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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161365/genome-scale-analysis-ofescherichia-coliwith-a-comprehensive-prokaryotic-sequence-based-biophysical-model-of-translation-initiation-and-elongation
#1
Gilad Shaham, Tamir Tuller
Translation initiation in prokaryotes is affected by the mRNA folding and interaction of the ribosome binding site with the ribosomal RNA. The elongation rate is affected, among other factors, by the local biophysical properties of the coding regions, the decoding rates of different codons, and the interactions among ribosomes. Currently, there is no comprehensive biophysical model of translation that enables the prediction of mRNA translation dynamics based only on the transcript sequence and while considering all of these fundamental aspects of translation...
November 17, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161047/mapping-extracellular-matrix-proteins-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues-by-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#2
Peggi M Angel, Susana Comte-Walters, Lauren E Ball, Kacey Talbot, Anand Mehta, Kelvin G M Brockbank, Richard R Drake
Collagens and elastin form the fundamental framework of all tissues and organs and their expression and post-translational processing are tightly regulated in disease and health. Due to their unique structural composition and properties, it is a recognized challenge to access these protein structures within the complex tissue microenvironment to understand how localized changes modulate tissue health. We describe a new workflow using a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption /ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) with collagenase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes to access and report on spatial localization of collagen and elastin sequences in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161028/exploring-the-active-centre-of-lsd1-corest-complex-by-molecular-dynamics-simulation-utilizing-its-co-crystallized-cofactor-tetrahydrofolate-as-a-probe
#3
Waleed A A Zalloum, Hiba M Zalloum
Epigenetic targeting of cancer is a recent era to manipulate the gene without destroying the genetic material. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is one of the enzymes associated with the chromatin for post-translational modifications, where it demethylates lysine amino acid in the chromatin H3 tail. Many studies showed that inhibiting LSD1 could potentially be used to treat cancer epigenetically. LSD1 is associated with its corepressor protein CoREST, and uses tetrahydrofolate as a cofactor to accept CH2 from the demethylation process...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161012/top-down-proteomics-ready-for-prime-time
#4
Bifan Chen, Kyle A Brown, Ziqing Lin, Ying Ge
In the post-genomics era, the study of proteins is critical for understanding cellular functions at the molecular level.1-5 Beyond the genetic code, the human proteome is greatly diversified by various genetic variations, alternative splicing of RNA transcripts, and post-translational modifi-cations (PTMs).6,7 In 2013, the term "proteoform" was designated to describe "all of the different molecular forms in which the protein product of a single gene can be found",6 clearing up the confusion in nomenclature and joining research efforts to develop methodologies for pro-teoform characterization...
November 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160600/current-evidence-of-cannabinoid-based-analgesia-obtained-in-preclinical-and-human-experimental-settings
#5
REVIEW
J Lötsch, I Weyer-Menkhoff, I Tegeder
Cannabinoids have a long record of recreational and medical use and become increasingly approved for pain therapy. This development is based on preclinical and human experimental research summarized in this review. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors are widely expressed throughout the nociceptive system. Their activation by endogenous or exogenous cannabinoids modulates the release of neurotransmitters. This is reflected in antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids in preclinical models of inflammatory, cancer and neuropathic pain, and by nociceptive hypersensitivity of cannabinoid receptor-deficient mice...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160381/quality-of-communication-questionnaire-for-copd-patients-receiving-palliative-care-translation-and-cross-cultural-adaptation-for-use-in-brazil
#6
Flávia Del Castanhel, Suely Grosseman
OBJECTIVE: To translate the Quality of Communication Questionnaire (QOC) to Portuguese and adapt it for use in Brazil in COPD patients receiving palliative care. METHODS: After approval from the first author of the original QOC and the local research ethics committee, the original, 13-item version of the questionnaire was independently translated to Brazilian Portuguese by two Brazilian translators fluent in English. The two translations were analyzed by a bilingual physician and the two Brazilian translators, who reached a consensus and produced another Portuguese version of the QOC...
September 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160156/prestin-as-an-otologic-biomarker-of-cisplatin-ototoxicity-in-a-guinea-pig-model
#7
James Naples, Robert Cox, Gregory Bonaiuto, And Kourosh Parham
Objective To evaluate (1) whether changes in serum prestin aid in early detection of cisplatin ototoxicity, (2) the role of diltiazem as an otoprotectant, and (3) whether prestin levels are sensitive to effects of diltiazem. Study Design Experimental animal study. Setting Translational research laboratory. Subjects Twenty female guinea pigs. Methods Two groups of 10 guinea pigs were used. The relationship between serum prestin levels and auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds was compared between the groups...
