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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055226/generation-of-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-ibms-ipsc-014-05-from-a-female-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-patient-carrying-a-common-mutation-of-r803x-in-pkd2
#1
Ming-Ching Ho, Ching-Ying Huang, Jia-Jung Lee, Shih-Han Hsu, Yu-Che Cheng, Yu-Hung Hsu, Daw-Yang Hwang, Huai-En Lu, Hung-Chun Chen, Patrick C H Hsieh
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most commonly inherited forms of polycystic kidney disease, and is characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in both kidneys. Here we generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a 63-year-old female ADPKD patient carrying an R803X mutation in the PKD2 gene using the Sendai-virus delivery system. Downstream characterization of these iPSCs showed that they possessed normal karyotyping, were free of genomic integration, retained the disease-causing PKD2 mutation, expressed pluripotency markers and could differentiate into three germ layers...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055202/tio2-nanoparticles-in-seawater-aggregation-and-interactions-with-the-green-alga-dunaliella-tertiolecta
#2
Elisabetta Morelli, Edi Gabellieri, Alessandra Bonomini, Danika Tognotti, Giacomo Grassi, Ilaria Corsi
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely employed in industrial applications, thus rising concern about their impact in the aquatic environment. In this study we investigated the chemical behaviour of TiO2 NPs in the culture medium and its effect on the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta, in terms of growth inhibition, oxidative stress, ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) accumulation and chlorophyll content. In addition, the influence of exopolymeric substances (EPS) excreted by the microalgae on the stability of NPs has been evaluated...
October 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055138/effects-of-a-bone-graft-substitute-consisting-of-porous-gradient-ha-zro2-and-gelatin-chitosan-slow-release-hydrogel-containing-bmp-2-and-bmscs-on-lumbar-vertebral-defect-repair-in-rhesus-monkey
#3
Rong-Xue Shao, Ren-Fu Quan, Tuo Wang, Wei-Bin Du, Gao-Yong Jia, Dong Wang, Long-Bao Lv, Cai-Yin Xu, Xi-Cheng Wei, Jin-Fu Wang, Di-Sheng Yang
Dense biomaterial plays an important role in bone replacement. However, it fails to induce bone-cell migration into graft material. In the present study, a novel bone-graft substitute (BGS) consisting of porous gradient HA/ZrO2 composite (PGHC) and gelatin/chitosan slow-release hydrogel containing BMP-2 and BMSCs was designed and prepared to repair lumbar vertebral defects. The morphological characteristics of the BGS evaluated by scanning electron microscope showed that it had a three-dimensional network structure with uniformly distributed chitosan microspheres on the surfaces of the graft material and the interior of the pores...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055087/metabolism-and-tam-functions-it-takes-two-to-tango
#4
REVIEW
Massimiliano Mazzone, Alessio Menga, Alessandra Castegna
From the evidence on clinical studies and experimental mouse models we now know that tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) sustain tumor development in many different ways. They play a role in angiogenesis, tumor cell invasion and metastasis formation. Additionally, TAMs interfere with natural killer and T cell antitumoral activities, producing an immune suppressive environment that protects tumor cell growth. This indicates that the tumoricidal activity of macrophages within the tumor microenviroment is lost due to an imbalance of the regulatory mechanisms underpinning these cells' function...
October 21, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055044/anti-glypican-1-antibody-drug-conjugate-exhibits-potent-preclinical-antitumor-activity-against-glypican-1-positive-uterine-cervical-cancer
#5
Satoko Matsuzaki, Satoshi Serada, Kosuke Hiramatsu, Satoshi Nojima, Shinya Matsuzaki, Yutaka Ueda, Tomoharu Ohkawara, Seiji Mabuchi, Minoru Fujimoto, Eiichi Morii, Kiyoshi Yoshino, Tadashi Kimura, Tetsuji Naka
Glypican-1 (GPC1) is highly expressed in solid tumors, especially squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), and is thought to be associated with disease progression. We explored the use of a GPC1-targeted antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) as a novel treatment for uterine cervical cancer. On immunohistochemical staining, high expression levels of GPC1 were detected in about 50% of uterine cervical cancer tissues and also in a tumor that had relapsed after chemoradiotherapy. Novel anti-GPC1 monoclonal antibodies were developed, and clone 01a033 was selected as the best antibody for targeted delivery of the cytotoxic agent monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF) into GPC1-positive cells...
