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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166724/-beneficial-effects-of-schisandrin-b-on-the-cardiac-structure-and-function-in-a-mice-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#1
P S Chen, J Liu, H Y Meng, P Wu, Z J Yang
Objective: To investigate whether Schisandrin B (Sch B) could improve cardiac structure and function in myocardial infarction (MI) mice and related mechanisms. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were randomized into sham (n=8), MI+ Sch B (n=24, 80 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) per gavage) or MI+ vehicle (n=24, equal volume). After treatment for 3 weeks, cardiac function was detected by echocardiography measurement.Infarction size was measured by Evans blue and TTC staining.HE and Masson trichrome staining were used to observe the myocardial inflammation, structure and fibrosis...
November 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166288/spirulina-platensis-affects-factors-involved-in-spermatogenesis-and-increases-ghrelin-receptors-in-testis-tissue-of-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#2
O B B Esener, E Gurel-Gurevin, B Isbilen-Basok, F Yigit, T Bilal, A Altiner, N Yilmazer, E I Armutak
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone which plays important role in maintaining growth hormone release and energy homeostasis in vertebrates. Spirulina platensis (SP) has antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects due to its ingredients. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of SP on the testicular structure and relation between ghrelin and testosterone in the testis of rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). Sixty four young adult male rats were used and divided to 8 equal groups. Experimental groups received addition of 10% cholesterol (CHL), 43% hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) and 3% SP alone or in combination to basal diet while the control group received only basal diet...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166242/dynamism-of-an-astrocyte-in-vivo-perspectives-on-identity-and-function
#3
Kira E Poskanzer, Anna V Molofsky
Astrocytes are an abundant and evolutionarily conserved central nervous system cell type. Despite decades of evidence that astrocytes are integral to neural circuit function, it seems as though astrocytic and neuronal biology continue to advance in parallel to each other, to the detriment of both. Recent advances in molecular biology and optical imaging are being applied to astrocytes in new and exciting ways but without fully considering their unique biology. From this perspective, we explore the reasons that astrocytes remain enigmatic, arguing that their responses to neuronal and environmental cues shape form and function in dynamic ways...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166241/two-classes-of-secreted-synaptic-organizers-in-the-central-nervous-system
#4
Michisuke Yuzaki
Research in the last two decades has identified many synaptic organizers in the central nervous system that directly regulate the assembly of preand/ or postsynaptic molecules, such as synaptic vesicles, active zone proteins, and neurotransmitter receptors. They are classified into secreted factors and cell adhesion molecules, such as neurexins and neuroligins. Certain secreted factors are termed extracellular scaffolding proteins (ESPs) because they are components of the synaptic extracellular matrix and serve as a scaffold at the synaptic cleft...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166045/controlling-relative-polymorph-stability-in-soft-porous-crystals-with-a-barostat
#5
Nathan A Mahynski, Vincent K Shen
We use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the thermodynamic behavior of soft porous crystal (SPC) adsorbents under the influence of an external barostat. We consider SPCs that naturally exhibit polymorphism between crystal forms of two distinct pore sizes. In the absence of barostatting, these crystals may be naturally divided into two categories depending on their response to stress applied by the adsorbate fluid: those which macroscopically deform and change the volume of their unit cell ("breathing") and those which instead undergo internal rearrangements that change the adsorbate-accessible volume without modifying the unit cell volume ("gate-opening")...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166037/adenosine-triphosphate-diffusion-through-poly-ethylene-glycol-diacrylate-hydrogels-can-be-tuned-by-cross-link-density-as-measured-by-pfg-nmr
#6
Günter Majer, Alexander Southan
The diffusion of small molecules through hydrogels is of great importance for many applications. Especially in biological contexts, the diffusion of nutrients through hydrogel networks defines whether cells can survive inside the hydrogel or not. In this contribution, hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate with mesh sizes ranging from ξ = 1.1 to 12.9 nm are prepared using polymers with number-average molecular weights between Mn = 700 and 8000 g/mol. Precise measurements of diffusion coefficients D of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an important energy carrier in biological systems, in these hydrogels are performed by pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165733/impact-of-type-of-sport-gender-and-age-on-red-blood-cell-deformability-of-elite-athletes
#7
Fabian Tomschi, Wilhelm Bloch, Marijke Grau
Our objective was to detect possible differences in red blood cell (RBC) deformability of elite athletes performing different types of sports and being of different age and gender.182 athletes were included in this cross-sectional study. RBC deformability was measured using the laser-assisted optical rotational cell-analyzer. Maximal elongation index (EI max) and shear stress at half-maximum deformation (SS 1/2) were calculated. The ratio SS 1/2 /EI max (EI Ratio) was calculated with low values representing high RBC deformation...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165322/treatment-planning-with-intensity-modulated-particle-therapy-for-multiple-targets-in-stage-iv-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Kristjan Anderle, Joep Stroom, Sandra Vieira, Nuno Pimentel, Carlo Greco, Marco Durante, Christian Graeff
Intensity modulated particle therapy (IMPT) can produce highly conformal plans, but is limited in advanced lung cancer patients with multiple lesions due to motion and planning complexity. A 4D IMPT optimization including all motion states was expanded to include multiple targets, where each target (isocenter) is designated to specific field(s). Furthermore, to achieve stereotactic treatment planning objectives, target and OAR weights plus objective doses were automatically iteratively adapted. Finally, 4D doses were calculated for different motion scenarios...
