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Cell type gene expression

Jing Wang, Bing Wang, Ling-Qiang Chen, Jin Yang, Zhi-Qiang Gong, Xue-Ling Zhao, Chun-Qiang Zhang, Kai-Li Du
OBJECTIVE: Osteosarcoma is a common malignancy with high rate of metastasis. miR-10b has been reported to be expressed in many types of tumors abnormally and be associated with cancer carcinogenesis and progression. But the function of miR-10b in osteosarcoma is still unknown. So this study was aimed to investigate the role of miR-10b in osteosarcoma development. METHODS: miR-10b expression in osteosarcoma tissues and osteosarcoma cells were detected using real time PCR...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
QiuShi Wei, Jin Zhang, GuoJu Hong, ZhenQiu Chen, WeiMin Deng, Wei He, Mei Hui Chen
Icariin, the main effective component of Herba Epimedii, has been identified to regulate the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) and have potential application in preventing bone loss and promoting bone regeneration. However, the underlying signaling pathway of its osteogenic effect remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether icariin could promote osteogenesis of rBMSCs through modulating the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways, which implicated in rBMSCs osteogenesis...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Spyridon N Vasilopoulos, Robert H A Coutts, Stamatios Theocharis
Hu-antigen R (HuR) is an RNA-binding posttranscriptional regulator that belongs to the Hu/ELAV family. HuR expression levels are modulated by a variety of proteins, microRNAs, chemical compounds, or the microenvironment, and in turn, HuR affects mRNA stability and translation of various genes implicated in breast cancer formation, progression, metastasis, and treatment. The aim of the present review is to critically summarize the role of HuR in breast cancer development and its potential as a prognosticator and a therapeutic target...
October 17, 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Toshiaki Okada, Md Rafiqul Islam, Nargiza A Tsiferova, Yasunobu Okada, Ravshan Z Sabirov
The broadly expressed volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying anion channel (VSOR, also called VRAC) plays essential roles in cell survival and death. Recent findings have suggested that LRRC8A is a core component of VSOR in human cells. In the present study, VSOR currents were found to be largely reduced by siRNA against LRRC8A in mouse C127 cells as well. In contrast, LRRC8A knockdown never affected activities of four other types of anion channel activated by acid, Ca(2+), patch excision or cAMP. While cisplatin-resistant KCP-4 cells poorly expressed endogenous VSOR activity, molecular expression levels of LRRC8A, LRRC8D and LRRC8E were indistinguishable between VSOR-deficient KCP-4 cells and the parental VSOR-rich KB cells...
October 20, 2016: Channels
Zhu Zeng, Rui Yu, Fanglei Zuo, Bo Zhang, Deju Peng, Huiqin Ma, Shangwu Chen
Exendin-4, a glucagon-like protein-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is an excellent therapeutic peptide drug for type 2 diabetes due to longer lasting biological activity compared to GLP-1. This study explored the feasibility of using probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei as an oral vector for recombinant exendin-4 peptide delivery, an alternative to costly chemical synthesis and inconvenient administration by injection. L. paracasei transformed with a plasmid encoding the exendin-4 gene (L. paracasei L14/pMG76e-exendin-4) with a constitutive promotor was successfully constructed and showed efficient secretion of exendin-4...
2016: PloS One
Viktoria Hasselhof, Anastasia Sperling, Kerstin Buttler, Philipp Ströbel, Jürgen Becker, Thiha Aung, Gunther Felmerer, Jörg Wilting
Millions of patients suffer from lymphedema worldwide. Supporting the contractility of lymphatic collectors is an attractive target for pharmacological therapy of lymphedema. However, lymphatics have mostly been studied in animals, while the cellular and molecular characteristics of human lymphatic collectors are largely unknown. We studied epifascial lymphatic collectors of the thigh, which were isolated for autologous transplantations. Our immunohistological studies identify additional markers for LECs (vimentin, CCBE1)...
2016: PloS One
Masayuki Sano, Minoru Iijima, Manami Ohtaka, Mahito Nakanishi
Tissue-specific control of gene expression is an invaluable tool for studying various biological processes and medical applications. Efficient regulatory systems have been utilized to control transgene expression in various types of DNA viral or integrating viral vectors. However, existing regulatory systems are difficult to transfer into negative-strand RNA virus vector platforms because of significant differences in their transcriptional machineries. In this study, we developed a novel strategy for regulating transgene expression mediated by a cytoplasmic RNA vector based on a replication-defective and persistent Sendai virus (SeVdp)...
