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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544929/rem-sleep-and-memory
#1
REVIEW
Richard Boyce, Sylvain Williams, Antoine Adamantidis
Memory consolidation, a process which stabilizes recently acquired information into long-term storage, is thought to be optimized during sleep. Although recent evidence indicates that non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMs) is directly involved in memory consolidation, the role of rapid-eye movement sleep (REMs) in this process has remained controversial due to the extreme difficulty in experimentally isolating neural activity during REMs. Using a combination of electrophysiological recording and optogenetic techniques, recent work demonstrated for the first time that neural activity occurring specifically during REMs is required for spatial and contextual memory consolidation...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544655/3d-bioprinting-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-constructs-for-in-situ-cell-proliferation-and-successive-multilineage-differentiation
#2
Qi Gu, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Jeremy M Crook
The ability to create 3D tissues from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is poised to revolutionize stem cell research and regenerative medicine, including individualized, patient-specific stem cell-based treatments. There are, however, few examples of tissue engineering using iPSCs. Their culture and differentiation is predominantly planar for monolayer cell support or induction of self-organizing embryoids (EBs) and organoids. Bioprinting iPSCs with advanced biomaterials promises to augment efforts to develop 3D tissues, ideally comprising direct-write printing of cells for encapsulation, proliferation, and differentiation...
May 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544497/cell-tracking-using-gold-nanoparticles-and-computed-tomography-imaging
#3
REVIEW
Rinat Meir, Rachela Popovtzer
Cell-based therapies utilize transplantation of living cells with therapeutic traits to alleviate numerous diseases and disorders. The use of such biological agents is an attractive alternative for diseases that existing medicine cannot effectively treat. Although very promising, translating cell therapy to the clinic has proven to be challenging, due to inconsistent results in preclinical and clinical studies. To examine the underlying cause for these inconsistencies, it is crucial to noninvasively monitor the accuracy of cell injection, and cell survival and migration patterns...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544356/older-people-s-experiences-of-falling-and-perceived-risk-of-falls-in-the-community-a-narrative-synthesis-of-qualitative-research
#4
REVIEW
Siobhan Gardiner, Margaret Glogowska, Catherine Stoddart, Sarah Pendlebury, Daniel Lasserson, Debra Jackson
AIM: To examine qualitative research exploring older people's experiences of falling and the perceived risk of falling in the community. This will contribute new insights into how falling is perceived by the older community. BACKGROUND: Falls are a major problem for older people and healthcare services across the world. Accidental falls in the community are a persistent problem that is generally recognised as an intrinsic risk of ageing. This review provides a new synthesis of evidence that considers older people's perception of falls in the community as new insights are needed if the increasing problems of falls are to be addressed...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543700/interaction-of-molecular-alterations-with-immune-response-in-melanoma
#5
REVIEW
Robert A Szczepaniak Sloane, Vancheswaran Gopalakrishnan, Sangeetha M Reddy, Xue Zhang, Alexandre Reuben, Jennifer A Wargo
Major advances have been made in melanoma treatment with the use of molecularly targeted therapies and immunotherapies, and numerous regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for patients with stage IV disease. However, therapeutic resistance remains an issue to both classes of agents, and reliable biomarkers of therapeutic response and resistance are lacking. Mechanistic insights are being gained through preclinical studies and translational research, offering potential strategies to enhance responses and survival in treated patients...
June 1, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543652/what-s-the-use-disparate-purposes-of-u-s-federal-bioethics-commissions
#6
Jenny Dyck Brian, Robert Cook-Deegan
In the forty-year history of U.S. bioethics commissions, these government-sanctioned forums have often demonstrated their power to address pressing problems and to enable policy change. For example, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, established in 1974, left a legacy of reports that were translated into regulations and had an enormous practical impact. And the 1982 report Splicing Life, by the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, became the basis for the National Institutes of Health's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee as well as for the Food and Drug Administration's developing "Points to Consider" when contemplating the introduction of recombinant DNA into human beings...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543438/humanized-mice-a-brief-overview-on-their-diverse-applications-in-biomedical-research
#7
REVIEW
Shigeyoshi Fujiwara
Model animals naturally differ from humans in various respects and results from the former are not directly translatable to the latter. One approach to address this issue is humanized mice that are defined as mice engrafted with functional human cells or tissues. In humanized mice, we can investigate the development and function of human cells or tissues (including their products encoded by human genes) in the in vivo context of a small animal. As such, humanized mouse models have played important roles that cannot be substituted by other animal models in various areas of biomedical research...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542804/assessment-of-an-engineered-endothelium-via-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography
#8
Bin Jiang, Yidi Wu, Chad R Haney, Chongwen Duan, Guillermo A Ameer
The clinical translation of cell-based therapeutics often requires highly sensitive, non-invasive imaging tools to assess cell function and distribution in vivo. The objective of this research was to determine whether human Sodium-Iodide Symporter (hNIS) ectopic expression in endothelial cells (ECs) in combination with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a feasible approach to non-invasively monitor the presence and viability of an engineered endothelium on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)...