November 22, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165150/search-for-biomarkers-of-asbestos-exposure-and-asbestos-induced-cancers-in-investigations-of-the-immunological-effects-of-asbestos
#9
REVIEW
Hidenori Matsuzaki, Naoko Kumagai-Takei, Suni Lee, Megumi Maeda, Nagisa Sada, Tamayo Hatayama, Shoko Yamamoto, Miho Ikeda, Kei Yoshitome, Yu Min, Yasumitsu Nishimura, Takemi Otsuki
The immunological effects of asbestos exposure on various lymphocytes such as the regulatory T cell (Treg), responder CD4+ T helper cell (Tresp), CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), and natural killer (NK) cells were investigated. Results show that asbestos exposure impairs antitumor immunity through enhancement of regulatory T cell function and volume, reduction of CXCR3 chemokine receptor in responder CD4+ T helper cells, and impairment of the killing activities of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and NK cells...
June 9, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165076/pasylation-as-a-powerful-technology-for-improving-the-pharmacokinetic-properties-of-biopharmaceuticals
#10
Sajjad Ahmadpour, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr
One of the major challenges of short plasma half-life biopharmaceuticals is to daily high dose administration that leads to economic problems, patient inconvenience and undesirable side effects. Increasing the hydrodynamic volume beyond the pore size of the glomerular basal membrane is a general approach to increase the size of the small biopharmaceuticals with low half-life in blood circulation. PASylation technology is one of these approaches that are designed based on the genetic fusion of biopharmaceutical with a hydrophilic random coil sequence of tri proline (Pro), alanine (Ala), and serine (Ser) amino acids...
November 20, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164980/role-of-flunarizine-hydrochloride-in-secondary-brain-injury-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-rats
#11
Jianping Niu, Rui Hu
This study aimed to explore the role and mechanism(s) of flunarizine hydrochloride in the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) rats. The 32 adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control group, sham group, ICH group, and FLU + ICH group. The effects of flunarizine hydrochloride were assessed on the basis of hematoma volume, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, and brain water content in the ICH rat models. The role of flunarizine hydrochloride in cell recovery was assessed by behavioral scores, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and western blot assay...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164576/potentiation-of-treatment-efficacy-against-colon-cancer-of-dopamine-via-elevating-klf2-expression-in-tumor-vascular-endothelial-cells
#12
S Chen, Y-M Zhang, Y-G Zhang, J Jia, R-W Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-tumor effect and potential mechanism of dopamine combined with 5-FU in colon cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Babl/c F1 generation male mice (N = 60) were inoculated with mouse C26 colon cancer cells below the pit to construct colon cancer model. Tumor-bearing mice were then divided into 4 groups (N = 8 each): model control group, dopamine group, 5-FU group and dopamine combined with 5-FU group. Dopamine (100 mg/kg/d) was intraperitoneally injected into mice...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164301/changes-in-multimodality-functional-imaging-parameters-early-during-chemoradiation-predict-treatment-response-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer
#13
Kee H Wong, Rafal Panek, Alex Dunlop, Dualta Mcquaid, Angela Riddell, Liam C Welsh, Iain Murray, Dow-Mu Koh, Martin O Leach, Shreerang A Bhide, Christopher M Nutting, Wim J Oyen, Kevin J Harrington, Kate L Newbold
OBJECTIVE: To assess the optimal timing and predictive value of early intra-treatment changes in multimodality functional and molecular imaging (FMI) parameters as biomarkers for clinical remission in patients receiving chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: Thirty-five patients with stage III-IVb (AJCC 7th edition) HNSCC prospectively underwent (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, and diffusion-weighted (DW), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and susceptibility-weighted MRI at baseline, week 1 and week 2 of chemoradiation...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164112/details-matter-noise-and-model-structure-set-the-relationship-between-cell-size-and-cell-cycle-timing
#14
Felix Barber, Po-Yi Ho, Andrew W Murray, Ariel Amir
Organisms across all domains of life regulate the size of their cells. However, the means by which this is done is poorly understood. We study two abstracted "molecular" models for size regulation: inhibitor dilution and initiator accumulation. We apply the models to two settings: bacteria like Escherichia coli, that grow fully before they set a division plane and divide into two equally sized cells, and cells that form a bud early in the cell division cycle, confine new growth to that bud, and divide at the connection between that bud and the mother cell, like the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164051/anti-inflammatory-microglia-macrophages-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-brain-metastasis
#15
Kleopatra E Andreou, Manuel Sarmiento Soto, Danny Allen, Vasiliki Economopoulos, Axel de Bernardi, James R Larkin, Nicola R Sibson
