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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322880/analyzing-the-impact-of-public-transit-usage-on-obesity
#1
Zhaowei She, Douglas M King, Sheldon H Jacobson
The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of county-level public transit usage on obesity prevalence in the United States and assess the potential for public transit usage as an intervention for obesity. This study adopts an instrumental regression approach to implicitly control for potential selection bias due to possible differences in commuting preferences among obese and non-obese populations. United States health data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and transportation data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey are aggregated and matched at the county level...
March 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314202/the-relation-between-parent-depressive-symptoms-and-neural-correlates-of-attentional-control-in-offspring-a-preliminary-study
#2
Katie L Burkhouse, Autumn Kujawa, Kate Keenan, Heide Klumpp, Kate D Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, K Luan Phan
Offspring of depressed parents are at significantly elevated risk for depressive disorders themselves; however, the specific mechanisms associated with this risk are not well known. Given the well-established link between parental depression and biased attention for negative stimuli in children, this preliminary study sought to examine the neural correlates of directing attention toward and away from emotional faces in children and adolescents in association with parent's current depressive symptoms. Forty-two youth (age 7-18 years) completed a task with conditions that manipulated whether participants were instructed to match emotional faces (explicit emotion processing) or match shapes in the context of emotional face distractors (implicit emotion processing) during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
March 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303586/estimation-of-treatment-effect-in-two-stage-confirmatory-oncology-trials-of-personalized-medicines
#3
Wen Li, Cong Chen, Xiaoyun Li, Robert A Beckman
A personalized medicine may benefit a subpopulation with certain predictive biomarker signatures or certain disease types. However, there is great uncertainty about drug activity in a subpopulation when designing a confirmatory trial in practice, and it is logical to take a two-stage approach with the study unless credible external information is available for decision-making purpose. The first stage deselects (or prunes) non-performing subpopulations at an interim analysis, and the second stage pools the remaining subpopulations in the final analysis...
March 17, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297603/improving-the-efficiency-of-non-equilibrium-sampling-in-the-aqueous-environment-via-implicit-solvent-simulations
#4
Hui Liu, Fu Chen, Huiyong Sun, Dan Li, Tingjun Hou
By means of estimators based on non-equilibrium work, equilibrium free energy differences or potentials of mean force (PMFs) of a system of interest can be computed from biased molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The approach, however, is often plagued by slow conformational sampling and poor convergence, especially when the solvent effects are taken into account. Here, as a possible way to alleviate the problem, several widely used implicit-solvent models, which are derived from the analytic generalized Born (GB) equation and implemented in the AMBER suite of programs, were employed in free energy calculations based on non-equilibrium work and evaluated for their abilities to emulate explicit water...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294134/influence-of-familial-risk-for-depression-on-cortico-limbic-connectivity-during-implicit-emotional-processing
#5
Carolin Wackerhagen, Torsten Wüstenberg, Sebastian Mohnke, Susanne Erk, Ilya M Veer, Johann D Kruschwitz, Maria Garbusow, Lydia Romund, Kristina Otto, Janina I Schweiger, Heike Tost, Andreas Heinz, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Henrik Walter, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth
Imbalances in cortico-limbic activity and functional connectivity (FC) supposedly underlie biased emotional processing and present putative intermediate phenotypes (IPs) for major depressive disorder (MDD). To prove the validity of these IPs, we assessed them in familial risk during implicit emotional processing. To provide comparable data to previous studies and additionally elucidate the implications of altered functional connectivity, amygdala FC was assessed across and between task conditions. In 70 healthy first-degree relatives of MDD patients and 70 controls, brain activity and seed-based amygdala FC were assessed during an angry and fearful faces matching task for fMRI...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281870/are-female-applicants-disadvantaged-in-national-institutes-of-health-peer-review-combining-algorithmic-text-mining-and-qualitative-methods-to-detect-evaluative-differences-in-r01-reviewers-critiques
#6
Wairimu Magua, Xiaojin Zhu, Anupama Bhattacharya, Amarette Filut, Aaron Potvien, Renee Leatherberry, You-Geon Lee, Madeline Jens, Dastagiri Malikireddy, Molly Carnes, Anna Kaatz
