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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820519/how-the-consolidated-framework-for-implementation-research-can-strengthen-findings-and-improve-translation-of-research-into-practice-a-case-study
#1
Nadja Klafke, Cornelia Mahler, Cornelia von Hagens, Michel Wensing, Andreas Schneeweiss, Andreas Müller, Joachim Szecsenyi, Stefanie Joos
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To answer how the planned intervention was performed in routine care, which factors supported or distracted from its implementation, and how key organizational structures have been built and sustained.
. RESEARCH APPROACH: Mixed-methods process evaluation.
. SETTING: Two German outpatient cancer clinics.
. PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sampling of 297 recruited patients with gynecologic cancer, their treating oncology nurses, and their interprofessional healthcare team, and the clinical stakeholders of two different outpatient cancer clinics...
September 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820485/disentangling-the-frames-the-state-of-research-on-the-alphavirus-6k-and-tf-proteins
#2
REVIEW
Jolene Ramsey, Suchetana Mukhopadhyay
For 30 years it was thought the alphavirus 6K gene encoded a single 6 kDa protein. However, through a bioinformatics search 10 years ago, it was discovered that there is a frameshifting event and two proteins, 6K and transframe (TF), are translated from the 6K gene. Thus, many functions attributed to the 6K protein needed reevaluation to determine if they properly belong to 6K, TF, or both proteins. In this mini-review, we reevaluate the past research on 6K and put those results in context where there are two proteins, 6K and TF, instead of one...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820289/recent-advances-in-quantitative-and-chemical-proteomics-for-autophagy-studies
#3
Yin-Kwan Wong, Jianbin Zhang, Zi-Chun Hua, Qingsong Lin, Han-Ming Shen, Jigang Wang
Macroautophagy/autophagy is an evolutionarily well-conserved cellular degradative process with important biological functions that is closely implicated in health and disease. In recent years, quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics and chemical proteomics have emerged as important tools for the study of autophagy, through large-scale unbiased analysis of the proteome or through highly specific and accurate analysis of individual proteins of interest. At present, a variety of approaches have been successfully applied, including (i) expression and interaction proteomics for the study of protein post-translational modifications, (ii) investigating spatio-temporal dynamics of protein synthesis and degradation, and (iii) direct determination of protein activity and profiling molecular targets in the autophagic process...
August 18, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820059/histone-modifications-in-aging%C3%AF-the-underlying-mechanisms-and-implications
#4
Yuan Wang, Quan Yuan, Liang Xie
Aging is characterized by time-dependent functional decline, which results in the reduced ability to cope with physiological challenges. The aging process can be affected by genetic factors, environment factors, epigenetic factors, and several stochastic factors. Epigenetic marker alteration during aging has been widely monitored and studied recently, since these epigenetic alterations are theoretically reversible. Histone post-translational modifications have been found to play a crucial role in epigenetic alteration during aging, among which histone methylation and histone acetylation are emerging as two well-documented modification methods...
August 17, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820012/effect-of-rotational-prosthetic-alignment-variation-on-tibiofemoral-contact-pressure-distribution-and-joint-kinematics-in-total-knee-replacement
#5
Xin Xie, Roy Rusly, John D DesJardins, Frank Voss, Kim Chillag, Martine LaBerge
In total knee replacement surgery, implant alignment is one of the most important criteria for successful long-term clinical outcome. During total knee replacement implantation, femoral and tibial alignment are determined through appropriate bone resections, which could vary based on patient anatomy, implant design and surgical technique and further influence loading conditions and clinical outcomes. The current research focused on three critical alignment parameters for total knee replacement insertion: femoral component internal/external (I/E) rotation, varus-valgus tibiofemoral angulation and posterior tibial slope...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819992/insulin-delivery-and-nocturnal-glucose-control-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#6
Martin Tauschmann, Roman Hovorka
Nocturnal glucose control remains challenging in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes due to highly variable overnight insulin requirements. The issue may be addressed by glucose responsive insulin delivery based on real-time continuous glucose measurements. Areas covered: This review outlines recent developments of glucose responsive insulin delivery systems from a paediatric perspective. We cover threshold-based suspend application, predictive low glucose suspend, and more advanced single hormone and dual-hormone closed-loop systems...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819711/measurement-invariance-the-lack-thereof-and-modeling-change
#7
Michael C Edwards, Carrie R Houts, R J Wirth
PURPOSE: Measurement invariance issues should be considered during test construction. In this paper, we provide a conceptual overview of measurement invariance and describe how the concept is implemented in several different statistical approaches. Typical applications look for invariance over things such as mode of administration (paper and pencil vs. computer based), language/translation, age, time, and gender, to cite just a few examples. To the extent that the relationships between items and constructs are stable/invariant, we can be more confident in score interpretations...
