistic-reasoning-the-role-of-constituent-conditional-relatedness-in-believers-susceptibility-to-the-conjunction-fallacy
#5
Paul Rogers, John E Fisk, Emma Lowrie
The present study examines the extent to which stronger belief in either extrasensory perception, psychokinesis or life-after-death is associated with a proneness to making conjunction errors (CEs). One hundred and sixty members of the UK public read eight hypothetical scenarios and for each estimated the likelihood that two constituent events alone plus their conjunction would occur. The impact of paranormal belief plus constituents' conditional relatedness type, estimates of the subjectively less likely and more likely constituents plus relevant interaction terms tested via three Generalized Linear Mixed Models...
October 12, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018398/an-assessment-of-the-dimensionality-and-factorial-structure-of-the-revised-paranormal-belief-scale
#6
Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Denovan, Neil Dagnall, Andrew Parker
Since its introduction, the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) has developed into a principal measure of belief in the paranormal. Accordingly, the RPBS regularly appears within parapsychological research. Despite common usage, academic debates continue to focus on the factorial structure of the RPBS and its psychometric integrity. Using an aggregated heterogeneous sample (N = 3,764), the present study tested the fit of 10 factorial models encompassing variants of the most commonly proposed solutions (seven, five, two, and one-factor) plus new bifactor alternatives...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964712/strange-face-illusions-during-interpersonal-gazing-and-personality-differences-of-spirituality
#7
Giovanni B Caputo
Strange-face illusions are produced when two individuals gaze at each other in the eyes in low illumination for more than a few minutes. Usually, the members of the dyad perceive numinous apparitions, like the other's face deformations and perception of a stranger or a monster in place of the other, and feel a short lasting dissociation. In the present experiment, the influence of the spirituality personality trait on strength and number of strange-face illusions was investigated. Thirty participants were preliminarily tested for superstition (Paranormal Belief Scale, PBS) and spirituality (Spiritual Transcendence Scale, STS); then, they were randomly assigned to 15 dyads...
September 1, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936192/the-intricate-relationship-between-psychotic-like-experiences-and-associated-subclinical-symptoms-in-healthy-individuals
#8
Lui Unterrassner, Thomas A Wyss, Diana Wotruba, Helene Haker, Wulf Rössler
The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20-60 years, 73 females) using correlational and linear regression analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683360/psychics-aliens-or-experience-using-the-anomalistic-belief-scale-to-examine-the-relationship-between-type-of-belief-and-probabilistic-reasoning
#9
Toby Prike, Michelle M Arnold, Paul Williamson
A growing body of research has shown people who hold anomalistic (e.g., paranormal) beliefs may differ from nonbelievers in their propensity to make probabilistic reasoning errors. The current study explored the relationship between these beliefs and performance through the development of a new measure of anomalistic belief, called the Anomalistic Belief Scale (ABS). One key feature of the ABS is that it includes a balance of both experiential and theoretical belief items. Another aim of the study was to use the ABS to investigate the relationship between belief and probabilistic reasoning errors on conjunction fallacy tasks...
July 3, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642726/urban-legends-and-paranormal-beliefs-the-role-of-reality-testing-and-schizotypy
#10
Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker, Peter J Clough
Recent research suggests that unconventional beliefs are locatable within a generic anomalous belief category. This notion derives from the observation that apparently dissimilar beliefs share fundamental, core characteristics (i.e., contradiction of orthodox scientific understanding of the universe and defiance of conventional understanding of reality). The present paper assessed the supposition that anomalous beliefs were conceptually similar and explicable via common psychological processes by comparing relationships between discrete beliefs [endorsement of urban legends (ULs) and belief in the paranormal] and cognitive-perceptual personality measures [proneness to reality testing (RT) and schizotypy]...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544975/-spiritual-but-not-religious-cognition-schizotypy-and-conversion-in-alternative-beliefs
#11
Aiyana K Willard, Ara Norenzayan
The spiritual but not religious (SBNR) are a growing population in secularizing societies. Yet, we know little about the underlying psychology of this group or their belief profile. Based on an individual difference approach, we address this knowledge gap by comparing SBNR with religious and non-religious participants. In a sample of Americans (n=1013), we find that the SBNR differ from non-religious and religious participants in a number of ways. SBNR participants are more likely to hold paranormal beliefs and to have an experiential relationship to the supernatural (e...
August 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257506/the-conspiratorial-style-in-lay-economic-thinking
#12
David Leiser, Nofar Duani, Pascal Wagner-Egger
This study investigates patterns of lay perception of economics, and in particular the place of conspiratorial thinking regarding the economic domain. We devised four types of accounts in the economic domain, over a range of questions regarding different aspects of the economy: the classical neo-liberal economic view (which we labeled Econ101), and the Conspiracy view (the destructive outcomes of economy are due to small and powerful groups who are manipulating the markets), to which we added the Government malfunction view (failures in the economy are due to the authorities), and the Bad Invisible Hand view (the invisible hand may go wrong, and the equilibrium reached by its doings may be undesirable)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236749/the-self-attribution-bias-and-paranormal-beliefs
#13
Michiel van Elk
The present study investigated the relation between paranormal beliefs, illusory control and the self-attribution bias, i.e., the motivated tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself while negative outcomes are externalized. Visitors of a psychic fair played a card guessing game and indicated their perceived control over randomly selected cards as a function of the congruency and valence of the card. A stronger self-attribution bias was observed for paranormal believers compared to skeptics and this bias was specifically related to traditional religious beliefs and belief in superstition...