BACKGROUND: Women are less successful than men in renewing R01 grants from the National Institutes of Health. Continuing to probe text mining as a tool to identify gender bias in peer review, we used algorithmic text mining and qualitative analysis to examine a sample of critiques from men's and women's R01 renewal applications previously analyzed by counting and comparing word categories. METHODS: We analyzed 241 critiques from 79 Summary Statements for 51 R01 renewals awarded to 45 investigators (64% male, 89% white, 80% PhD) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison between 2010 and 2014...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276847/individual-interpersonal-and-organisational-factors-of-healthcare-conflict-a-scoping-review
#7
Sara Kim, Naike Bochatay, Annemarie Relyea-Chew, Elizabeth Buttrick, Chris Amdahl, Laura Kim, Elise Frans, Matthew Mossanen, Azhar Khandekar, Ryan Fehr, Young-Mee Lee
Unresolved conflicts among healthcare professionals can lead to difficult patient care consequences. This scoping review examines the current healthcare literature that reported sources and consequences of conflict associated with individual, interpersonal, and organisational factors. We identified 99 articles published between 2001 and 2015 from PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Excerpta Medical Database. Most reviewed studies relied on healthcare professionals' perceptions and beliefs associated with conflict sources and consequences, with few studies reporting behavioural or organisational change outcomes...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264090/comparison-of-male-vs-female-resident-milestone-evaluations-by-faculty-during-emergency-medicine-residency-training
#8
Arjun Dayal, Daniel M O'Connor, Usama Qadri, Vineet M Arora
Importance: Although implicit bias in medical training has long been suspected, it has been difficult to study using objective measures, and the influence of sex and gender in the evaluation of medical trainees is unknown. The emergency medicine (EM) milestones provide a standardized framework for longitudinal resident assessment, allowing for analysis of resident performance across all years and programs at a scope and level of detail never previously possible. Objective: To compare faculty-observed training milestone attainment of male vs female residency training...
March 6, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264084/implicit-bias-in-academic-medicine-whatadoctorlookslike
#9
Molly Cooke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259174/analysis-of-cluster-randomised-stepped-wedge-trials-with-repeated-cross-sectional-samples
#10
Karla Hemming, Monica Taljaard, Andrew Forbes
BACKGROUND: The stepped wedge cluster randomised trial (SW-CRT) is increasingly being used to evaluate policy or service delivery interventions. However, there is a dearth of trials literature addressing analytical approaches to the SW-CRT. Perhaps as a result, a significant number of published trials have major methodological shortcomings, including failure to adjust for secular trends at the analysis stage. Furthermore, the commonly used analytical framework proposed by Hussey and Hughes makes several assumptions...
March 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251718/priming-recognition-in-good-sleepers-and-in-insomniacs
#11
Fiorenza Giganti, Beatrice Aisa, Cinzia Arzilli, Maria Pia Viggiano, Mariangela Cerasuolo, Francesca Conte, Gianluca Ficca
Insomniacs often report memory and concentration problems, but these complaints have not been consistently supported by performance measurements. Furthermore, while the majority of studies have addressed explicit memory, few have investigated the implicit domain, and very little is known concerning other types of implicit memory besides procedural memory, such as priming. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate priming effect for visual stimuli in insomniacs and good sleepers. Twenty-three insomniacs and 20 good sleepers performed a visual priming task in which they were asked to name new and old pictures presented at nine ascending levels of spatial filtering...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249596/implicit-bias-in-healthcare-professionals-a-systematic-review
#12
Chloë FitzGerald, Samia Hurst
BACKGROUND: Implicit biases involve associations outside conscious awareness that lead to a negative evaluation of a person on the basis of irrelevant characteristics such as race or gender. This review examines the evidence that healthcare professionals display implicit biases towards patients. METHODS: PubMed, PsychINFO, PsychARTICLE and CINAHL were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between 1st March 2003 and 31st March 2013. Two reviewers assessed the eligibility of the identified papers based on precise content and quality criteria...
March 1, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240775/consequences-matter-self-induced-tones-are-used-as-feedback-to-optimize-tone-eliciting-actions
#13
Bence Neszmélyi, János Horváth
Experimental paradigms investigating the processing of self-induced stimuli are often based on the implicit assumption that motor processes are invariable regardless of their consequences: It is presumed that actions with different sets of predictable sensory consequences do not differ in their physical characteristics or in their brain signal reflections. The present experiment explored this assumption in the context of action-related auditory attenuation by comparing actions (pinches) with and without auditory consequences...
