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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214473/pacific-island-health-inequities-forecast-to-grow-unless-profound-changes-are-made-to-health-systems-in-the-region
#1
Don Matheson, Kunhee Park, Taniela Sunia Soakai
Objective Twenty years ago the Pacific's health ministers developed a 'Healthy Islands' vision to lead health development in the subregion. This paper reports on a review of health development over this period and discusses the implications for the attainment of the health related Sustainable Development Goals.Methods The review used qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review included conducting semi-structured interviews with Pacific Island Government Ministers and officials, regional agencies, health workers and community members...
February 20, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214449/-they-treated-me-like-crap-and-i-know-it-was-because-i-was-native-the-healthcare-experiences-of-aboriginal-peoples-living-in-vancouver-s-inner-city
#2
Ashley Goodman, Kim Fleming, Nicole Markwick, Tracey Morrison, Louise Lagimodiere, Thomas Kerr
There is growing evidence that Aboriginal peoples often experience healthcare inequalities due to racism. However, research exploring the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit substances is limited, and research rarely accounts for how multiple accounts of stigma intersect and contribute to the experiences of marginalized populations. Our research aimed to explore the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit drugs and or illicit alcohol (APWUID/A) living in Vancouver's inner city...
January 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212972/variation-in-health-technology-assessment-and-reimbursement-processes-in-europe
#3
Ronald L Akehurst, Eric Abadie, Noël Renaudin, François Sarkozy
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that differences in health technology assessment (HTA) processes among countries, particularly within Europe, have led to inequity in patient access to new medicines. OBJECTIVES: To provide an up-to-date snapshot analysis of the present status of HTA and reimbursement systems in select European countries, and to investigate the implications of these processes, especially with regard to delays in market and patient access. METHODS: HTA and reimbursement processes were assessed through a review of published and gray literature, and through a series of interviews with HTA experts...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212959/results-from-a-well-being-survey-in-the-north-west-of-england-inequalities-in-eq-5d-derived-quality-adjusted-life-expectancy-are-mainly-driven-by-pain-and-mental-health
#4
Brendan Collins
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence that once quality-of-life decrements are factored in, health inequalities become more prominent than using life expectancy alone. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to understand what the drivers were in inequalities in quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE). METHODS: This study used EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D) questionnaire data from a large survey from the North West of England (N = 11,500), which were combined with population and mortality data from administrative datasets, to calculate estimated QALE by deprivation quintile...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212638/commissioning-for-health-improvement-following-the-2012-health-and-social-care-reforms-in-england-what-has-changed
#5
E W Gadsby, S Peckham, A Coleman, D Bramwell, N Perkins, L M Jenkins
BACKGROUND: The wide-ranging program of reforms brought about by the Health and Social Care Act (2012) in England fundamentally changed the operation of the public health system, moving responsibility for the commissioning and delivery of services from the National Health Service to locally elected councils and a new national public health agency. This paper explores the ways in which the reforms have altered public health commissioning. METHODS: We conducted multi-methods research over 33 months, incorporating national surveys of Directors of Public Health and local council elected members at two time-points, and in-depth case studies in five purposively selected geographical areas...
February 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212600/persistence-of-social-inequalities-in-modern-welfare-states-explanation-of-a-paradox
#6
Johan P Mackenbach
AIMS: Social-epidemiological explanations of health inequalities usually take the existence of social inequality as a given and ignore the fundamental questions of why social inequality exists in the first place and why it is so persistent. I review here theories of the explanation of social inequality to identify the processes and/or structures responsible for its persistence. METHODS: This paper is a review of the relevant sociological literature. RESULTS: The sociological literature suggests that what persists over long periods of time is not a specific manifestation of social inequality but a 'meta-phenomenon': the fact that there are different social positions, that these social positions give access to different levels of resources in some graded way and that the distribution of individuals over social positions follows rules that create inequalities in the opportunities for achieving a more advantaged social position...
March 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212598/essential-newborn-care-after-home-delivery-in-nepal
#7
Mats Målqvist, Asha Pun, Ashish Kc
AIMS: Postnatal care of the newborn is essential in order to reduce neonatal mortality. Nepal has made great efforts to improve maternal and child health by focusing on accessibility and outreach over the past decades. This study aims to examine trends, over the past decade, in levels and equity of facility delivery rates and the provision of newborn care after home delivery in Nepal. METHODS: Household-level data from the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) 2006 and 2011 and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS5) from 2014 performed in Nepal was sourced for the study...