August 17, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819155/context-conditioning-in-humans-using-commercially-available-immersive-virtual-reality
#8
Marijn C W Kroes, Joseph E Dunsmoor, Wayne E Mackey, Mason McClay, Elizabeth A Phelps
Despite a wealth of knowledge on how humans and nonhuman animals learn to associate meaningful events with cues in the environment, far less is known about how humans learn to associate these events with the environment itself. Progress on understanding spatiotemporal contextual processes in humans has been slow in large measure by the methodological constraint of generating and manipulating immersive spatial environments in well-controlled laboratory settings. Fortunately, immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) technology has improved appreciably and affords a relatively straightforward methodology to investigate the role of context on learning, memory, and emotion while maintaining experimental control...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819068/rural-emergency-care-360%C3%A2-mobilising-healthcare-professionals-decision-makers-patients-and-citizens-to-improve-rural-emergency-care-in-the-province-of-quebec-canada-a-qualitative-study-protocol
#9
Richard Fleet, Gilles Dupuis, Jean-Paul Fortin, Jocelyn Gravel, Mathieu Ouimet, Julien Poitras, France Légaré
INTRODUCTION: Emergency departments (EDs) are an important safety net for rural populations. Results of our earlier studies suggest that rural Canadian hospitals have limited access to advanced imaging services and intensive care units and that patients are transferred over large distances. They also revealed significant geographical variations in rural services. In the absence of national standards, our studies raise questions about inequities in rural access to emergency services and the risks for citizens...
August 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819066/neuroplasticity-of-selective-attention-research-foundations-and-preliminary-evidence-for-a-gene-by-intervention-interaction
#10
Elif Isbell, Courtney Stevens, Eric Pakulak, Amanda Hampton Wray, Theodore A Bell, Helen J Neville
This article reviews the trajectory of our research program on selective attention, which has moved from basic research on the neural processes underlying selective attention to translational studies using selective attention as a neurobiological target for evidence-based interventions. We use this background to present a promising preliminary investigation of how genetic and experiential factors interact during development (i.e., gene × intervention interactions). Our findings provide evidence on how exposure to a family-based training can modify the associations between genotype (5-HTTLPR) and the neural mechanisms of selective attention in preschool children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds...
August 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818990/clinical-use-and-utility-of-amyloid-imaging
#11
Henryk Barthel, Osama Sabri
Currently, three amyloid PET tracers are approved and commercially available for clinical use. They allow for the accurate in vivo detection of amyloid plaques, one hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we review the current knowledge on the clinical use and utility of amyloid imaging. Appropriate use criteria for the clinical application of amyloid imaging are established, and most currently available data point to their validity. Visual amyloid image analysis is highly standardized. Disclosure of amyloid imaging results is desired by many cognitively impaired subjects, and seems to be safe once appropriate education is delivered to the disclosing clinicians...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818953/new-horizons-for-precision-medicine-in-biliary-tract-cancers
#12
REVIEW
Juan W Valle, Angela Lamarca, Lipika Goyal, Jorge Barriuso, Andrew X Zhu
Biliary tract cancers (BTC), including cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, are poor-prognosis and low-incidence cancers, although the incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is rising. A minority of patients present with resectable disease but relapse rates are high; benefit from adjuvant capecitabine chemotherapy has been demonstrated. Cisplatin/gemcitabine combination chemotherapy has emerged as the reference first-line treatment regimen; there is no standard second-line therapy. Selected patients may be suitable for liver-directed therapy (e...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818252/origins-of-cancer-disparities-in-young-adults-logic-models-to-guide-research
#13
Robert A Hiatt, Margaret A Handley, Pamela M Ling, Esteban Burchard, Neeta Thakur, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo
Cancer disparities research is motivated by persistent inequities in cancer outcomes by race, ethnicity, social status, neighborhood location, and other subpopulation characteristics. These inequities have proven to be persistent and difficult to alter. Part of the reason for the frustration with slow progress is a lack of appreciation of the long-term nature of the undertaking. It is highly likely that the disparities observed in adulthood find their origins in young adulthood, if not earlier. A long-term perspective is needed, recognizing that successes may take many years to realize...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818246/cancer-prevention-during-early-adulthood-highlights-from-a-meeting-of-experts
#14
Dawn M Holman, Mary C White, Meredith L Shoemaker, Greta M Massetti, Mary C Puckett, Claire D Brindis
Using a life course approach, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control and the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors co-hosted a 2-day meeting with 15 multidisciplinary experts to consider evidence linking factors in early adulthood to subsequent cancer risk and strategies for putting that evidence into practice to reduce cancer incidence. This paper provides an overview of key themes from those meeting discussions, drawing attention to the influence that early adulthood can have on lifetime cancer risk and potential strategies for intervention during this phase of life...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818075/perspectives-of-basic-wheelchair-users-on-improving-their-access-to-wheelchair-services-in-kenya-and-philippines-a-qualitative-study
#15
Emma Williams, Elizabeth Hurwitz, Immaculate Obaga, Brenda Onguti, Adovich Rivera, Tyrone Reden L Sy, R Lee Kirby, Jamie Noon, Deepti Tanuku, Anthony Gichangi, Eva Bazant
BACKGROUND: The United Nations has called for countries to improve access to mobility devices when needed. The World Health Organization has published guidelines on the provision of manual wheelchairs in less-resourced settings. Yet little is known about the extent to which appropriate wheelchairs are available and provided according to international guidelines. This study's purpose was to describe wheelchair users' experiences receiving services and acquiring wheelchair skills in urban and peri-urban areas of Kenya and the Philippines...