October 21, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055020/subtype-specific-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-uterine-leiomyoma
#6
Xin Wu, Vanida Ann Serna, Justin Thomas, Wenan Qiang, Michael L Blumenfeld, Takeshi Kurita
Recent genomic studies have identified subtypes of uterine leiomyoma (LM) with distinctive genetic alterations. Here we report the elucidation of the biological characteristics of the two most prevalent LM subtypes, MED12 mutant (MED12-LM) and HMGA2-overexpressing (HMGA2-LM) LM. Since each tumor carries only one genetic alteration, both subtypes are considered to be monoclonal. Approximately 90% of cells in HMGA2-LM were smooth muscle cells (SMC) with HMGA2 overexpression. In contrast, MED12-LM consisted of similar numbers of SMC and non-SMC, which were mostly tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF)...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055019/-18-f-fluorothymidine-positron-emission-tomography-informs-the-synergistic-efficacy-of-capecitabine-and-trifluridine-tipiracil-in-colon-cancer
#7
Seog-Young Kim, Jin Hwa Jung, Haeng Jung Lee, Hyunsu Soh, Sang Ju Lee, Seung Jun Oh, Sun Young Chae, Jai Hyuen Lee, Seung Jin Lee, Yong Sang Hong, Tae Won Kim, Dae Hyuk Moon
In cancer therapy, enhanced thymidine uptake by the salvage pathway can bypass dTMP depletion, thereby conferring resistance to thymidylate synthase inhibition. We investigated whether sequential combination therapy of capecitabine and trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) could synergistically enhance antitumor efficacy in colon cancer xenograft models. We also examined 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) as a means to predict therapeutic response to a sequential combination of capecitabine and trifluridine/tipiracil...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055016/sgk1-is-a-critical-component-of-an-akt-independent-pathway-essential-for-pi3k-mediated-tumor-development-and-maintenance
#8
Arturo Orlacchio, Michela Ranieri, Martina Brave, Valeria Antico Arciuch, Toni Forde, Daniela De Martino, Karen E Anderson, Phillip Hawkins, Antonio Di Cristofano
Activation of the PI3K-AKT signaling cascade is a common critical event during malignant transformation. In this study, we used thyroid gland epithelial cells and a series of genetically engineered mouse strains as model systems to demonstrate that, while necessary, AKT activation is not sufficient for PI3K-driven transformation. Instead, transformation requires the activity of the PDK1-regulated AGC family of protein kinases. In particular, SGK1 was found to be essential for proliferation and survival of thyroid cancer cells harboring PI3K-activating mutations...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055015/small-molecule%C3%A2-inhibition-of-pd-1-transcription-is-an-effective-alternative-to-antibody-blockade-in-cancer-therapy
#9
Alison Taylor, David Rothstein, Christopher Rudd
The impact of PD-1 immune checkpoint therapy prompts exploration of other strategies to downregulate PD-1 for cancer therapy. We previously showed that the serine/threonine kinase, glycogen synthase kinase GSK-3α/β, is a central regulator of PD-1 transcription in CD8+ T cells. Here, we show that the use of small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3α/β (GSK-3i) to reduce pcdc1 (PD-1) transcription and expression was as effective as anti-PD-1 and PDL-1 blocking antibodies in the control of B16 melanoma, or EL4 lymphoma, in primary tumor and metastatic settings...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055014/protein-acyltransferase-dhhc3-regulates-breast-tumor-growth-oxidative-stress-and-senescence
#10
Martin E Hemler, Chandan Sharma, Hong-Xing Wang, Qinglin Li, Konstantin Knoblich, Emily S Reisenbichler, Andrea L Richardson
DHHC-type protein acyltransferases may regulate the localization, stability and/or activity of their substrates. In this study, we show that the protein palmitoyltransferase DHHC3 is upregulated in malignant and metastatic human breast cancer. Elevated expression of DHHC3 correlated with diminished patient survival in breast cancer and six other human cancer types. ZDHHC3 ablation in human MDA-MB-231 mammary tumor cell xenografts reduced the sizes of both the primary tumor and metastatic lung colonies. Gene array data and fluorescence dye assays documented increased oxidative stress and senescence in ZDHHC3-ablated cells...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055001/listeria-monocytogenes-replicate-in-bone-marrow-derived-cd11c-cells-but-not-in-dendritic-cells-isolated-from-the-murine-gastrointestinal-tract
