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health inequality

Sarah E Gollust, Brooke A Cunningham, Barbara G Bokhour, Howard S Gordon, Charlene Pope, Somnath S Saha, Dina M Jones, Tam Do, Diana J Burgess
Progress to address health care equity requires health care providers' commitment, but their engagement may depend on their perceptions of the factors contributing to inequity. To understand providers' perceptions of causes of racial health care disparities, a short survey was delivered to health care providers who work at 3 Veterans Health Administration sites, followed by qualitative interviews (N = 53). Survey data indicated that providers attributed the causes of disparities to social and economic conditions more than to patients' or providers' behaviors...
January 2018: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
Sarah E Ali-Khan, Antoine Jean, Emily MacDonald, E Richard Gold
Mounting evidence indicates that worldwide, innovation systems are increasing unsustainable. Equally, concerns about inequities in the science and innovation process, and in access to its benefits, continue. Against a backdrop of growing health, economic and scientific challenges global stakeholders are urgently seeking to spur innovation and maximize the just distribution of benefits for all. Open Science collaboration (OS) - comprising a variety of approaches to increase open, public, and rapid mobilization of scientific knowledge - is seen to be one of the most promising ways forward...
2018: MNI Open Res
Cuirong Zhao, Chao Wang, Chengwu Shen, Qian Wang
China has undertaken waves of healthcare reforms to keep pace with its rapid economic growth. By 2011, universal health insurance coverage was successfully achieved through the creation of a basic social medical insurance system. Growing economic power, extensive government subsidies, and strategies for program implementation are critical to that achievement. However, the breadth and depth of coverage varies considerably across insurance schemes and localities. The disjointed insurance scheme led to inequality in coverage, accessibility, and affordability of medical services, lopsided allocation of health resources, and increasing medical expenditures, and these remain crucial challenges for healthcare insurance coverage...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Anne Liveng, Heidi Myglegård Andersen, Sine Lehn-Christiansen
Health promotion constitutes a complex field of study, as it addresses multifaceted problems and involves a range of methods and theories. Students in the field of health promotion can find this challenging. To raise their level of reflexivity and support learning we have developed the "context model," which is presented in this article. The model provides a framework for the analysis of health-promotion initiatives, employing eight perspectives each intertwined with the others. It is based on the assumption that health and health inequities are contextual and that the theoretically inspired understanding of contexts is central for health promoters...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
E Fosse, M K Helgesen, S Hagen, S Torp
AIMS: The gradient in health inequalities reflects a relationship between health and social circumstance, demonstrating that health worsens as you move down the socio-economic scale. For more than a decade, the Norwegian National government has developed policies to reduce social inequalities in health by levelling the social gradient. The adoption of the Public Health Act in 2012 was a further movement towards a comprehensive policy. The main aim of the act is to reduce social health inequalities by adopting a Health in All Policies approach...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Lisa Carter-Harris, James E Slaven, Patrick O Monahan, Rivienne Shedd-Steele, Nasser Hanna, Susan M Rawl
Lung cancer screening is a relatively new screening option. Inequalities related to screening behavior have been documented in other types of cancer screening. Because stage at presentation drives mortality in lung cancer, it is critical to understand factors that influence screening behavior in lung cancer screening in order to intervene. However, we must first understand where disparities exist in lung cancer screening participation in order to effectively guide intervention efforts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the association of sociodemographic (including key disparity-related variables) and knowledge with lung cancer screening behavior...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
M Escobar-Ballesta, M García-Ramírez, C De Freitas
Roma health inequities are a wicked problem. Despite concerted efforts to reduce them under the Decade of Roma Inclusion initiative, the health gap between Roma and non-Roma populations in Europe persists. To address this problem, the European Commission devised the National Roma Integration Strategies (NRIS). This paper provides a critical assessment of the implementation of the NRIS' health strand (NRIS-H) in Spain and proposes an evaluation tool to monitor Roma health policies - the Roma Health Integration Policy Index (RHIPEX)...
March 8, 2018: Health Policy
Yongjian Xu, Jie Ma, Na Wu, Xiaojing Fan, Tao Zhang, Zhongliang Zhou, Jianmin Gao, Jianping Ren, Gang Chen
INTRODUCTION: In 2009, China officially launched the New Health Care Reform (NHCR). One important purpose of the reform was to reduce financial burden of health care through health insurance expansion and health care provider regulations. This study aimed to provide evidence on the effect of the NHCR reform on catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) by comparing the occurrence and inequality of CHE among households with chronic diseases patients before and after the reform. METHODS: This study used the subset of data from the 2008 and 2013 National Health Services Survey conducted in Shaanxi Province...