March 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209436/is-colombia-reaching-the-goals-on-infant-immunization-coverage-a-quantitative-survey-from-80-municipalities
#8
Javier Narváez, May Bibiana Osorio, Carlos Castañeda-Orjuela, Nelson Alvis Zakzuk, Natalia Cediel, Luz Ángela Chocontá-Piraquive, Fernando de La Hoz-Restrepo
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the coverage of the Colombian Expanded Program on Immunization among children less than 6years old, to evaluate the timeliness of immunization, to assess the coverage of newly introduced vaccines, and to identify factors associated with lack of immunization. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 80 municipalities of Colombia, using a two-stage cluster random sampling. We attempted to contact all children less than 6years old living in the sampled blocks, and asked their caregivers to provide immunization record cards...
February 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209280/community-level-inequalities-in-concussion-education-of-youth-football-coaches
#9
Emily Kroshus, Zachary Y Kerr, Joseph G L Lee
INTRODUCTION: USA Football has made the Heads Up Football (HUF) concussion education program available for coaches of youth football players. Existing evidence about the effectiveness of the HUF coach education program is equivocal. For HUF and other programs, there is growing concern that even effective interventions can increase inequalities if there is different uptake or impact by SES or other demographic factors. Understanding how adoption is patterned along these lines is important for understanding equity issues in youth football...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209201/understanding-the-performance-of-community-health-volunteers-involved-in-the-delivery-of-health-programmes-in-underserved-areas-a-realist-synthesis
#10
REVIEW
Gaëlle Vareilles, Jeanine Pommier, Bruno Marchal, Sumit Kane
BACKGROUND: The recruitment of community health volunteers (CHVs) to support the delivery of health programmes is an established approach in underserved areas and in particular where there are health inequalities due to the scarcity of trained human resources. However, there is a dearth of evidence about what works to improve CHVs' performance. This review aimed to synthesise existing literature to explain why, how and under which circumstances intervention approaches to improve the performance of CHVs are more likely to be successful...
February 16, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209007/cognitive-ability-as-a-determinant-of-socioeconomic-and-oral-health-status-among-adolescent-college-students-of-bengaluru-india
#11
Rekha Rao Karnam, Naganandini Samapth Kumar, Shruthi Eshwar, Shravani Deolia
INTRODUCTION: Levels of oral health and economic status are unequally distributed throughout the population. Inequality has multiple causes and that the effect of Socio Economic Status (SES) and demographic factors, on oral health is mediated through several factors. Association between cognitive ability and oral health had been demonstrated in older age groups but adolescents and younger adults have received relatively little attention in this field. AIM: To establish the role of cognitive ability as a determinant of SES and oral health status among adolescent college students of Benagluru, Karnataka, India...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208026/corrigendum
#12
(no author information available yet)
Jamieson LM, Elani HW, Mejia GC, Ju X, Kawachi I, Harper S, Thomson WM, Kaufman JS. 2016. Inequalities in indigenous oral health: findings from Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. J Dent Res. 95(12):1375-1380. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0022034516658233 ).
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207679/using-community-based-participatory-research-and-human-centered-design-to-address-violence-related-health-disparities-among-latino-a-youth
#13
Maryam Kia-Keating, Diana E Santacrose, Sabrina R Liu, Jessica Adams
High rates of exposure to violence and other adversities among Latino/a youth contribute to health disparities. The current article addresses the ways in which community-based participatory research (CBPR) and human-centered design (HCD) can help engage communities in dialogue and action. We present a project exemplifying how community forums, with researchers, practitioners, and key stakeholders, including youths and parents, integrated HCD strategies with a CBPR approach. Given the potential for power inequities among these groups, CBPR + HCD acted as a catalyst for reciprocal dialogue and generated potential opportunity areas for health promotion and change...
April 2017: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207339/measuring-socioeconomic-inequalities-with-predicted-absolute-incomes-rather-than-wealth-quintiles-a-comparative-assessment-using-child-stunting-data-from-national-surveys
#14
Günther Fink, Cesar G Victora, Kenneth Harttgen, Sebastian Vollmer, Luís Paulo Vidaletti, Aluisio J D Barros
OBJECTIVES: To compare the predictive power of synthetic absolute income measures with that of asset-based wealth quintiles in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) using child stunting as an outcome. METHODS: We pooled data from 239 nationally representative household surveys from LMICs and computed absolute incomes in US dollars based on households' asset rank as well as data on national consumption and inequality levels. We used multivariable regression models to compare the predictive power of the created income measure with the predictive power of existing asset indicator measures...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205370/progressive-universalism-the-impact-of-targeted-coverage-on-health-care-access-and-expenditures-in-peru
#15
Sven Neelsen, Owen O'Donnell
Like other countries seeking a progressive path to universalism, Peru has attempted to reduce inequalities in access to health care by granting the poor entitlement to tax-financed basic care without charge. We identify the impact of this policy by comparing the target population's change in health care utilization with that of poor adults already covered through employment-based insurance. There are positive effects on receipt of ambulatory care and medication that are largest among the elderly and the poorest...