May 22, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542356/the-use-of-preferred-social-stimuli-as-rewards-for-rhesus-macaques-in-behavioural-neuroscience
#9
Helen Gray, Bradley Pearce, Alexander Thiele, Candy Rowe
Macaques are often motivated to perform in neuroscientific experiments by implementing fluid restriction protocols. Daily access to water is controlled and the monkeys are rewarded with droplets of fluid for performing correct trials in the laboratory. Although these protocols are widely used and highly effective, it is important from a 3Rs perspective to investigate refinements that may help to lessen the severity of the fluid restriction applied. We assessed the use of social stimuli (images of conspecifics) as rewards for four rhesus macaques performing simple cognitive tasks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541518/mapping-healthcare-systems-a-policy-relevant-analytic-tool
#10
Neelam Sekhri Feachem, Ariana Afshar, Cristina Pruett, Anton L V Avanceña
Background: In the past decade, an international consensus on the value of well-functioning systems has driven considerable health systems research. This research falls into two broad categories. The first provides conceptual frameworks that take complex healthcare systems and create simplified constructs of interactions and functions. The second focuses on granular inputs and outputs. This paper presents a novel translational mapping tool - the University of California, San Francisco mapping tool (the Tool) - which bridges the gap between these two areas of research, creating a platform for multi-country comparative analysis...
May 25, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541504/e3-ubiquitin-ligases-ubiquitous-actors-in-plant-development-and-abiotic-stress-responses
#11
Kai Shu, Wenyu Yang
Understanding the precise regulatory mechanisms of plant development and stress responses at the post-translational level is currently a topic of intensive research. Protein ubiquitination, including the sequential performances of ubiquitin-activating (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) and ubiquitin ligase (E3) enzymes, is a refined post-translational modification ubiquitous in all eukaryotes. Plants are an integral part of our ecosystem and, as sessile organisms, the ability to perceive internal and external signals and to adapt well to various environmental challenges is crucial for their survival...
May 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541380/a-fully-bayesian-latent-variable-model-for-integrative-clustering-analysis-of-multi-type-omics-data
#12
Qianxing Mo, Ronglai Shen, Cui Guo, Marina Vannucci, Keith S Chan, Susan G Hilsenbeck
Identification of clinically relevant tumor subtypes and omics signatures is an important task in cancer translational research for precision medicine. Large-scale genomic profiling studies such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have generated vast amounts of genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, and proteomic data. While these studies have provided great resources for researchers to discover clinically relevant tumor subtypes and driver molecular alterations, there are few computationally efficient methods and tools for integrative clustering analysis of these multi-type omics data...
May 24, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540691/expression-of-micrornas-in-thyroid-carcinoma
#13
Gaohong Zhu, Lijun Xie, Daniel Miller
MicroRNA (miRNA) are negative regulators of gene expression and subsequent protein production. This method of action translates into regulatory control over cellular processes, including development, signaling, metabolism, and apoptosis. A broad range of miRNA are shown to have abnormal expressions in thyroid cancers which could explain the pathology of tumor oncogenesis and disease progression. A review is conducted of the current research on miRNA dysregulation in thyroid cancers, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540499/cell-based-therapies-with-t-regulatory-cells
#14
REVIEW
Mateusz Gliwiński, Dorota Iwaszkiewicz-Grześ, Piotr Trzonkowski
CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) are immunodominant suppressors in the immune system. Tregs use various mechanisms to control immune responses. Preclinical data from animal models have confirmed the huge therapeutic potential of Tregs in many immune-mediated diseases. Hence, these cells are now on the road to translation to cell therapy in the clinic as the first clinical trials are accomplished. To date, clinical research has involved mainly hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, solid organ transplantations, and autoimmunity...
