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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692071/-physiological-and-biochemical-mechanism-of-spermidine-improving-drought-resistance-in-maize-seedlings-under-drought-stress
#1
Li Jie Li, Wan Rong Gu, Yao Meng, Yue Li Wang, Jun Yi Mu, Jing Li, Shi Wei
To explore the role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in enhancing the resistance of maize to drought stress, 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) was used to simulate drought stress and with 'Xianyu 335' (drought-insensitive) and 'Fenghe 1' (drought sensitive) as the experiment materials, the effects of Spd (0.1 mmol·L-1 ) on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, osmotic adjustment substance, membrane lipid peroxidation and root activity of maize seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the application of Spd significantly promoted the growth of maize seedlings under drought stress, increased chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn ), stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate (Tr ) and water use efficiency (WUE), and decreased the enhancement of intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci ) in 'Fenghe 1'...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691928/circadian-rhythms-refractive-development-and-myopia
#2
Ranjay Chakraborty, Lisa A Ostrin, Debora L Nickla, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue, Richard A Stone
PURPOSE: Despite extensive research, mechanisms regulating postnatal eye growth and those responsible for ametropias are poorly understood. With the marked recent increases in myopia prevalence, robust and biologically-based clinical therapies to normalize refractive development in childhood are needed. Here, we review classic and contemporary literature about how circadian biology might provide clues to develop a framework to improve the understanding of myopia etiology, and possibly lead to rational approaches to ameliorate refractive errors developing in children...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691831/osteochondral-tissue-engineering-translational-research-and-turning-research-into-products
#3
Victoria Spencer, Erica Illescas, Lorenzo Maltes, Hyun Kim, Vinayak Sathe, Syam Nukavarapu
Osteochondral (OC) defect repair is a significant clinical challenge. Osteoarthritis results in articular cartilage/subchondral bone tissue degeneration and tissue loss, which in the long run results in cartilage/ostecochondral defect formation. OC defects are commonly approached with autografts and allografts, and both these options have found limitations. Alternatively, tissue engineered strategies with biodegradable scaffolds with and without cells and growth factors have been developed. In order to approach regeneration of complex tissues such as osteochondral, advanced tissue engineered grafts including biphasic, triphasic, and gradient configurations are considered...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691830/stem-cells-in-osteochondral-tissue-engineering
#4
Eleonora Pintus, Matteo Baldassarri, Luca Perazzo, Simone Natali, Diego Ghinelli, Roberto Buda
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent stem cells with the ability to differentiate into a variety of other connective tissue cells, such as chondral, bony, muscular, and tendon tissue. Bone marrow-derived MSCs are pluripotent cells that can differentiate among others into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes.Bone marrow-derived cells may represent the future in osteochondral repair. A one-step arthroscopic technique is developed for cartilage repair, using a device to concentrate bone marrow-derived cells and collagen powder or hyaluronic acid membrane as scaffolds for cell support and platelet gel...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691826/supercritical-fluid-technology-as-a-tool-to-prepare-gradient-multifunctional-architectures-towards-regeneration-of-osteochondral-injuries
#5
Ana Rita C Duarte, Vitor E Santo, Manuela E Gomes, Rui L Reis
Platelet lysates (PLs) are a natural source of growth factors (GFs) known for its stimulatory role on stem cells which can be obtained after activation of platelets from blood plasma. The possibility to use PLs as growth factor source for tissue healing and regeneration has been pursued following different strategies. Platelet lysates are an enriched pool of growth factors which can be used as either a GFs source or as a three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel. However, most of current PLs-based hydrogels lack stability, exhibiting significant shrinking behavior...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691821/mimetic-hierarchical-approaches-for-osteochondral-tissue-engineering
#6
Ivana Gadjanski
In order to engineer biomimetic osteochondral (OC) construct, it is necessary to address both the cartilage and bone phase of the construct, as well as the interface between them, in effect mimicking the developmental processes when generating hierarchical scaffolds that show gradual changes of physical and mechanical properties, ideally complemented with the biochemical gradients. There are several components whose characteristics need to be taken into account in such biomimetic approach, including cells, scaffolds, bioreactors as well as various developmental processes such as mesenchymal condensation and vascularization, that need to be stimulated through the use of growth factors, mechanical stimulation, purinergic signaling, low oxygen conditioning, and immunomodulation...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691819/nanofibers-and-microfibers-for-osteochondral-tissue-engineering
#7
Zaida Ortega, María Elena Alemán, Ricardo Donate
