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health inequality

Leidy Johanna Ocampo Arroyave, María Clara Restrepo-Méndez, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Denise Petrucci Gigante, Helen Gonçalves
This study focuses on trends and inequalities in health risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study compared two birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The sample included 1,281 adolescents from the 1982 cohort and 4,106 from the 1993 cohort, followed in 2001 and 2011, respectively. The study recorded alcohol intake, illegal drug use, smoking, sexual initiation < 16 years, lack of condom use, and multiple sex partners. Total prevalence rates were calculated for each cohort, stratified by gender and per capita income, besides absolute and relative measures of inequality...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Sue Patterson, Kathleen Freshwater, Nicole Goulter, Julie Ewing, Boyd Leamon, Anand Choudhary, Vikas Moudgil, Brett Emmerson
Aims and method To describe and explain psychiatrists' responses to metabolic abnormalities identified during screening. We carried out an audit of clinical records to assess rates of monitoring and follow-up practice. Semi-structured interviews with 36 psychiatrists followed by descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted. Results Metabolic abnormalities were identified in 76% of eligible patients screened. Follow-up, recorded for 59%, was variable but more likely with four or more abnormalities. Psychiatrists endorse guidelines but ambivalence about responsibility, professional norms, resource constraints and skills deficits as well as patient factors influences practice...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
Timo-Kolja Pförtner, Irene Moor
Background: The relationship between socioeconomic status and health is explained by the unequal distribution of material, psychosocial and behavioral factors. The aim of this study is to analyze the relative contribution of these factors for the association between income and different indicators of health and diseases. Method: Analyses were based on data from the "German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP)" in 2011. We estimated the relative contribution of material, psychosocial and behavioral factors in income-related inequalities in health by logistic mediator analyses focusing on following outcomes: self-rated health, diabetes, cardiac disease, sleep disorder, joint diseases, depression and chronical back trouble...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Catrinel Craciun, Uwe Flick
The present study explores views on aging and how these differ according to gender and precariousness status. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 men and 10 women with secure and insecure pensions. Themes like fear of illness and health decline were more present in men, while fear of losing their attractiveness in old age more present among women. For all participants, loss of autonomy and social roles represented a negative view of old age, while activity in the form of work, volunteering, or leisure represented positive views...
2016: Journal of Women & Aging
Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de Oliveira, Ronir Raggio Luiz
OBJECTIVE: The skin color/race and urbanity are structural determinants of health. The relationship between these variables produces structure of social stratification that defines inequalities in the experiences of life and death. Thus, this study describes the characteristics of the mortality indicators by skin color/race according level of urbanity and aggregation to the metropolitan region (MR) of 5565 cities in Brazil, controlling for gender and age. DESIGN: Descriptive study which included the calculation of measures relating to 1,050,546 deaths in the year survey of 2010 by skin color/race White, Black, and Brown according to both sexes, for five age groups and three levels of urbanity of cities in Brazil that were aggregated or not to the MR in the year of study...
October 17, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Sheena Asthana, Graham Moon, Alex Gibson, Trevor Bailey, Paul Hewson, Chris Dibben
There is a general understanding that socioeconomically disadvantaged people are also disadvantaged with respect to their access to NHS care. Insofar as considerable NHS funding has been targeted at deprived areas, it is important to better understand whether and why socioeconomic variations in access and utilisation exist. Exploring this question with reference to cardiovascular care, our aims were to synthesise and evaluate evidence relating to access to and/or use of English NHS services around (i) different points on the care pathway (i...
October 16, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
Antonio Pino, María Albán, Alejandra Rivas, Erika Rodríguez
Background: Maternal mortality ratio in Ecuador is the only millennium goal on which national agencies are still making strong efforts to reach 2015 target. The purpose of the study was to process national maternal death databases to identify a specific association pattern of variable included in the death certificate. Design and methods: The study processed mortality databases published yearly by the National Census and Statistics Institute (INEC). Data analysed were exclusively maternal deaths. Data corresponds to the 2003-2013 period, accessible through INEC's website...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Public Health Research
Sarah Nutter, Shelly Russell-Mayhew, Angela S Alberga, Nancy Arthur, Anusha Kassan, Darren E Lund, Monica Sesma-Vazquez, Emily Williams
Weight bias is a form of stigma with detrimental effects on the health and wellness of individuals with large bodies. Researchers from various disciplines have recognized weight bias as an important topic for public health and for professional practice. To date, researchers from various areas have approached weight bias from independent perspectives and from differing theoretical orientations. In this paper, we examined the similarities and differences between three perspectives (i.e., weight-centric, non-weight-centric (health-centric), and health at every size) used to understand weight bias and approach weight bias research with regard to (a) language about people with large bodies, (b) theoretical position, (c) identified consequences of weight bias, and (d) identified influences on weight-based social inequity...
2016: Journal of Obesity
(no author information available yet)
A qualified nurse, district nurse and health visitor, Sue McBean prioritises health inequalities and primary healthcare in her work. She has a master's degree in health education and recently retired from full-time academic work.