2016: PloS One
Xianbo Liu, Xiangjin Wei, Zhonghua Sheng, Guiai Jiao, Shaoqing Tang, Ju Luo, Peisong Hu
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2) protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type...
2016: PloS One
Luciana Nahar Dos Santos, Pedro Henrique Lopes da Silva, Iris Maria Peixoto Alvim, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Flávio Alves Lara, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Danuza Esquenazi
In spite of hyporesponsivity to Mycobacterium leprae, borderline lepromatous (BL) patients show clinical and immunological instability, and undergo frequent acute inflammatory episodes such as type 1 reaction (T1R), which may cause nerve damages. This work focused on the participation of T cell subsets from blood and skin at T1R onset. We observed a significantly increased ex vivo frequency of both effector and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in T1R group. Besides, ex vivo frequency of T cell homing receptor, the Cutaneous Leukocyte-associated Antigen (CLA) was significantly increased in T cells from T1R patients...
2016: PloS One
Mojgan Aminnejad, Massimo Cogliati, Shuyao Duan, Michael Arabatzis, Kathrin Tintelnot, Elizabeth Castañeda, Marcia Lazéra, Aristea Velegraki, David Ellis, Tania C Sorrell, Wieland Meyer
Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are pathogenic basidiomycetous yeasts and the commonest cause of fungal infection of the central nervous system. Cryptococci are typically haploid but several inter-species, inter-varietal and intra-varietal hybrids have been reported. It has a bipolar mating system with sexual reproduction occurring normally between two individuals with opposite mating types, α and a. This study set out to characterize hybrid isolates within the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex: seven unisexual mating intra-varietal VNI/VNII (αAAα) and six novel inter-varietal VNII/VNIV (aADα)...
2016: PloS One
Julie Rodor, David R FitzPatrick, Eduardo Eyras, Javier F Cáceres
Mutations in the RNA-binding protein, RBM10, result in a human syndromic form of cleft palate, termed TARP syndrome. A role for RBM10 in alternative splicing regulation has been previously demonstrated in human cell lines. To uncover the cellular functions of RBM10 in a cell line that is relevant to the phenotype observed in TARP syndrome, we used iCLIP to identify its endogenous RNA targets in a mouse embryonic mandibular cell line. We observed that RBM10 binds to pre-mRNAs with significant enrichment in intronic regions, in agreement with a role for this protein in pre-mRNA splicing...
October 20, 2016: RNA Biology
Pelin Erkoc, Ahmet Cingöz, Tugba Bagci Onder, Seda Kizilel
Overcoming drug resistance is a major challenge for cancer therapy. Tumor necrosis factor α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potent therapeutic as an activator of apoptosis, particularly in tumor but not in healthy cells. However, its efficacy is limited by the resistance of tumor cell populations to the therapeutic substance. Here, we have addressed this limitation through the development of a controlled release system, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive and arg-gly-asp-ser (RGDS) peptide functionalized poly (ethylene-glycol) (PEG) particles which are synthesized via visible-light-induced water-in-water emulsion polymerization...
October 20, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Juexin Wang, Dingding Shen, Geqing Xia, Wangzhen Shen, Robert L Macdonald, Dong Xu, Jing-Qiong Kang
Mutations in GABAA receptor subunit genes are frequently associated with epilepsy, and nonsense mutations in GABRG2 are associated with several epilepsy syndromes including childhood absence epilepsy, generalized tonic clonic seizures and the epileptic encephalopathy, Dravet syndrome. The molecular basis for the phenotypic heterogeneity of mutations is unclear. Here we focused on three nonsense mutations in GABRG2 (GABRG2(R136*), GABRG2(Q390*) and GABRG2(W429*)) associated with epilepsies of different severities...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xinhui Wu, Yao Fu, Xulei Sun, Chang Liu, Menglong Chai, Chengzhen Chen, Lisheng Dai, Yan Gao, Hao Jiang, Jiabao Zhang
Porcine cumulus cells are localized around oocytes and act as a specific type of granulosa that plays essential roles in the development and maturation of oocytes, the development and atresia of follicles and the development of embryos. Studies of FAT1 have demonstrated its functions in cell-cell contact, actin dynamics, and cell growth suppression. To understand whether the FAT1 gene affects the apoptosis of porcine cumulus cells and to elucidate the mechanism of this potential action, FAT1 was knocked down using RNA interference...
