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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208566/re-the-effects-of-oncologist-implicit-racial-bias-in-racially-discordant-oncology-interactions
#1
David F Penson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187699/siblings-of-people-with-disabilities-explicit-and-implicit-disability-attitude-divergence
#2
Carli Friedman
Siblings of people with disabilities have more exposure to people with disabilities than most nondisabled people, uniquely positioning them toward disability, yet less is known about how this might impact their attitudes. This study examined siblings' disability attitudes by determining siblings' explicit and implicit disability bias, mapping their 2-dimensional prejudice, and examining theoretical variables that might be relevant to their attitudes. To do so, the Disability Attitudes Implicit Association Test, the Symbolic Ableism Scale, and survey questions were administered to 48 siblings...
January 2017: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186618/study-of-individualization-and-bias-in-nursing-home-fall-prevention-practices
#3
Cathleen S Colón-Emeric, Kirsten Corazzini, Eleanor McConnell, Wei Pan, Mark Toles, Rasheeda Hall, Melissa Batchelor-Murphy, Tracey L Yap, Amber L Anderson, Andrew Burd, Ruth A Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about how nursing home staff use resident characteristics to individualize care delivery or whether care is affected by implicit bias. DESIGN: Randomized factorial clinical vignette survey. SETTING: Sixteen nursing homes in North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing, rehabilitation, and social services staff (n = 433). MEASUREMENTS: Vignettes describing hypothetical residents were generated from a matrix of clinical and demographic characteristics...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185229/the-time-course-of-intentional-binding
#4
Miriam Ruess, Roland Thomaschke, Andrea Kiesel
Stimuli caused by actions (i.e., effects) are perceived earlier than stimuli not caused by actions. This phenomenon is termed intentional binding (IB) and serves as implicit measure of sense of agency. We investigated the influence of effect delay and temporal predictability on IB, operationalized as the bias to perceive the effect as temporally shifted toward the action. For short delays, IB increased with delay (Experiment 1: 200 ms, 250 ms, 300 ms). The initial increase declined for longer delays (Experiment 2: 100 ms, 250 ms, 400 ms)...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182460/lying-takes-time-a-meta-analysis-on-reaction-time-measures-of-deception
#5
Kristina Suchotzki, Bruno Verschuere, Bram Van Bockstaele, Gershon Ben-Shakhar, Geert Crombez
Lie detection techniques are frequently used, but most of them have been criticized for the lack of empirical support for their predictive validity and presumed underlying mechanisms. This situation has led to increased efforts to unravel the cognitive mechanisms underlying deception and to develop a comprehensive theory of deception. A cognitive approach to deception has reinvigorated interest in reaction time (RT) measures to differentiate lies from truths and to investigate whether lying is more cognitively demanding than truth telling...
February 9, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140458/population-models-and-simulation-methods-the-case-of-the-spearman-rank-correlation
#6
Oscar L Olvera Astivia, Bruno D Zumbo
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of a population model in guiding the design and interpretation of simulation studies used to investigate the Spearman rank correlation. The Spearman rank correlation has been known for over a hundred years to applied researchers and methodologists alike and is one of the most widely used non-parametric statistics. Still, certain misconceptions can be found, either explicitly or implicitly, in the published literature because a population definition for this statistic is rarely discussed within the social and behavioural sciences...
January 31, 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134542/time-on-your-hands-perceived-duration-of-sensory-events-is-biased-toward-concurrent-actions
#7
Daniel Yon, Rosanna Edey, Richard B Ivry, Clare Press
Perceptual systems must rapidly generate accurate representations of the world from sensory inputs that are corrupted by internal and external noise. We can typically obtain more veridical representations by integrating information from multiple channels, but this integration can lead to biases when inputs are, in fact, not from the same source. Although a considerable amount is known about how different sources of information are combined to influence what we perceive, it is not known whether temporal features are combined...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132412/dorsomedial-prefrontal-cortex-and-cerebellar-contribution-to-in-group-attitudes-a-tms-study
#8
Lucile Gamond, Chiara Ferrari, Stefania La Rocca, Zaira Cattaneo
We tend to express more positive judgments and behaviors toward individuals belonging to our own group compared to other (out-) groups. In this study, we assessed the role of the cerebellum and of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) - two regions critically implicated in social cognition processes - in mediating implicit valenced attitudes toward in-group and out-group individuals. To this aim, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with a standard attitude priming task, in which Caucasian participants had to categorize the valence of a series of adjectives primed by either an in-group or an out-group face...