September 14, 2016: Nursing Standard
Paola A Mosquera, Miguel San Sebastian, Anneli Ivarsson, Lars Weinehall, Per E Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Early life is thought of as a foundation for health inequalities in adulthood. However, research directly examining the contribution of childhood circumstances to the integrated phenomenon of adult social inequalities in health is absent. The present study aimed to examine whether, and to what degree, social conditions during childhood explain income inequalities in metabolic syndrome in mid-adulthood. METHODS: The sample (N = 12 481) comprised all 40- and 50-year-old participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Program in Northern Sweden 2008, 2009 and 2010...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Ethel M Brinda, Anto P Rajkumar, Jǿrn Attermann, Ulf G Gerdtham, Ulrika Enemark, Kuruthukulangara S Jacob
OBJECTIVE: Although depression among older people is an important public health problem worldwide, systematic studies evaluating its prevalence and determinants in low and middle income countries (LMICs) are sparse. The biopsychosocial model of depression and prevailing socioeconomic hardships for older people in LMICs have provided the impetus to determine the prevalence of geriatric depression; to study its associations with health, social, and economic variables; and to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in depression prevalence in LMICs...
July 25, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Sheng-Shiung Huang, Hao-Jan Yang
In this study we examine whether there is healthy immigrant effect among women immigrated to Taiwan through transnational marriage. A sample of immigrant women (N = 246) with original nativity of Southeast Asian countries and Taiwanese-born women sample (N = 201) was recruited from December 2008 to December 2009. Their depressive symptoms, acculturative stresses and family functioning were assessed by a series of questionnaires. Immigrant women had lower depressive scores than their native-born counterparts when other potential confounders were controlled for in the multiple regression model...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Simon Hatcher
This perspective article describes the problem of Canadian indigenous suicide from a non-Canadian viewpoint. In particular, the article compares both similarities and differences in suicide prevention between Māori in New Zealand and indigenous peoples in Canada. It emphasises that the problem of indigenous suicide is not being indigenous but coping with losses secondary to colonisation. A useful way to translate this into helpful clinical conversations and actions is to think about loss of belonging. Culture and belonging are key components of identity and as such should be considered in all psychiatric encounters, not just in those who are considered minorities or "other...
November 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Thandeka T T Dlamini-Simelane, Eileen Moyer
Through various campaigns and strategies, more women are being tested for HIV in countries with a high prevalence of the virus. Despite the ready availability of treatment at government clinics in sub-Saharan African countries like Swaziland, women consistently report difficulty in maintaining access to treatment. Drawing on two individual case studies selected from a larger study of the so-called leaky cascade in Swaziland, we illustrate the protracted journeys married women undertake to initiate treatment...
October 13, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
Vu Duy Kien, Hoang Van Minh, Kim Bao Giang, Amy Dao, Le Thanh Tuan, Nawi Ng
BACKGROUND: The catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment indices offer guidance for developing appropriate health policies and intervention programs to decrease financial inequity. This study assesses socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment in relation to self-reported non-communicable diseases (NCD) in urban Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2013 in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam...
October 13, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Richard J Silverwood, Lee Williamson, Emily M Grundy, Bianca L De Stavola
Socioeconomically disadvantaged children are more likely to be of shorter stature and overweight, leading to greater risk of obesity in adulthood. Disentangling the mediatory pathways between socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood size may help in the development of appropriate policies aimed at reducing these health inequalities. We aimed to elucidate the putative mediatory role of birth weight using a representative sample of the Scottish population born 1991-2001 (n = 16,628). Estimated height and overweight/obesity at age 4...
2016: PloS One
Raj Chetty, David Cutler, Michael Stepner
Earlier this year, the three of us, along with several colleagues, published new research on the relationship between income and life expectancy in the United States, drawing on population-level data drawn from tax and Social Security records.(1) As part of that research, we created new, publicly available data sets with estimates of (1) life expectancy at age 40 years by gender, area (county and commuting zone), income level, and year (2001-2014); and (2) estimates of mortality rates by age (≥ 40 years), gender, area, income level, and year...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Christopher Hartmann
Several Latin American countries are implementing a suite of so-called "postneoliberal" social and political economic policies to counter neoliberal models that emerged in the 1980s. This article considers the influence of postneoliberalism on public health discourses, policies, institutions, and practices in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Social medicine and neoliberal public health models are antecedents of postneoliberal public health care models. Postneoliberal public health governance models neither fully incorporate social medicine nor completely reject neoliberal models...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Bernadet Garcia-Silva, Eric Handler, Julia Wolfe
Food insecurity is a global issue that arises owing to systemic socioeconomic inequities and environmental constraints. To highlight the existence and the extent of food insecurity and food waste, the Orange County Health Department in Orange County, California, created a coalition called "Waste Not Orange County." Orange County is the sixth most populous county in California and has the highest median income, yet 11.4% of those residing in Orange County are food insecure, and 24.0% live in poverty. The overall vision of the coalition is to mitigate hunger in Orange County by educating the community about food donations, identifying food-insecure individuals, and connecting those individuals to sources of food...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Jyothi Gupta
The values of occupational therapy are grounded in justice, and its origins in activism and advocacy. Enabling individuals to participate in meaningful occupations to enhance health and well-being was the genesis of the profession that answered a call to justice. Occupational science brought focus to understand humans as occupational beings and made justice more visible in the discourse. A systematic mapping review was undertaken to deconstruct how notions of occupational justice (OJ) have been woven in the literature...
October 12, 2016: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
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