#11
Grant S Jones, Victoria C Smith, Sarah E F D'Orazio
Recent fate-mapping studies and gene-expression profiles suggest that commonly used protocols to generate bone marrow-derived cultured dendritic cells yield a heterogeneous mixture, including some CD11c(hi) cells that may not have a bona fide counterpart in vivo. In this study, we provide further evidence of the discordance between ex vivo-isolated and in vitro-cultured CD11c(+) cells by analyzing an additional phenotype, the ability to support cytosolic growth of the facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes Two days after foodborne infection of mice with GFP-expressing L...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054988/akt1low-quiescent-cancer-cells-promote-solid-tumor-growth
#12
Cleidson P Alves, Ipsita Dey-Guha, Sheheryar Kabraji, Albert C Yeh, Nilesh P Talele, Xavier Solé, Joeeta Chowdhury, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Massimo Loda, Dennis Sgroi, Anne-Lise Borresen-Dale, Hege G Russnes, Kenneth N Ross, Sridhar Ramaswamy
Human tumor growth depends on rapidly dividing cancer cells undergoing population expansion. Even advanced tumors, however, contain slowly proliferating cancer cells for reasons that remain unclear. Here, we selectively disrupt the ability of rapidly proliferating cancer cells to spawn AKT1low daughter cells that are rare, slowly proliferating, tumor-initiating, and chemotherapy-resistant using β1-integrin activation and the AKT1-E17K mutant oncoprotein as experimental tools in vivo. We find that selective depletion of AKT1low slow proliferators actually reduces the growth of a molecularly diverse panel of human cancer cell xenograft models without altering global cell proliferation or survival in vivo...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054984/overcoming-resistance-to-cetuximab-with-honokiol-a-small-molecule-polyphenol
#13
Hannah E Pearson, Mari Iida, Rachel A Orbuch, Nellie K McDaniel, Kwangok P Nickel, Randall J Kimple, Jack Arbiser, Deric L Wheeler
Overexpression and activation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) have been linked to poor prognosis in several human cancers. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody against EGFR, that is used for the treatment in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and metastatic colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, most tumors have intrinsic or acquire resistance to cetuximab during the course of therapy. Honokiol is a natural compound found in the bark and leaves of the Chinese Magnolia tree and is established to have several anti-cancer properties without appreciable toxicity...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054976/regulation-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-receptors-by-ubiquilin1
#14
Zimple Kurlawala, Rain Dunaway, Parag P Shah, Julie A Gosney, Leah J Siskind, Brian P Ceresa, Levi J Beverly
Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that mediates growth, proliferation and survival. Dysregulation of IGF pathway contributes to initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer and is also involved in diseases of glucose metabolism, such as Diabetes. We have identified Ubiquilin1 (UBQLN1) as a novel interaction partner of IGF1R, IGF2R and Insulin Receptor. UBQLN family of proteins have been studied primarily in the context of protein quality control and in the field of neurodegenerative disorders...
October 20, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054966/wnt5a-promotes-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastasis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Biao Wang, Zhen Tang, Huiyuan Gong, Li Zhu, Xuegang Liu
A recent study indicated that high Wnt5a expression is associated with poor prognosis in NSCLC patients, however, the underlying mechanism was not clear yet. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting was performed to examine the protein expression level in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. The role of Wnt5a in clone formation, invasiveness, migration and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of NSCLC cells were studied. Luciferase reporter assay was used to evaluate the Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity. For assessing the effects of Wnt5a on tumor growth and metastasis in vivo , A549 cells transfected with sh-Wnt5a were subcutaneously or orthotopically injected into nude mice...