January 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131628/latent-variable-analysis-of-positive-and-negative-valence-processing-focused-on-symptom-and-behavioral-units-of-analysis-in-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#9
Martin P Paulus, Murray B Stein, Michelle G Craske, Susan Bookheimer, Charles T Taylor, Alan N Simmons, Natasha Sidhu, Katherine S Young, Boyang Fan
BACKGROUND: Mood and anxiety disorders are highly heterogeneous and their underlying pathology is complex. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) approach seeks to establish dimensionally and neuroscience-based descriptions of psychopathology that may inform better classification and treatment approaches. The current investigation sought to determine the latent variables underlying positive and negative valence processing in terms of symptoms and behavioral units of analysis. METHOD: As part of an ongoing study, individuals with mood and anxiety problems were recruited largely from primary care clinics at UCLA (n=62) and UCSD (n=58)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116810/can-implicit-associations-distinguish-true-and-false-eyewitness-memory-development-and-preliminary-testing-of-the-iate
#10
Rebecca K Helm, Stephen J Ceci, Kayla A Burd
Eyewitness identification has been shown to be fallible and prone to false memory. In this study we develop and test a new method to probe the mechanisms involved in the formation of false memories in this area, and determine whether a particular memory is likely to be true or false. We created a seven-step procedure based on the Implicit Association Test to gauge implicit biases in eyewitness identification (the IATe). We show that identification errors may result from unconscious bias caused by implicit associations evoked by a given face...
January 23, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113062/implicit-aggressiveness-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-as-assessed-by-an-implicit-association-test
#11
Barbara Cludius, Alexander F Schmidt, Steffen Moritz, Rainer Banse, Lena Jelinek
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) highlight the role of cognitive biases for the development of the disorder. One of these biases, an inflated sense of responsibility has been associated with higher anger scores and latent aggression on self-report scales, especially in patients with compulsive checking. Validity of self-report assessment is, however, compromised by inaccuracy, social desirability, and low metacognitive awareness of traits and behaviors in patients...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107153/human-trafficking-mental-illness-and-addiction-avoiding-diagnostic-overshadowing
#12
Hanni Stoklosa, Marti MacGibbon, Joseph Stoklosa
This article reviews an emergency department-based clinical vignette of a trafficked patient with co-occurring pregnancy-related, mental health, and substance use disorder issues. The authors, including a survivor of human trafficking, draw on their backgrounds in addiction care, human trafficking, emergency medicine, and psychiatry to review the literature on relevant general health and mental health consequences of trafficking and propose an approach to the clinical complexities this case presents. In their discussion, the authors explicate the deleterious role of implicit bias and diagnostic overshadowing in trafficked patients with co-occurring addiction and mental illness...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095331/the-effect-of-combined-avoidance-and-control-training-on-implicit-food-evaluation-and-choice
#13
Naomi Kakoschke, Eva Kemps, Marika Tiggemann
BACKGROUND: Continual exposure to food cues in the environment contributes to unhealthy eating behaviour. According to dual-process models, such behaviour is partly determined by automatic processing of unhealthy food cues (e.g., approach bias), which fails to be regulated by controlled processing (e.g., inhibitory control). The current study aimed to investigate the effect of combined avoidance and control training on implicit evaluation (liking), choice, and consumption of unhealthy snack food...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092078/the-dot-probe-task-to-measure-emotional-attention-a-suitable-measure-in-comparative-studies
#14
Rianne van Rooijen, Annemie Ploeger, Mariska E Kret
For social animals, attending to and recognizing the emotional expressions of other individuals is of crucial importance for their survival and likely has a deep evolutionary origin. Gaining insight into how emotional expressions evolved as adaptations over the course of evolution can be achieved by making direct cross-species comparisons. To that extent, experimental paradigms that are suitable for investigating emotional processing across species need to be developed and evaluated. The emotional dot-probe task, which measures attention allocation toward emotional stimuli, has this potential...