May 24, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540435/validation-of-the-child-hcahps-survey-to-measure-pediatric-inpatient-experience-of-care-in-flanders
#15
Luk Bruyneel, Ellen Coeckelberghs, Gunnar Buyse, Kristina Casteels, Barbara Lommers, Jo Vandersmissen, Johan Van Eldere, Chris Van Geet, Kris Vanhaecht
The recently developed Child HCAHPS provides a standard to measure US hospitals' performance on pediatric inpatient experiences of care. We field-tested Child HCAHPS in Belgium to instigate international comparison. In the development stage, forward/backward translation was conducted and patients assessed content validity index as excellent. The draft Flemish Child HCAHPS included 63 items: 38 items for five topics hypothesized to be similar to those proposed in the US (communication with parent, communication with child, attention to safety and comfort, hospital environment, and global rating), 10 screeners, a 14-item demographic and descriptive section, and one open-ended item...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540142/rapid-cycle-deliberate-practice-in-medical-education-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Jillian Taras, Tobias Everett
Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice (RCDP) is a novel simulation-based education model that is currently attracting interest, implementation, exploration and research in medical education. In RCDP, learners rapidly cycle between deliberate practice and directed feedback within the simulation scenario until mastery is achieved. The objective of this systematic review is to examine the literature and summarize the existing knowledge on RCDP in simulation-based medical education. Fifteen resources met inclusion criteria; they were diverse and heterogeneous, such that we did not perform a quantitative synthesis or meta-analysis but rather a narrative review on RCDP...
April 19, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540051/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-where-did-it-start-what-have-studies-taught-us-where-is-it-going
#17
REVIEW
Ryan M Chanyi, Laura Craven, Brandon Harvey, Gregor Reid, Michael J Silverman, Jeremy P Burton
The composition and activity of microorganisms in the gut, the microbiome, is emerging as an important factor to consider with regard to the treatment of many diseases. Dysbiosis of the normal community has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, diabetes and, most notoriously, Clostridium difficile infection. In Canada, the leading treatment strategy for recalcitrant C. difficile infection is to receive faecal material which by nature is filled with microorganisms and their metabolites, from a healthy individual, known as a faecal microbiota transplantation...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539903/psychometric-properties-of-the-german-translated-version-and-adaptation-of-the-food-craving-inventory
#18
Ernesto Tarragon, Jakob Stein, Jobst Meyer
Dysfunctional eating behavior is a major risk factor for developing all sorts of eating disorders. Food craving is a concept that may help to understand better why and how these and other eating disorders become chronic conditions through non homeastatically-driven mechanisms. As obesity affects people worldwide, cultural differences must be acknowledged to apply proper therapeutic strategies. In this work, we adapted the Food Craving Inventory (FCI) to the German population. We performed a factor analysis of an adaptation of the original FCI in a sample of 326 men and women...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539857/primary-health-care-research-in-saudi-arabia-a-quantitative-analysis
#19
Saulat Jahan, Abdullah Mohammed Al-Saigul
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to analyze the published primary health care (PHC) research conducted in Saudi Arabia quantitatively and to determine the distribution of these research publications according to the topic, time, geographical location, and institution. METHODS: In this descriptive study, we conducted literature search in PubMed and Google Scholar. The Medical Subject Headings terms: "Primary Health" AND "Saudi" and "Primary Care" AND "Saudi" were used for searching relevant journal articles...
April 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539608/development-and-validation-of-a-high-throughput-whole-blood-thrombolysis-plate-assay
#20
T Bonnard, L S Law, Z Tennant, C E Hagemeyer
The objective of this work was to develop a high throughput assay for testing in vitro the thrombolytic activity using citrated whole blood samples, and to overcome the limitations of currently available techniques. We successfully developed a method that involves forming halo shaped, tissue factor induced, whole blood clots in 96 well plates, and then precisely measuring the thrombolysis process with a spectrophotometer plate reader. We here describe the implementation of this novel method, which we refer to as halo assay, and its validation with plasmin, urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator at different doses...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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