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disparities research

Nancy W Selix, Stefan Rowniak
INTRODUCTION: Transgender individuals have unique health care needs and experience health disparities. There is an increased need for transgender health care services and primary care for this underserved population. However, provision of appropriate health care services for transgender persons requires cultural competency and skill on the part of the health care provider, and providers need specific skills to address the needs of this population. METHODS: A review of the literature was performed by accessing CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Brian Dodge, Debby Herbenick, M Reuel Friedman, Vanessa Schick, Tsung-Chieh Jane Fu, Wendy Bostwick, Elizabeth Bartelt, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, David Pletta, Michael Reece, Theo G M Sandfort
: As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U...
2016: PloS One
Michael Heit, Nayera Guirguis, Nadine Kassis, Michelle Takase-Sanchez, Janet Carpenter
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this illustrative review is to provide guidance for the measurement of socioeconomic position when conducting health disparities research in urogynecology study populations. METHODS: Deidentified data were extracted from existing investigational review board-approved research databases for illustrative purposes. Attributes collected included the study participant's marital status, level of educational attainment (in number of years of school completed) and occupation as well as the study participant's last/only spouses' level of education and occupation...
October 25, 2016: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Dinah Chen, Elena Fuell Wysong, Hong Li, Lisa Perriera, Lydia Furman
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between postpartum predischarge depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (ppDMPA) and in-hospital breastfeeding initiation, and the secondary exploratory aim was to determine if any racial disparities are associated with ppDMPA receipt or its relationship to breastfeeding initiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective chart review of maternal and newborn records at a large urban academic medical center...
October 26, 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
James W N Steenberg, Andrew A Millward, David J Nowak, Pamela J Robinson, Alexis Ellis
The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatial and temporal changes, and potential vulnerability, of the urban forest resource in Toronto, Canada. This research was conducted using a spatially-explicit, indicator-based assessment of vulnerability and i-Tree Forecast modeling of temporal changes in forest structure and function...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Management
Nichrous Mlalila, Dattatreya M Kadam, Hulda Swai, Askwar Hilonga
In recent decades, there is a global advancement in manufacturing industry due to increased applications of nanotechnology. Food industry also has been tremendously changing from passive packaging to innovative packaging, to cope with global trends, technological advancements, and consumer preferences. Active research is taking place in food industry and other scientific fields to develop innovative packages including smart, intelligent and active food packaging for more effective and efficient packaging materials with balanced environmental issues...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Tyra Bryant-Stephens, Shakira Reed-Wells, Maryori Canales, Luzmercy Perez, A Russell Localio, Andrea J Apter
Research on asthma frequently recruits patients from clinics because the ready pool of patients leads to easy access to patients in office waiting areas, emergency departments, or hospital wards. Patients with other chronic conditions, and with mobility problems, face exposures at home that are not easily identified at the clinic. In this paper we describe the perspective of the community health workers and challenges they encountered when making home visits while implementing a research intervention in a cohort of low-income, minority patients...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Julia S Seay, Morgan Mandigo, Jonathan Kish, Janelle Menard, Sarah Marsh, Erin Kobetz
OBJECTIVE: Haitian women have the highest incidence of cervical cancer within the Western hemisphere. Intravaginal hygiene practices have been linked with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and cervical dysplasia. These practices, known as 'twalet deba' in Haitian Creole, are common among Haitian women and are performed with various natural and synthetic agents. As part of a community-based participatory research initiative aimed at reducing cervical cancer disparities in rural Haiti, we explored the use of intravaginal agents and their associations with high-risk HPV infection...
October 24, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Ingrid K Richards Adams, Chizimuzo T C Okoli, Akilah Dulin Keita, Ana Maria Linares, Keiko Tanaka, Joshua R Polanin, Annie Koempel
Background. Breastfeeding is associated with a decreased risk of obesity in the early and adult years. Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) experience high rates of obesity which is often obfuscated with aggregated data. Using disaggregated data, we examined breastfeeding practices among NHPI. Methods. Seven databases and reference lists were searched. Two independent researchers extracted relevant studies based on predetermined criteria. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria and a meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects, inverse-various weighted models...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Sarah Y Nowlin, Charles M Cleland, Maya Vadiveloo, Gail D'Eramo Melkus, Niyati Parekh, Holly Hagan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to examine sociodemographic and health behavior factors associated with dietary intake as measured by the healthy eating index (HEI-2010) for persons with and without diabetes (T2D). DESIGN: A secondary data analysis of three NHANES data cycles spanning 2007-2012. Multiple linear regression assessed racial/ethnic differences in HEI-2010 scores in those without T2D, with T2D, and with undiagnosed T2D. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included non-pregnant adults aged ≥20 years who had two days of reliable dietary recall data...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Irena Stepanikova, Gabriela R Oates
OBJECTIVE: Perceived discrimination is an important risk factor for minority health. Drawing from the scholarship on multidimensionality of race, this study examines the relationships between perceived discrimination in health care and two dimensions of racial identity: self-identified race/ethnicity and perceived attributed race/ethnicity (respondents' perceptions of how they are racially classified by others). METHODS: We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data collected in 2004-2013 and we specifically examined the data on perceived racial discrimination in health care during the past 12 months, perceived attributed race/ethnicity, and self-identified race/ethnicity...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Stephanie H Cook, Robert-Paul Juster, Benjamin J Calebs, Justin Heinze, Alison L Miller
Much of the extant scientific research examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning is conducted among White heterosexuals. Very little research examines HPA-axis functioning between different minority groups. Individuals who identify as both sexual and racial minorities may experience increased stigma and discrimination that can affect HPA-axis functioning. In the current study, we examined diurnal cortisol rhythm in young White gay men (WGM) compared to young Black gay men (BGM). The sample consisted of 70 healthy gay men (mean [SD] age=22...