February 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236689/do-attitudes-and-behavior-of-health-care-professionals-exacerbate-health-care-disparities-among-immigrant-and-ethnic-minority-groups-an-integrative-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Daniel Drewniak, Tanja Krones, Verina Wild
OBJECTIVES: Recent investigations of ethnicity related disparities in health care have focused on the contribution of providers' implicit biases. A significant effect on health care outcomes is suggested, but the results are mixed. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to provide an overview and synthesize the current empirical research on the potential influence of health care professionals' attitudes and behaviors towards ethnic minority patients on health care disparities...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230392/two-roads-diverged-distinct-mechanisms-of-attentional-bias-differentially-predict-negative-affect-and-persistent-negative-thought
#15
Sandersan Onie, Steven B Most
Attentional biases to threatening stimuli have been implicated in various emotional disorders. Theoretical approaches often carry the implicit assumption that various attentional bias measures tap into the same underlying construct, but attention itself is not a unitary mechanism. Most attentional bias tasks-such as the dot probe (DP)-index spatial attention, neglecting other potential attention mechanisms. We compared the DP with emotion-induced blindness (EIB), which appears to be mechanistically distinct, and examined the degree to which these tasks predicted (a) negative affect, (b) persistent negative thought (i...
February 23, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225731/queer-frontiers-in-medicine-a-structural-competency-approach
#16
Cameron A Donald, Sayantani DasGupta, Jonathan M Metzl, Kristen L Eckstrand
In 2014, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) published a report proposing qualifiers of competence to guide medical educators towards training physicians to appropriately care for individuals who are or may be lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT); gender nonconforming (GNC); and/or born with differences in sex development (DSD). These qualifiers provide content and context to an existing framework heavily used in competency-based medical education, emphasizing individual and interpersonal abilities to enhance care delivered to individuals identifying as LGBT, GNC, and/or born with DSD...
March 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208566/re-the-effects-of-oncologist-implicit-racial-bias-in-racially-discordant-oncology-interactions
#17
David F Penson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187699/siblings-of-people-with-disabilities-explicit-and-implicit-disability-attitude-divergence
#18
Carli Friedman
Siblings of people with disabilities have more exposure to people with disabilities than most nondisabled people, uniquely positioning them toward disability, yet less is known about how this might impact their attitudes. This study examined siblings' disability attitudes by determining siblings' explicit and implicit disability bias, mapping their 2-dimensional prejudice, and examining theoretical variables that might be relevant to their attitudes. To do so, the Disability Attitudes Implicit Association Test, the Symbolic Ableism Scale, and survey questions were administered to 48 siblings...
January 2017: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186618/study-of-individualization-and-bias-in-nursing-home-fall-prevention-practices
#19
Cathleen S Colón-Emeric, Kirsten Corazzini, Eleanor McConnell, Wei Pan, Mark Toles, Rasheeda Hall, Melissa Batchelor-Murphy, Tracey L Yap, Amber L Anderson, Andrew Burd, Ruth A Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about how nursing home staff use resident characteristics to individualize care delivery or whether care is affected by implicit bias. DESIGN: Randomized factorial clinical vignette survey. SETTING: Sixteen nursing homes in North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing, rehabilitation, and social services staff (n = 433). MEASUREMENTS: Vignettes describing hypothetical residents were generated from a matrix of clinical and demographic characteristics...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185229/the-time-course-of-intentional-binding
#20
Miriam Ruess, Roland Thomaschke, Andrea Kiesel
Stimuli caused by actions (i.e., effects) are perceived earlier than stimuli not caused by actions. This phenomenon is termed intentional binding (IB) and serves as implicit measure of sense of agency. We investigated the influence of effect delay and temporal predictability on IB, operationalized as the bias to perceive the effect as temporally shifted toward the action. For short delays, IB increased with delay (Experiment 1: 200 ms, 250 ms, 300 ms). The initial increase declined for longer delays (Experiment 2: 100 ms, 250 ms, 400 ms)...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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