October 20, 2016: Cell Biology International
Nuray Erin, Tümay İpekçi, Bahar Akkaya, İrem Hicran Özbudak, Mehmet Baykara
Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide (CGRP), Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) and Substance P (SP) are sensory neuropeptides which may alter cancer growth through modulation of chronic inflammation. We recently reported that SP suppresses breast cancer growth and metastasis through neuroimmune modulation. These neuropeptides are hydrolyzed by Neprilysin (NEP) to bioactive fragments. Decreased activity of NEP was reported in clear cell and chromophobe type renal cell carcinoma (RCC). It is however not known how the levels of neuropeptides hydrolyzed with NEP changes in RCC...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
Sari Dewi Kurniasih, Tomohito Yamasaki, Fantao Kong, Sigeru Okada, Dwiyantari Widyaningrum, Takeshi Ohama
In this investigation, we succeeded to generate Chlamydomonas mutants that bear dramatically enhanced ability for transgene expression. To yield these mutants, we utilized DNA methyltransferase deficient strain. These mutants must be useful as a plant cell factory. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (hereafter Chlamydomonas) is a green freshwater microalga. It is a promising cell factory for the production of recombinant proteins because it rapidly grows in simple salt-based media. However, expression of transgenes integrated into the nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas is very poor, probably because of severe transcriptional silencing irrespective of the genomic position...
October 19, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Alexander Breitenstein, Simon F Stämpfli, Martin F Reiner, Yi Shi, Stephan Keller, Alexander Akhmedov, Ariane Schaub Clerigué, Remo D Spescha, Hans-Jürg Beer, Thomas F Lüscher, Felix C Tanner, Giovanni G Camici
Despite public awareness of its deleterious effects, smoking remains a major cause of death. Indeed, it is a risk factor for atherothrombotic complications and in line with this, the introduction of smoking ban in public areas reduced smoking-associated cardiovascular complications. Nonetheless, smoking remains a major concern, and molecular mechanisms by which it causes cardiovascular disease are not known. Peripheral blood monocytes from healthy smokers displayed increased JNK2 and tissue factor (TF) gene expression compared to non-smokers (n=15, p<0...
October 20, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Camille Lombard-Banek, Sally A Moody, Peter Nemes
Direct measurement of protein expression with single-cell resolution promises to deepen the understanding of the basic molecular processes during normal and impaired development. High-resolution mass spectrometry provides detailed coverage of the proteomic composition of large numbers of cells. Here we discuss recent mass spectrometry developments based on single-cell capillary electrophoresis that extend discovery proteomics to sufficient sensitivity to enable the measurement of proteins in single cells. The single-cell mass spectrometry system is used to detect a large number of proteins in single embryonic cells in the 16-cell embryo of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) that give rise to distinct tissue types...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Laurel L Ballantyne, Yuan Yan Sin, Osama Y Al-Dirbashi, Xinzhi Li, David J Hurlbut, Colin D Funk
Arginase-1 (Arg1) converts arginine to urea and ornithine in the distal step of the urea cycle in liver. We previously generated a tamoxifen-inducible Arg1 deficient mouse model (Arg1-Cre) that disrupts Arg1 expression throughout the whole body and leads to lethality ≈ 2 weeks after gene disruption. Here, we evaluate if liver-selective Arg1 loss is sufficient to recapitulate the phenotype observed in global Arg1 knockout mice, as well as to gauge the effectiveness of gene delivery or hepatocyte transplantation to rescue the phenotype...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Takehito Kondo, Ichiro Hisatome, Shouichi Yoshimura, Endang Mahati, Tomomi Notsu, Peili Li, Kazuhiko Iitsuka, Masaru Kato, Kazuyoshi Ogura, Junichiro Miake, Takeshi Aiba, Wataru Shimizu, Yasutaka Kurata, Shinji Sakata, Naoe Nakasone, Haruaki Ninomiya, Akira Nakai, Katsumi Higaki, Yasushi Kawata, Yasuaki Shirayoshi, Akio Yoshida, Kazuhiro Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) encodes the α-subunit of rapidly activating delayed-rectifier potassium channels. Mutations in this gene cause long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2). In most cases, mutations reduce the stability of the channel protein, which can be restored by heat shock (HS). METHODS: We identified the novel mutant A78T-HERG in a patient with LQT2. The purpose of the current study was to characterize this mutant protein and test whether HS and heat shock factors (HSFs) could stabilize the mutant protein...
October 2016: Journal of Arrhythmia
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