The use of fibers into scaffolds is a way to mimic natural tissues, in which fibrils are embedded in a matrix. The use of fibers can improve the mechanical properties of the scaffolds and may act as structural support for cell growth. Also, as the morphology of fibrous scaffolds is similar to the natural extracellular matrix, cells cultured on these scaffolds tend to maintain their phenotypic shape. Different materials and techniques can be used to produce micrfibers- and nanofibers for scaffolds manufacturing; cells, in general, adhere and proliferate very well on PCL, chitosan, silk fibroin, and other nanofibers...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691816/synthetic-materials-for-osteochondral-tissue-engineering
#8
Antoniac Iulian, Laptoiu Dan, Tecu Camelia, Milea Claudia, Gradinaru Sebastian
The objective of an articular cartilage repair treatment is to repair the affected surface of an articular joint's hyaline cartilage. Currently, both biological and tissue engineering research is concerned with discovering the clues needed to stimulate cells to regenerate tissues and organs totally or partially. The latest findings on nanotechnology advances along with the processability of synthetic biomaterials have succeeded in creating a new range of materials to develop into the desired biological responses to the cellular level...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691795/improved-protocol-for-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-effect-of-pthrp-and-fgf-2-on-tgf%C3%AE-1-bmp2-induced-chondrocytes-hypertrophy
#9
Davood Nasrabadi, Siamak Rezaeiani, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Aliakbar Shabani
Growth factors have a pivotal role in chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells. The differential effects of known growth factors involved in the maintenance and homeostasis of cartilage tissue have been previously studied in vitro. However, there are few reported researches about the interactional effects of growth factors on chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells. The aim of this study is to examine the combined effects of four key growth factors on chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
April 24, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691711/biomechanics-and-mechanical-signaling-in-the-ovary-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Jaimin S Shah, Reem Sabouni, Kamaria C Cayton Vaught, Carter M Owen, David F Albertini, James H Segars
PURPOSE: Mammalian oogenesis and folliculogenesis share a dynamic connection that is critical for gamete development. For maintenance of quiescence or follicular activation, follicles must respond to soluble signals (growth factors and hormones) and physical stresses, including mechanical forces and osmotic shifts. Likewise, mechanical processes are involved in cortical tension and cell polarity in oocytes. Our objective was to examine the contribution and influence of biomechanical signaling in female mammalian gametogenesis...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691525/multiple-mechanisms-applied-by-lactobacillus-pentosus-at6-to-mute-the-lethal-effects-of-salmonella-in-a-mouse-model
#11
Junsheng Liu, Zhennan Gu, Wenwei Lu, Diangeng Hu, Xi Zhao, Hongxuan Huang, Hao Zhang, Jianxin Zhao, Wei Chen
Probiotics are now prevalent world-wide, as functional food supplements with many benefits for humans and animals, such as protective effects against pathogenic infection. We showed that oral supplementation of Lactobacillus pentosus AT6 (AT6) decreased the mortality rate of mice with Salmonella infection. A series of experiments showed that the protective effects of AT6 on mice involved multiple mechanisms, including (1) the inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium growth by AT6 or its cell-free culture supernatants (CFCSs); (2) the reduction of the bacterial loads of Salmonella Typhimurium in intestinal contents and internal organs, such as the liver and spleen; (3) the inhibition of adhesion and invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium into intestinal epithelial cells; and (4) the regulation of host immunities by modifying the production of a chain of cytokines...
April 25, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691484/hamuramicins-a-and-b-22-membered-macrolides-produced-by-an-endophytic-actinomycete-allostreptomyces-sp-k12-0794
#12
Takuya Suga, Tōru Kimura, Yuki Inahashi, Masato Iwatsuki, Kenichi Nonaka, Akira Také, Atsuko Matsumoto, Yōko Takahashi, Satoshi Ōmura, Takuji Nakashima
Two new compounds, designated as hamuramicins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the cultured broth of an endophytic actinomycete Allostreptomyces sp. K12-0794 by silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated as 22-membered macrolide containing triene and trienone with an alkyl side chain by spectroscopic analyses including NMR experiments. Both compounds showed growth inhibition activity against Kocuria rhizophia and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae as well as human cell line toxicity...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691462/molecular-basis-of-autotrophic-vs-mixotrophic-growth-in-chlorella-sorokiniana
#13
M Cecchin, S Benfatto, F Griggio, A Mori, S Cazzaniga, N Vitulo, M Delledonne, M Ballottari
In this work, we investigated the molecular basis of autotrophic vs. mixotrophic growth of Chlorella sorokiniana, one of the most productive microalgae species with high potential to produce biofuels, food and high value compounds. To increase biomass accumulation, photosynthetic microalgae are commonly cultivated in mixotrophic conditions, adding reduced carbon sources to the growth media. In the case of C. sorokiniana, the presence of acetate enhanced biomass, proteins, lipids and starch productivity when compared to autotrophic conditions...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691456/subsurface-endospore-forming-bacteria-possess-bio-sealant-properties
#14
Sreenivasulu Basha, Lakshman Kumar Lingamgunta, Jayakumar Kannali, Swarna Kumari Gajula, Ramesh Bandikari, Sreenivasulu Dasari, Veena Dalavai, Paramageetham Chinthala, Prasada Babu Gundala, Peera Kutagolla, Vinodh Kumar Balaji