March 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692466/analytic-cognitive-style-predicts-paranormal-explanations-of-anomalous-experiences-but-not-the-experiences-themselves-implications-for-cognitive-theories-of-delusions
#14
Robert M Ross, Bjoern Hartig, Ryan McKay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that delusional beliefs are attempts to explain anomalous experiences. Why, then, do anomalous experiences induce delusions in some people but not in others? One possibility is that people with delusions have reasoning biases that result in them failing to reject implausible candidate explanations for anomalous experiences. We examine this hypothesis by studying paranormal interpretations of anomalous experiences. METHODS: We examined whether analytic cognitive style (i...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471481/toward-a-better-understanding-of-the-relationship-between-belief-in-the-paranormal-and-statistical-bias-the-potential-role-of-schizotypy
#15
Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker, Peter Clough
The present paper examined relationships between schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experience; O-LIFE scale brief), belief in the paranormal (assessed via the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; RPBS) and proneness to statistical bias (i.e., perception of randomness and susceptibility to conjunction fallacy). Participants were 254 volunteers recruited via convenience sampling. Probabilistic reasoning problems appeared framed within both standard and paranormal contexts. Analysis revealed positive correlations between the Unusual Experience (UnExp) subscale of O-LIFE and paranormal belief measures [RPBS full scale, traditional paranormal beliefs (TPB) and new age philosophy]...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043273/skepticism-genuine-unbelief-or-implicit-beliefs-in-the-supernatural
#16
Marjaana Lindeman, Annika M Svedholm-Häkkinen, Tapani Riekki
We examined whether skeptics hold implicit supernatural beliefs or implicit cognitive underpinnings of the beliefs. In study 1 (N=57), participants read a biological or a religious story about death. The story content had no effect on skeptics' (or believers') afterlife beliefs. Study 2 examined the relationships between religious and non-religious paranormal beliefs and implicit views about whether supernatural and religious phenomena are imaginary or real (n1=33, n2=31). The less supernatural beliefs were endorsed the easier it was to connect "supernatural" with "imaginary"...
May 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27000085/cultural-and-religious-spiritual-beliefs-and-the-impact-on-health-that-fear-to-death-has-on-gender-and-age-among-a-romani-minority-group-from-southern-spain
#17
Eugenio Restrepo-Madero, María Victoria Trianes-Torres, Antonio Muñoz-García, Rafael Alarcón
The Romani cultural minority living in Spain has cultural values and beliefs, religious/spiritual expressions and a particular vision of death. The relationship between these aspects and health is unknown. A sample of 150 people responded to a socio-demographic questionnaire and well-being measures of religious/spiritual experience, paranormal beliefs and fear of death. Age, a negative sense of life, fear of the death of others, being a woman and having low paranormal beliefs have a negative impact on health...
April 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26886152/need-for-cognition-moderates-paranormal-beliefs-and-magical-ideation-in-inconsistent-handers
#18
Eric C Prichard, Stephen D Christman
A growing literature suggests that degree of handedness predicts gullibility and magical ideation. Inconsistent-handers (people who use their non-dominant hand for at least one common manual activity) report more magical ideation and are more gullible. The current study tested whether this effect is moderated by need for cognition. One hundred eighteen university students completed questionnaires assessing handedness, self-reported paranormal beliefs, and self-reported need for cognition. Handedness (Inconsistent vs...
2016: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26829906/the-impact-of-event-vividness-event-severity-and-prior-paranormal-belief-on-attributions-towards-a-depicted-remarkable-coincidence-experience-two-studies-examining-the-misattribution-hypothesis
#19
Paul Rogers, Pamela Qualter, Dave Wood
Two studies examine the impact event vividness, event severity, and prior paranormal belief has on causal attributions for a depicted remarkable coincidence experience. In Study 1, respondents (n = 179) read a hypothetical vignette in which a fictional character accurately predicts a plane crash 1 day before it occurs. The crash was described in either vivid or pallid terms with the final outcome being either severe (fatal) or non-severe (non-fatal). Respondents completed 29 causal attribution items, one attribution confidence item, nine scenario perception items, a popular paranormal belief scale, and a standard demographics questionnaire...
November 2016: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26503412/paranormal-psychic-believers-and-skeptics-a-large-scale-test-of-the-cognitive-differences-hypothesis
#20
Stephen J Gray, David A Gallo
Belief in paranormal psychic phenomena is widespread in the United States, with over a third of the population believing in extrasensory perception (ESP). Why do some people believe, while others are skeptical? According to the cognitive differences hypothesis, individual differences in the way people process information about the world can contribute to the creation of psychic beliefs, such as differences in memory accuracy (e.g., selectively remembering a fortune teller's correct predictions) or analytical thinking (e...
February 2016: Memory & Cognition
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