November 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159974/ultrasonographic-anatomy-of-the-atlanto-occipital-region-and-ultrasound-guided-cerebrospinal-fluid-collection-in-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#8
Carlo Anselmi, Sara Dias, Jaume Martorell, Marc Navarro, Yvonne Espada, Rosa Novellas
Cerebrospinal fluid analyses are important for diagnosis of neurologic problems in rabbits and for translational research projects using rabbits as models. Blind puncture of the cisterna magna is the current standard technique for sampling cerebrospinal fluid in this species. However, the complexity and small size of the cisterna magna and surrounding structures are limitations of this technique. Aims of this prospective, anatomic, pilot study were to (1) describe the normal anatomy of the atlanto-occipital region, (2) describe ultrasonographic anatomic landmarks, and (3) develop and evaluate a technique for ultrasound-guided puncture of the cisterna magna for cerebrospinal fluid sampling in rabbits...
November 20, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159731/effects-of-population-variability-on-knee-loading-during-simulated-human-gait
#9
Rebecca J Nesbitt, Nathaniel A Bates, Marepalli B Rao, Grant Schaffner, Jason T Shearn
Cadaveric simulation models allow researchers to study native tissues in situ. However, as tests are conducted using donor specimens with unmatched kinematics, techniques that impose population average motions are subject to deviation from true physiologic conditions. This study aimed to identify factors which explain the kinetic variability observed during robotic simulations of a single human gait motion using a sample of human cadaver knees. Twelve human cadaver limbs (58 ± 16 years) were subjected to tibiofemoral geometrical analysis and cyclical stiffness testing in each anatomical degree of freedom...
November 20, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159449/handling-the-phosphorus-paradox-in-agriculture-and-natural-ecosystems-scarcity-necessity-and-burden-of-p
#10
Peter Leinweber, Ulrich Bathmann, Uwe Buczko, Caroline Douhaire, Bettina Eichler-Löbermann, Emmanuel Frossard, Felix Ekardt, Helen Jarvie, Inga Krämer, Christian Kabbe, Bernd Lennartz, Per-Erik Mellander, Günther Nausch, Hisao Ohtake, Jens Tränckner
This special issue of Ambio compiles a series of contributions made at the 8th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW8), held in September 2016 in Rostock, Germany. The introducing overview article summarizes major published scientific findings in the time period from IPW7 (2015) until recently, including presentations from IPW8. The P issue was subdivided into four themes along the logical sequence of P utilization in production, environmental, and societal systems: (1) Sufficiency and efficiency of P utilization, especially in animal husbandry and crop production; (2) P recycling: technologies and product applications; (3) P fluxes and cycling in the environment; and (4) P governance...
November 20, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159365/novel-stool-based-protein-biomarkers-for-improved-colorectal-cancer-screening-a-case-control-study
#11
Linda J W Bosch, Meike de Wit, Thang V Pham, Veerle M H Coupé, Annemieke C Hiemstra, Sander R Piersma, Gideon Oudgenoeg, George L Scheffer, Sandra Mongera, Jochim Terhaar Sive Droste, Frank A Oort, Sietze T van Turenhout, Ilhame Ben Larbi, Joost Louwagie, Wim van Criekinge, Rene W M van der Hulst, Chris J J Mulder, Beatriz Carvalho, Remond J A Fijneman, Connie R Jimenez, Gerrit A Meijer
Background: The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for detecting hemoglobin is used widely for noninvasive colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, but its sensitivity leaves room for improvement. Objective: To identify novel protein biomarkers in stool that outperform or complement hemoglobin in detecting CRC and advanced adenomas. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Colonoscopy-controlled referral population from several centers...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159200/analyzing-the-genotoxicity-of-retroviral-vectors-in-hematopoietic-cell-gene-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Luca Biasco, Michael Rothe, Hildegard Büning, Axel Schambach
Retroviral vectors, including those derived from gammaretroviruses and lentiviruses, have found their way into the clinical arena and demonstrated remarkable efficacy for the treatment of immunodeficiencies, leukodystrophies, and globinopathies. Despite these successes, gene therapy unfortunately also has had to face severe adverse events in the form of leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes, related to the semi-random vector integration into the host cell genome that caused deregulation of neighboring proto-oncogenes...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158982/genome-wide-in-silico-identification-of-membrane-bound-transcription-factors-in-plant-species
#13
Shixiang Yao, Lili Deng, Kaifang Zeng
Membrane-bound transcription factors (MTFs) are located in cellular membranes due to their transmembrane domains. In plants, proteolytic processing is considered to be the main mechanism for MTF activation, which ensures the liberation of MTFs from membranes and further their translocation into the nucleus to regulate gene expression; this process skips both the transcriptional and translational stages, and thus it guarantees the prompt responses of plants to various stimuli. Currently, information concerning plant MTFs is limited to model organisms, including Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, and little is known in other plant species at the genome level...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158860/using-equitable-impact-sensitive-tool-equist-and-knowledge-translation-to-promote-evidence-to-policy-link-in-maternal-and-child-health-report-of-first-equist-training-workshop-in-nigeria