August 17, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818010/translation-and-adaptation-of-a-nursing-swearing-impact-questionnaire-into-chinese
#16
Yan Sun, Teresa E Stone, Bingxiang Yang, Marcia A Petrini, Margaret McMillan
BACKGROUND: Verbal aggression and swearing are the most frequently encountered violence in the health care industry. Nurses are the most frequent victims. Not known is the incidence and impact of swearing against nurses in China. OBJECTIVES: (a) Develop a Chinese version of the Nursing Swearing Impact Questionnaire; (b) report the preliminary findings from the use of the tool. METHOD: Using a translation-back translation procedure, focus groups and expert review, followed by a survey of 32 participants...
August 1, 2017: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817782/cost-effectiveness-of-a-patient-navigation-program-to-improve-cervical-cancer-screening
#17
Yan Li, Erin Carlson, Roberto Villarreal, Leah Meraz, José A Pagán
OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of a community-based patient navigation program to improve cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women 18 or older in San Antonio, Texas. STUDY DESIGN: We used a microsimulation model of cervical cancer to project the long-term cost-effectiveness of a community-based patient navigation program compared with current practice. METHODS: We used program data from 2012 to 2015 and published data from the existing literature as model input...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817687/morphologic-phenotypic-and-transcriptomic-characterization-of-classically-and-alternatively-activated-canine-blood-derived-macrophages-in-vitro
#18
Franziska Heinrich, Annika Lehmbecker, Barbara B Raddatz, Kristel Kegler, Andrea Tipold, Veronika M Stein, Arno Kalkuhl, Ulrich Deschl, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Reiner Ulrich, Ingo Spitzbarth
Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population playing a pivotal role in tissue homeostasis and inflammation, and their phenotype strongly depends on the micromilieu. Despite its increasing importance as a translational animal model for human diseases, there is a considerable gap of knowledge with respect to macrophage polarization in dogs. The present study comprehensively investigated the morphologic, phenotypic, and transcriptomic characteristics of unstimulated (M0), M1- (GM-CSF, LPS, IFNγ-stimulated) and M2- (M-CSF, IL-4-stimulated)-polarized canine blood-derived macrophages in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817429/the-rising-challenge-of-training-physician-scientists-recommendations-from-a-canadian-national-consensus-conference
#19
Michael J Strong, Nick Busing, Danika L Goosney, Ken A Harris, Tanya Horsley, Alexandra Kuzyk, Lorelei Lingard, Wendy V Norman, Norman D Rosenblum, Tina Saryeddine, Xin Wang
Physician-scientists are individuals who actively participate in patient care, have undergone additional research training, and devote the majority of their time to research. Physician-scientists are traditionally the primary catalysts in bridging the translational gap-that is, the failure to link fundamental new knowledge in the pathobiology of disease with advances in health care and health policy in a timely manner. However, there has been a shift away from training physician-scientists, and financial support for the physician-scientist is diminishing globally, causing the translational gap to grow...
August 16, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817359/developing-the-storyline-for-an-advance-care-planning-video-for-surgery-patients-patient-centered-outcomes-research-engagement-from-stakeholder-summit-to-state-fair
#20
Rebecca A Aslakson, Anne L R Schuster, Thomas J Lynch, Matthew J Weiss, Lydia Gregg, Judith Miller, Sarina R Isenberg, Norah L Crossnohere, Alison M Conca-Cheng, Angelo E Volandes, Thomas J Smith, John F P Bridges
BACKGROUND: Patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) methods and social learning theory (SLT) require intensive interaction between researchers and stakeholders. Advance care planning (ACP) is valuable before major surgery, but a systematic review found no extant perioperative ACP tools. Consequently, PCOR methods and SLT can inform the development of an ACP educational video for patients and families preparing for major surgery. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to develop and test acceptability of an ACP video storyline...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
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