October 13, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Rui Wang, Yan Dong, Jia Weng, Emily Z Kontos, Ronald D Chervin, Carol L Rosen, Carole L Marcus, Susan Redline
RATIONALE: Prior research found that individual-level environmental and social indicators did not explain the racial disparity in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Neighborhood socioeconomic variables, risk factors for a range of adverse behavioral and health outcomes, may better explain this racial disparity and help identify modifiable intervention targets. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic variables with obstructive sleep apnea severity and to assess whether the neighborhood variables explain the association between race and obstructive sleep apnea severity...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Rachel E Davis, Sonya Dal Cin, Suzanne M Cole, Ligia I Reyes, Shannon J McKenney-Shubert, Nancy L Fleischer, Lynna Chung Densen, Karen E Peterson
Additional research is needed to guide the design of narratives for use in practice-oriented, naturalistic settings to maximize health behavior change, particularly among populations affected by health disparities. This mixed-methods study explored the influence of cultural tailoring and emotional arousal on identification and message recall in narratives promoting childhood obesity prevention among 40 Mexican American mothers. Participants were also asked about narrative exposure, narrative preferences, and beliefs about the purpose of a story...
October 21, 2016: Health Communication
Philip M Massey, Brent A Langellier, Tetine Sentell, Jennifer Manganello
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in health information seeking between U.S.-born and foreign-born populations in the U.S. DESIGN: Data from 2008 to 2014 from the Health Information National Trends Survey were used in this study (n = 15,249). Bivariate analyses, logistic regression, and predicted probabilities were used to examine health information seeking and sources of health information. RESULTS: Findings demonstrate that 59.3% of the Hispanic foreign-born population reported looking for health information, fewer than other racial/ethnic groups in the sample...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Trina M Aguirre, Ann E Koehler, Ashish Joshi, Susan L Wilhelm
OBJECTIVE: Addressing health disparities requires well designed, culturally adapted research. However, recruiting/retaining minority participants has often been challenging. We present strategies used to successfully recruit and retain rural Hispanic women during a breastfeeding education intervention. DESIGN: This study involved a two-group repeated measures quasi-experimental design with assessments at seven intervals between enrollment and 6 months postpartum...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Courtney Boen
Research links Black-White health disparities to racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES), but understanding of the role of SES in racial health gaps has been restricted by reliance on static measures of health and socioeconomic well-being that mask the dynamic quality of these processes and ignore the racialized nature of the SES-health connection. Utilizing twenty-three years of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1984-2007), this study uses multilevel growth curve models to examine how multiple dimensions of socioeconomic well-being-including long-term economic history and differential returns to SES-contribute to the life course patterning of Black-White health disparities across two critical markers of well-being: body mass index (N = 9057) and self-rated health (N = 11,329)...
October 11, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Charles F Haines, John A Fleishman, Baligh R Yehia, Bryan Lau, Stephen A Berry, Allison L Agwu, Richard D Moore, Kelly A Gebo
BACKGROUND: In the current antiretroviral (ART) era, the evolution of HIV guidelines and emergence of new ART agents might be expected to impact the times to ART initiation and HIV virologic suppression. We sought to determine if times to AI and virologic suppression decreased and if disparities exist by age, race/ethnicity, and HIV risk. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of data from 12 sites of the HIV Research Network, a consortium of US clinics caring for HIV-infected patients...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Melissa A Simon, Emily L Malin, Brian L Hitsman, Christina C Ciecierski, David E Victorson, Jennifer R Banas, Moira Stuart, Tracy Luedke, Nu-Neighbors Advisory Committees, David Cella
A partnership formed between Northeastern Illinois University (NEIU) and the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University sought to address well-documented cancer health disparities in Chicago by developing a collaborative research, training, and educational infrastructure between a minority-serving institution and a National Cancer Institute designated comprehensive cancer center. With a critical examination of partnership documentation and outputs, we describe the partnership's community-engaged approaches, challenges, and lessons learned...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Craig N Sawchuk, Emily Van Dyke, Adam Omidpanah, Joan E Russo, Ursula Tsosie, Jack Goldberg, Dedra Buchwald
INTRODUCTION: Cancer is among the leading causes of death in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), with rates increasing over the last two decades. Barriers in accessing cancer screening and treatment likely contribute to this situation. METHODS: We administered structured clinical interviews and conducted descriptive and multiple linear regression analyses of demographic, health, spiritual, and treatment factors associated with self-reported barriers to cancer care among 143 adult AI/AN oncology patients...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
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