January 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090351/the-prevalence-and-practice-impact-of-weight-bias-amongst-australian-dietitians
#15
T M Diversi, R Hughes, K J Burke
OBJECTIVES: This study explored weight bias amongst Australian Accredited Practising Dietitians (APDs) and the effect of client weight status on dietetic practice. METHODS: Participants were 201 APDs, recruited using purposive sampling. A self-administered questionnaire, the fat phobia scale (FPS), was completed to assess explicit weight bias. Participants were then randomized to receive either a female within the healthy weight range or female with obesity, accompanied by an identical case study for a condition unrelated to weight...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080104/measuring-black-men-s-police-based-discrimination-experiences-development-and-validation-of-the-police-and-law-enforcement-ple-scale
#16
Devin English, Lisa Bowleg, Ana Maria Del Río-González, Jeanne M Tschann, Robert P Agans, David J Malebranche
OBJECTIVES: Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale...
January 12, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080083/the-empathy-impulse-a-multinomial-model-of-intentional-and-unintentional-empathy-for-pain
#17
C Daryl Cameron, Victoria L Spring, Andrew R Todd
Empathy for pain is often described as automatic. Here, we used implicit measurement and multinomial modeling to formally quantify unintentional empathy for pain: empathy that occurs despite intentions to the contrary. We developed the pain identification task (PIT), a sequential priming task wherein participants judge the painfulness of target experiences while trying to avoid the influence of prime experiences. Using multinomial modeling, we distinguished 3 component processes underlying PIT performance: empathy toward target stimuli (Intentional Empathy), empathy toward prime stimuli (Unintentional Empathy), and bias to judge target stimuli as painful (Response Bias)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073958/rudeness-and-medical-team-performance
#18
Arieh Riskin, Amir Erez, Trevor A Foulk, Kinneret S Riskin-Geuz, Amitai Ziv, Rina Sela, Liat Pessach-Gelblum, Peter A Bamberger
OBJECTIVES: Rudeness is routinely experienced by medical teams. We sought to explore the impact of rudeness on medical teams' performance and test interventions that might mitigate its negative consequences. METHODS: Thirty-nine NICU teams participated in a training workshop including simulations of acute care of term and preterm newborns. In each workshop, 2 teams were randomly assigned to either an exposure to rudeness (in which the comments of the patient's mother included rude statements completely unrelated to the teams' performance) or control (neutral comments) condition, and 2 additional teams were assigned to rudeness with either a preventative (cognitive bias modification [CBM]) or therapeutic (narrative) intervention...
February 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029402/racial-bias-is-associated-with-ingroup-death-rate-for-blacks-and-whites-insights-from-project-implicit
#19
Jordan B Leitner, Eric Hehman, Ozlem Ayduk, Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton
RATIONALE: Research suggests that, among Whites, racial bias predicts negative ingroup health outcomes. However, little is known about whether racial bias predicts ingroup health outcomes among minority populations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current research was to understand whether racial bias predicts negative ingroup health outcomes for Blacks. METHOD: We compiled racial bias responses from 250,665 Blacks and 1,391,632 Whites to generate county-level estimates of Blacks' and Whites' implicit and explicit biases towards each other...
October 20, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992442/is-implicit-motor-learning-preserved-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#20
E Kal, M Winters, J van der Kamp, H Houdijk, E Groet, C van Bennekom, E Scherder
Many stroke patients experience difficulty with performing dual-tasks. A promising intervention to target this issue is implicit motor learning, as it should enhance patients' automaticity of movement. Yet, although it is often thought that implicit motor learning is preserved post-stroke, evidence for this claim has not been systematically analysed yet. Therefore, we systematically reviewed whether implicit motor learning is preserved post-stroke, and whether patients benefit more from implicit than from explicit motor learning...
2016: PloS One
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