Concrete is a strong and fairly inexpensive building substance, but has several disadvantages like cracking that allows corrosion, thus reducing its lifespan. To mitigate these complications, long-lasting microbial self-healing cement is an alternative that is eco-friendly and also actively repairs cracks. The present paper describes the detailed experimental investigation on compressive strength of cement mortars, mixed with six alkaliphilic bacteria, isolated from subsurface mica mines of high alkalinity...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691442/publisher-correction-mir-3140-suppresses-tumor-cell-growth-by-targeting-brd4-via-its-coding-sequence-and-downregulates-the-brd4-nut-fusion-oncoprotein
#15
Erina Tonouchi, Yasuyuki Gen, Tomoki Muramatsu, Hidekazu Hiramoto, Kousuke Tanimoto, Jun Inoue, Johji Inazawa
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691371/helicobacter-pylori-induced-il-33-modulates-mast-cell-responses-benefits-bacterial-growth-and-contributes-to-gastritis
#16
Yi-Pin Lv, Yong-Sheng Teng, Fang-Yuan Mao, Liu-Sheng Peng, Jin-Yu Zhang, Ping Cheng, Yu-Gang Liu, Hui Kong, Ting-Ting Wang, Xiao-Long Wu, Chuan-Jie Hao, Weisan Chen, Shi-Ming Yang, Yong-Liang Zhao, Bin Han, Qiang Ma, Quan-Ming Zou, Yuan Zhuang
Interleukin (IL)-induced inflammatory responses are critical for the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastritis. IL-33 represents a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases, but its relevance to H. pylori-induced gastritis is unknown. Here, we found that gastric IL-33 mRNA and protein expression were elevated in gastric mucosa of both patients and mice infected with H. pylori, which is positively correlated with bacterial load and the degree of gastritis...
April 25, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691313/vacuolar-h-pyrophosphatase-and-cytosolic-soluble-pyrophosphatases-cooperatively-regulate-pyrophosphate-levels-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Shoji Segami, Takaaki Tomoyama, Shingo Sakamoto, Shizuka Gunji, Mayu Fukuda, Satoru Kinoshita, Nobutaka Mitsuda, Ali Ferjani, Masayoshi Maeshima
Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) is a phosphate donor and energy source. Many metabolic reactions that generate PPi are suppressed by high levels of PPi. Here, we investigated how proper levels of cytosolic PPi are maintained, focusing on soluble pyrophosphatases (AtPPa1 to AtPPa5; hereafter PPa1 to PPa5) and vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase, AtVHP1/FUGU5) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In planta, five PPa isozymes tagged with GFP were detected in the cytosol and nuclei. Immunochemical analyses revealed high abundance of PPa1 and the absence of PPa3 in vegetative tissue...
April 24, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691301/plant-endomembrane-dynamics-studies-of-k-h-antiporters-provide-insights-on-the-effects-of-ph-and-ion-homeostasis
#18
Heven Sze, Salil Chanroj
Plants remodel their cells through the dynamic endomembrane system. Intracellular pH is important for membrane trafficking, but the determinants of pH homeostasis are poorly defined in plants. Electrogenic proton (H+) pumps depend on counter-ion fluxes to establish transmembrane pH gradients at the plasma membrane and endomembranes. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase-mediated acidification of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) is crucial for secretion and membrane recycling. Pump and counter-ion fluxes are unlikely to fine-tune pH; rather, alkali cation/H+ antiporters, which can alter pH and/or cation homeostasis locally and transiently, are prime candidates...
April 24, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691295/metformin-targets-mitochondrial-glycerophosphate-dehydrogenase-mgpdh-to-control-rate-of-oxidative-phosphorylation-and-growth-of-thyroid-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Joanna Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Shilpa Thakur, Brianna Daley, Kelli Gaskins, Vasyl V Vasko, Myriem Boufraqech, Dhaval Patel, Carole Sourbier, Jeff M Reece, Sheue-Yann Cheng, Electron Kebebew, Sunita K Agarwal
PURPOSE: Mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) is the key enzyme connecting oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis as well as a target of the antidiabetic drug metformin (MF) in the liver. There are no data on the expression and role of mGPDH as a metformin target in cancer. In this study, we evaluated mGPDH as a potential target of metformin in thyroid cancer and investigated its contribution in thyroid cancer metabolism. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed mGPDH expression in 253 thyroid cancer and normal tissues by immunostaining and examined its expression and localization in thyroid cancer-derived cell lines (FTC133, BCPAP) by confocal microscopy...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691292/phenformin-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-sensitizes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-for-dual-inhibition-of-mtor
#20
Sonia Rosa Veiga, Xuemei Ge, Carol A Mercer, María Isabel Hernández-Alvarez, Hala Elnakat Thomas, Javier Hernández-Losa, Santiago Ramón Y Cajal, Antonio Zorzano, George Thomas, Sara C Kozma
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks second in cancer mortality and has limited therapeutic options. We recently described the synergistic effect of allosteric and ATP-site competitive inhibitors against the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) for the treatment of HCC. However, such inhibitors induce glycemia and increase mitochondrial efficiency. Here we determined whether the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor Phenformin could reverse both side effects, impose an energetic-stress on cancer cells and suppress the growth of HCC...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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