February 16, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202740/health-equity-considerations-for-developing-and-reporting-patient-reported-outcomes-in-clinical-trials-a-report-from-the-omeract-equity-special-interest-group
#16
Jennifer Petkovic, Jennifer L Barton, Caroline Flurey, Niti Goel, Christie M Bartels, Cheryl Barnabe, Maarten P T de Wit, Anne Lyddiatt, Diane Lacaille, Vivian Welch, Annelies Boonen, Beverley Shea, Robin Christensen, Lara J Maxwell, Willemina Campbell, Janet Jull, Karine Toupin-April, Jasvinder A Singh, Charles H Goldsmith, Antoine G Sreih, Christoph Pohl, Catherine Hofstetter, Dorcas E Beaton, Rachelle Buchbinder, Francis Guillemin, Peter S Tugwell
OBJECTIVE: Despite advances integrating patient-centered outcomes into rheumatologic studies, concerns remain regarding their representativeness across diverse patient groups and how this affects equity. The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Equity Working Group aims to determine whether and how to address equity issues within the core outcome sets of domains and instruments. METHODS: We surveyed current and previous OMERACT meeting attendees and members of the Campbell and Cochrane Equity Group regarding whether to address equity issues within the OMERACT Filter 2...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199042/global-effects-of-income-and-income-inequality-on-adult-height-and-sexual-dimorphism-in-height
#17
Barry Bogin, Christiane Scheffler, Michael Hermanussen
OBJECTIVES: Average adult height of a population is considered a biomarker of the quality of the health environment and economic conditions. The causal relationships between height and income inequality are not well understood. We analyze data from 169 countries for national average heights of men and women and national-level economic factors to test two hypotheses: (1) income inequality has a greater association with average adult height than does absolute income; and (2) neither income nor income inequality has an effect on sexual dimorphism in height...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196951/understanding-repeated-non-attendance-in-health-services-a-pilot-analysis-of-administrative-data-and-full-study-protocol-for-a-national-retrospective-cohort
#18
Andrea E Williamson, David A Ellis, Philip Wilson, Ross McQueenie, Alex McConnachie
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the causes of low engagement in healthcare is a pre-requisite for improving health services' contribution to tackling health inequalities. Low engagement includes missing healthcare appointments. Serially (having a pattern of) missing general practice (GP) appointments may provide a risk marker for vulnerability and poorer health outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A proof of concept pilot using GP appointment data and a focus group with GPs informed the development of missed appointment categories: patients can be classified based on the number of appointments missed each year...
February 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196512/a-core-outcome-set-for-evaluating-self-management-interventions-in-people-with-comorbid-diabetes-and-severe-mental-illness-study-protocol-for-a-modified-delphi-study-and-systematic-review
#19
Johanna Taylor, Jan R Böhnke, Judy Wright, Ian Kellar, Sarah L Alderson, Tom Hughes, Richard I G Holt, Najma Siddiqi
BACKGROUND: People with diabetes and comorbid severe mental illness (SMI) form a growing population at risk of increased mortality and morbidity compared to those with diabetes or SMI alone. There is increasing interest in interventions that target diabetes in SMI in order to help to improve physical health and reduce the associated health inequalities. However, there is a lack of consensus about which outcomes are important for this comorbid population, with trials differing in their focus on physical and mental health...
February 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194503/inequalities-by-immigrant-status-in-depressive-symptoms-in-europe-the-role-of-integration-policy-regimes
#20
Davide Malmusi, Laia Palència, Umar Z Ikram, Anton E Kunst, Carme Borrell
PURPOSE: We aimed to study whether country integration policy models were related to inequalities by immigrant status in depressive symptoms in Europe. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using data from 17 countries in the sixth wave of the European Social Survey (2012), comparing subjects born either in the country of residence (non-immigrants, N = 28,333) or in a country not classified as "advanced economy" by the IMF (immigrants, N = 2041). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the eight-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale...
February 14, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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