2018: PloS One
Kate O'Reilly, Kath Peters, Nathan Wilson, Cannas Kwok
BACKGROUND: Although more men than women sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI), approximately one quarter of people with TBIs are women. The experiences of TBI reported in the literature are informed from the masculine perspective and do not adequately represent women's experiences. Pragmatism provides an overarching methodological framework to explore and critique a broader perspective of health, including psychosocial, cultural, spiritual, political and environmental factors, while attempting to address gender inequity...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
Baltica Cabieses, Macarena Chepo, Marcela Oyarte, Niina Markkula, Patricia Bustos, Víctor Pedrero, Iris Delgado
INTRODUCTION: Children and young international migrants face different health challenges compa red with the local population, particularly if they live in insecure environments or adverse social conditions. This study seeks to identify gaps in health outcomes of children between immigrant and local population in Chile. METHODS: This study analyses data from three sources: (i) Born in Chile: Electronic records of antenatal visits from all municipal antenatal clinics of Recoleta in 2012; (ii) Growing up in Chile: Population survey "National Socioeconomic Characterization" (CASEN) from 2013 and (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Data of all hospital discharges in 2012, provided by the department of statistics and health information (DEIS) of the Ministry of Health...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
J South, A M Connolly, J A Stansfield, P Johnstone, G Henderson, K A Fenton
There is a strong evidence-based rationale for community capacity building and community empowerment as part of a strategic response to reduce health inequalities. Within the current UK policy context, there are calls for increased public engagement in prevention and local decision-making in order to give people greater control over the conditions that determine health. With reference to the challenges and opportunities within the English public health system, this essay seeks to open debate about what is required to mainstream community-centred approaches and ensure that the public is central to public health...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
N M Kriznik, A L Kinmonth, T Ling, M P Kelly
Background: A strong focus on individual choice and behaviour informs interventions designed to reduce health inequalities in the UK. We review evidence for wider mechanisms from a range of disciplines, demonstrate that they are not yet impacting on programmes, and argue for their systematic inclusion in policy and research. Methods: We identified potential mechanisms relevant to health inequalities and their amelioration from different disciplines and analysed six policy documents published between 1976 and 2010 using Bacchi's 'What's the problem represented to be?' framework for policy analysis...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Ignacio Aznar-Lou, Anton Pottegård, Ana Fernández, María Teresa Peñarrubia-María, Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Ramón Sabés-Figuera, Montserrat Gil-Girbau, Marta Fajó-Pascual, Patricia Moreno-Peral, Maria Rubio-Valera
OBJECTIVE: Copayment policies aim to reduce the burden of medication expenditure but may affect adherence and generate inequities in access to healthcare. The objective was to evaluate the impact of two copayment measures on initial medication non-adherence (IMNA) in several medication groups and by income level. DESIGN: A population-based study was conducted using real-world evidence. SETTING: Primary care in Catalonia (Spain) where two separate copayment measures (fixed copayment and coinsurance) were introduced between 2011 and 2013...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Martha P Romero Mendoza, Héctor Gómez-Dantes, Quetzaliztli Manríquez Montiel, Gabriela J Saldívar Hernández, Julio C Campuzano Rincón, Rafael Lozano, María Elena Medina-Mora Icaza
The increasing burden of interpersonal violence in women in Mexico is a neglected social and health problem that competes with other leading causes of premature death, disability, and health losses in young women. In this article, we focus on revealing the burden of violence in girls and young women and its implications for public policy. This study presents the subnational analysis of Mexico from the Global Burden of Disease study (1990-2015). The global study harmonized information of 195 countries and 79 risk factors...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Michele J Upvall, Jeanne M Leffers
OBJECTIVES: Models to guide global health partnerships are rare in the nursing literature. The Conceptual Model for Partnership and Sustainability in Global Health while significant was based on Western perspectives. The purpose of this study was to revise the model to include the voice of nurses from low- and middle-resource countries. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Grounded theory was used to maintain fidelity with the design in the original model. A purposive sample of 15 participants from a variety of countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia and having extensive experience in global health partnerships were interviewed...
March 15, 2018: Public Health Nursing
Louis M Katz, John J Donnelly, Christopher J Gresens, Jerry A Holmberg, James MacPherson, Peter J K Zacharias, Jean Stanley, Christine Bales
On March 24, 2017, more than 90 experts in blood safety and international development from blood centers, industry, government, and international and nongovernmental organizations gathered in Arlington, Virginia, for the Third International Blood Safety Forum, cosponsored by America's Blood Centers and Global Healing. This report summarizes presentations and major conclusions. The meeting explored ways to increase access to affordable, safe blood for low- and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) in an era when funding from the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund has been redirected from preventing the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to diagnosing and treating the 25 million-plus people living with HIV in LMICs...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
Ricardo Araya, Pedro Zitko, Niina Markkula
Universal health care programmes have the potential to reduce treatment gaps. We explored the potential impact of an equity-oriented universal health care programme on access to care for depression, hypertension and diabetes using data from two nationally representative health surveys in Chile. The likelihood a depressed individual had accessed health care appears to have increased significantly after the programme was introduced whereas those for hypertension and diabetes remained unchanged. Depressed women seem to have benefited mostly from the programme...
March 14, 2018: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
Martin Dlouhý
The existence of geographic differences in health resources, health expenditures, the utilization of health services, and health outcomes have been documented by a lot of studies from various countries of the world. In a publicly financed health system, equal access is one of the main objectives of the national health policy. That is why inequalities in the geographic allocation of health resources are an important health policy issue. Measures of inequality express the complexity of variation in the observed variable by a single number, and there is a variety of inequality measures available...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Pooja Tripathi, Ramachandra Kamath, Rajnarayan Tiwari
Background: Fisherwomen are informal sector workers involved in post-harvest operations and are mostly engaged in peeling, trading, and processing of fish. High degree of wage disparity and gender inequalities results in different socioeconomic status of fisherwomen and fishermen. This study aimed to identify gender issues and their effect on the health status of fisherwomen. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional included 171 fishermen and fisherwomen...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
G David Batty, George B Ploubidis, Alissa Goodman, David Bann
BACKGROUND: Although early life education for improved long-term health and the amelioration of socioeconomically generated inequalities in chronic disease is advocated in influential policy statements, the evidence base is very modest. AIMS: To address this dearth of evidence using data from a representative UK national birth cohort study. METHODS: The analytical sample comprised men and women in the 1958 birth cohort study with prospectively gathered data on attendance at nursery or primary school before the age of 5 years who had gone on to participate in social survey at 42 years (n=11 374), or a biomedical survey at 44/5 years of age (n=9210), or had data on vital status from 18 to 55 years (n=17 657)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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