Brain metastasis is a common complication of cancer patients and is associated with poor survival. Histological data from patients with brain metastases suggest that microglia are the major immune population activated around the metastatic foci. Microglia and macrophages have the ability to polarize to different phenotypes and to exert both tumorigenic and cytotoxic effects. However, the role of microglia/macrophages during the early stages of metastatic growth in the brain has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to profile microglial/macrophage activation in a mouse model of breast cancer brain metastasis during the early stages of tumor growth, and to assess the role of the anti-inflammatory microglial/macrophage population, specifically, during this phase...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163910/cholesterol-directed-nanoparticle-assemblies-based-on-single-amino-acid-peptide-mutations-activate-cellular-uptake-and-decrease-tumor-volume
#16
Shang Li, Rongfeng Zou, Yaoquan Tu, Junchen Wu, Markita P Landry
Peptide drugs have been difficult to translate into effective therapies due to their low in vivo stability. Here, we report a strategy to develop peptide-based therapeutic nanoparticles by screening a peptide library differing by single-site amino acid mutations of lysine-modified cholesterol. Certain cholesterol-modified peptides are found to promote and stabilize peptide α-helix formation, resulting in selectively cell-permeable peptides. One cholesterol-modified peptide self-assembles into stable nanoparticles with considerable α-helix propensity stabilized by intermolecular van der Waals interactions between inter-peptide cholesterol molecules, and shows 68...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163784/imp2-igf2bp2-expression-but-not-imp1-and-imp3-predicts-poor-outcome-in-patients-and-high-tumor-growth-rate-in-xenograft-models-of-gallbladder-cancer
#17
Sonja M Kessler, Eva Lederer, Stephan Laggai, Nicole Golob-Schwarzl, Kevan Hosseini, Johannes Petzold, Caroline Schweiger, Robert Reihs, Marlen Keil, Jens Hoffmann, Christian Mayr, Tobias Kiesslich, Martin Pichler, Kyung Sik Kim, Hyungjin Rhee, Young Nyun Park, Sigurd Lax, Peter Obrist, Alexandra K Kiemer, Johannes Haybaeck
Overexpression of the oncofetal insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IMP2/IGF2BP2) has been described in different cancer types. Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is a rare but highly aggressive cancer entity with late clinical detection and poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IMP2 in human GBC. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) of an international multi-center GBC sample collection from n = 483 patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. IMP2 immunoreactivity was found in 74...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163680/yi-qi-yang-yin-tang-increases-the-sensitivity-of-kg1a-leukemia-stem-cells-to-daunorubicin-by-promoting-cell-cycle-progression-and-regulating-the-expression-of-pten-topoii-and-mtor
#18
Zhe-Xin Shi, Hong-Yu Li, Xiang-Dong Yang, Hong Gao, De-Guan Li, Wen-Hua Yang, Fang Yao, Li-Xiang Yan
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of serum containing a combination of yi-qi-yang-yin-tang (YQYYT) and daunorubicin (DNR) on multidrug resistance in KG1a leukemia stem cells (LSCs). The effects of YQYYT and DNR on proliferation, cell cycle progression and the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), topoisomerase II (Topo II) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in KG1a cells were investigated in vitro using cell counting kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163500/antibodies-to-senescent-antigen-and-c3-are-not-required-for-normal-red-blood-cell-lifespan-in-a-murine-model
#19
Krystalyn E Hudson, Karen de Wolski, Linda M Kapp, Amanda L Richards, Matthew J Schniederjan, James C Zimring
Red blood cells (RBCs) have a well-defined lifespan, indicating a mechanism by which senescent cells of a certain age are removed from circulation. However, the specifics by which senescent cells are recognized and removed are poorly understood. There are multiple competing hypotheses for this process, perhaps the most commonly cited is that senescent RBCs expose neoantigens [or senescent antigen(s)] that are then recognized by naturally occurring antibodies, which opsonize the senescent cells and result in clearance from circulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163071/systematic-morphometry-of-catecholamine-nuclei-in-the-brainstem
#20
Domenico Bucci, Carla L Busceti, Maria T Calierno, Paola Di Pietro, Michele Madonna, Francesca Biagioni, Larisa Ryskalin, Fiona Limanaqi, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Francesco Fornai
Catecholamine nuclei within the brainstem reticular formation (RF) play a pivotal role in a variety of brain functions. However, a systematic characterization of these nuclei in the very same experimental conditions is missing so far. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immune-positive cells of the brainstem correspond to dopamine (DA)-, norepinephrine (NE)-, and epinephrine (E)-containing cells. Here, we report a systematic count of TH-positive neurons in the RF of the mouse brainstem by using stereological morphometry...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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