#14
Chigozie Jesse Uneke, Issiaka Sombie, Henry Chukwuemeka Uro-Chukwu, Ermel Johnson, Friday Okonofua
The Equitable Impact Sensitive Tool (EQUIST) designed by UNICEF and knowledge translation (KT) are important strategies that can help policymakers to improve equity and evidence-informed policy making in maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). The purpose of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of an MNCH implementation research team (IRT) and policy makers to use EQUIST and KT. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention (workshop) is implemented and after...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158838/crispr-genome-engineering-for-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-research
#15
REVIEW
Somali Chaterji, Eun Hyun Ahn, Deok-Ho Kim
The emergence of targeted and efficient genome editing technologies, such as repurposed bacterial programmable nucleases (e.g., CRISPR-Cas systems), has abetted the development of cell engineering approaches. Lessons learned from the development of RNA-interference (RNA-i) therapies can spur the translation of genome editing, such as those enabling the translation of human pluripotent stem cell engineering. In this review, we discuss the opportunities and the challenges of repurposing bacterial nucleases for genome editing, while appreciating their roles, primarily at the epigenomic granularity...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158656/translating-the-birmingham-neighborhood-leaders-survey-into-innovative-action-through-the-community-health-innovation-awards
#16
Shauntice Allen, Alaina Pineda, Anthony C Hood, Jessica F Wakelee
The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching describes community engagement as the collaboration between higher education institutions and their larger communities (local, regional/state, national, global) for the mutually beneficial exchange of knowledge and resources in a context of partnership. This article describes the development, implementation and outcomes of a community-engaged grant-making program, the Community Health Innovation Awards (CHIA). The CHIA program was the by-product of a qualitative study jointly led by researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and neighborhood leaders from the surrounding communities in Birmingham, AL...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158315/micrornas-and-mirceptors-a-new-mechanism-of-action-for-intercellular-communication
#17
REVIEW
Muller Fabbri
MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that control the expression of target genes by modulating (usually inhibiting) their translation into proteins. This 'traditional' mechanism of action of miRs has been recently challenged by new discoveries pointing towards a role of miRs as 'hormones', capable of binding to proteic receptors (miRceptors) and triggering their downstream signalling pathways. These findings harbour particular significance within the tumour microenvironment (TME), defined as the variety of non-cancerous cells surrounding cancer cells, but are relevant also for other diseases...
January 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158209/shaping-an-effective-health-information-website-on-rare-diseases-using-a-group-decision-making-tool-inclusion-of-the-perspectives-of-patients-their-family-members-and-physicians
#18
Ana Babac, Svenja Litzkendorf, Katharina Schmidt, Frédéric Pauer, Kathrin Damm, Martin Frank, Johann-Matthias Graf von der Schulenburg
BACKGROUND: Despite diverging definitions on rare conditions, people suffering from rare diseases share similar difficulties. A lack of experience by health professionals, a long wait from first symptoms to diagnosis, scarce medical and scientific knowledge, and unsatisfactory treatment options all trigger the search for health information by patients, family members, and physicians. Examining and systematically integrating stakeholder needs can help design information platforms that effectively support this search...
November 20, 2017: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157678/intensive-mothering-ideology-in-france-a-pilot-study
#19
D Loyal, A-L Sutter Dallay, N Rascle
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study was to adapt the intensive mothering ideology concept in a French sample and to get an assessment tool. METHOD: First, the Intensive Parenting Attitudes Questionnaire (IPAQ), a U.S. scale comprising 25 items, was translated and submitted online to French mothers and mothers-to-be (n=250). Structural validity was tested through confirmatory factor analysis with poor results. Secondly, to increase the cultural validity of a new tool, new items were derived from French women speech...
November 17, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157288/development-of-a-framework-to-improve-the-utilisation-of-malaria-research-for-policy-development-in-malawi
#20
Chikondi Mwendera, Christiaan de Jager, Herbert Longwe, Charles Hongoro, Kamija Phiri, Clifford M Mutero
BACKGROUND: The existing gap between research evidence and public health practice has attributed to the unmet Millennium Development Goals in Africa and consequently, has stimulated the development of frameworks to enhance knowledge translation. These efforts aim at maximising health research utilisation in policy and practice to address the world's disease burdens, including malaria. This study aimed at developing a contextual framework to improve the utilisation of malaria research for policy development in Malawi...
November 21, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
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