October 20, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054890/natural-killer-t-cell-immunotherapy-in-combination-with-chemotherapy-induced-immunogenic-cell-death-targets-metastatic-breast-cancer
#16
Simon Gebremeskel, Lynnea Lobert, Kaitlyn Tanner, Brynn Walker, Tora Oliphant, Livia E Clarke, Graham Dellaire, Brent Johnston
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are glycolipid-reactive lymphocytes that promote cancer control. In previous studies, NKT-cell activation improved survival and antitumor immunity in a post-surgical mouse model of metastatic breast cancer. Herein, we investigated whether NKT-cell activation could be combined with chemotherapeutic agents to augment therapeutic outcomes. Gemcitabine and cyclophosphamide analogs enhanced the potential immunogenicity of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells by increasing the expression of antigen-presenting molecules (MHC-I, MHC-II, and CD1d) and promoting exposure or release of immunogenic cell death markers (calreticulin, HMGB1 and ATP)...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054869/estimating-population-turnover-rates-from-relative-quantification-methods-reveals-microbial-dynamics-in-marine-sediment
#17
Richard Kevorkian, Jordan T Bird, Alexander Shumaker, Karen G Lloyd
Difficulty quantifying biogeochemically significant microbes in marine sediments limits our ability to assess interspecific interactions, population turnover times, and niches of uncultured taxa. We incubated surface sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina USA, anoxically at 21°C for 122 days. Sulfate decreased until day 68, after which methane increased, with hydrogen concentration consistent with predicted values of an electron donor exerting thermodynamic control. We measured turnover times using two relative quantification methods, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and the product of 16S gene read abundance and total cell abundance (FRAxC, for fraction of read abundance times cells), to estimate population turnover rates of uncultured clades...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054861/regulation-of-human-feto-placental-endothelial-barrier-integrity-by-vascular-endothelial-growth-factors-competitive-interplay-between-vegf-a165a-vegf-a165b-pigf-and-ve-cadherin
#18
Vincent Pang, David O Bates, Lopa Leach
The human placenta nourishes and protects the developing fetus whilst influencing maternal physiology for fetal advantage. It expresses several members of the VEGF family including the pro-angiogenic/pro-permeability VEGF-A165a isoform, the anti-angiogenic VEGF-A165b, placental growth factor (PIGF) and their receptors, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. Alterations in the ratio of these factors during gestation and in complicated pregnancies have been reported; however the impact of this on feto-placental endothelial barrier integrity is unknown...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054855/h-ras-deletion-protects-against-angiotensin-ii-induced-arterial-hypertension-and-cardiac-remodeling-through-protein-kinase-g-i%C3%AE-pathway-activation
#19
Paloma Martín-Sánchez, Alicia Luengo, Mercedes Griera, María Jesús Orea, Marina López-Olañeta, Antonio Chiloeches, Enrique Lara-Pezzi, Sergio de Frutos, Manuel Rodríguez-Puyol, Laura Calleros, Diego Rodríguez-Puyol
Ras proteins regulate cell survival, growth, differentiation, blood pressure, and fibrosis in some organs. We have demonstrated that H-ras gene deletion produces mice hypotension via a soluble guanylate cyclase-protein kinase G (PKG)-dependent mechanism. In this study, we analyzed the consequences of H-ras deletion on cardiac remodeling induced by continuous angiotensin II (AngII) infusion and the molecular mechanisms implied. Left ventricular posterior wall thickness and mass and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were similar between AngII-treated H-Ras knockout (H-ras(-/-) ) and control wild-type (H-ras(+/+) ) mice, as were extracellular matrix protein expression...
October 20, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054823/characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-a-new-small-heat-shock-protein-hsp20-4-from-eimeria-tenella
#20
Hongyu Han, Yan Yan, Hui Dong, Shunhai Zhu, Qiping Zhao, Qi Zhai, Bing Huang
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are ubiquitous and diverse molecular chaperones. Found in almost all organisms, they regulate protein refolding and protect cells from stress. Until now, no sHsp has been characterized in Eimeria tenella. In this study, the novel EtsHsp20.4 gene was cloned from E. tenella by rapid amplification of cDNA ends based on a previously identified expressed sequence tag. The full-length cDNA was 1019bp in length and contained an open reading frame of 558bp that encoded a 185-amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 20...
October 17, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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