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implicit bias

Anke Loijen, Mike Rinck, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels, Eni S Becker, Jos I M Egger
BACKGROUND: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced Mild Neurocognitive Disorder, and one group was diagnosed with Korsakoff's syndrome (Alcohol-Induced Major Neurocognitive Disorder, Confabulatory/Amnesic subtype; DSM-5). The intervention is assumed to match the preserved cognitive capacity for implicit learning in both groups...
October 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Marla K Beauchamp, Annemarie Lee, Rachel F Ward, Samantha M Harrison, Paul A Bain, Roger S Goldstein, Dina Brooks, Jonathan F Bean, Alan M Jette
Background: The World Health Organization recognizes participation in meaningful life roles as a key component of health. However, the evidence base for interventions to improve participation remains inconclusive. In particular, whether exercise interventions improve participation in life roles is unclear. Purpose: The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of physical exercise interventions on participation in life roles in older adults residing in the community...
October 1, 2017: Physical Therapy
Maude Laliberté, Barbara Mazer, Tatiana Orozco, Gevorg Chilingaryan, Bryn Williams-Jones, Matthew Hunt, Debbie Ehrmann Feldman
Background: Previous research suggested that physical therapy services can be influenced by patient characteristics (age, sex, socioeconomic status) or insurance status rather than their clinical need. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether patient-related factors (age, sex, SES) and the source of reimbursement for physical therapy services (insurance status) influence wait time for, frequency of, and duration of physical therapy for low back pain...
October 1, 2017: Physical Therapy
Andrew D Case
Reflexivity is an important tool for navigating ethically important moments in fieldwork. It may be particularly useful in situations where the researcher has the potential to undermine the conduct of the study and/or the well-being-enhancing role of counterspaces. In this article, I explore my use of reflexivity to traverse ethically important moments I encountered while investigating a counterspace for African-American youth who had been incarcerated. The ethical challenge concerned whether and how to continue this study in light of realizing that I held implicit biases toward the research participants...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
Miao K Qian, Paul C Quinn, Gail D Heyman, Olivier Pascalis, Genyue Fu, Kang Lee
This study tracked the long-term effect of perceptual individuation training on reducing 5-year-old Chinese children's (N = 95, Mage  = 5.64 years) implicit pro-Asian/anti-Black racial bias. Initial training to individuate other-race Black faces, followed by supplementary training occurring 1 week later, resulted in a long-term reduction of pro-Asian/anti-Black bias (70 days). In contrast, training Chinese children to recognize White or Asian faces had no effect on pro-Asian/anti-Black bias. Theoretically, the finding that individuation training can have a long-term effect on reducing implicit racial bias in preschoolers suggests that a developmentally early causal linkage between perceptual and social processing of faces is not a transitory phenomenon...
October 12, 2017: Child Development
Giora Netzer, Theodore J Iwashyna
While family is an essential unit of every society on earth, many intensive care units (ICUs) continue to impose limitations on families' access to their loved ones. Unlimited family presence is backed both by data and multiple professional societies' guidelines. We propose that the obligation to protect the integrity and needs of our patients and families extends past our immediate relationship to them at the bedside, and is also a societal imperative. In a society rife with implicit bias, restrictions on family visitation risk selective enforcement of these rules, and further propagates social injustice...
October 11, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Bradley J Hintze, Jane S Richardson, David C Richardson
Hoogsteen base pairs are seen in DNA crystal structures, but only rarely. This study tests whether Hoogsteens or other syn purines are either under-modeled or over-modeled, which are known problems for rare conformations. Candidate purines needing a syn/anti 180° flip were identified by diagnostic patterns of difference electron-density peaks. Manual inspection narrowed 105 flip candidates to 20 convincing cases, all at ≤2.7 Å resolution. Rebuilding and refinement confirmed that 14 of these were authentic purine flips...
October 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Peter Luehring-Jones, Courtney Louis, Tracy A Dennis-Tiwary, Joel Erblich
BACKGROUND: Attentional bias modification (ABM) techniques for reducing problematic alcohol consumption hold promise as highly-accessible and cost-effective treatment approaches. A growing body of literature has examined ABM as a potentially efficacious intervention for reducing drinking and drinking-related cognitions in alcohol-dependent individuals as well as those at-risk of developing problem drinking habits. METHODS: The present study tested the effectiveness of a single session of visual probe-based ABM training in a cohort of 60 non-treatment-seeking young adult drinkers, with a focus on examining mechanisms underlying training efficacy...
October 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Claudia Massau, Christian Kärgel, Simone Weiß, Martin Walter, Jorge Ponseti, Tillmann Hc Krueger, Henrik Walter, Boris Schiffer
Pedophilia is a sexual preference that is often associated with child sex offending (CSO). Sexual urges towards prepubescent children and specifically acting upon those urges are universally regarded as immoral. However, up until now, it is completely unknown whether moral processing of sexual offenses is altered in pedophiles. A total of 31 pedophilic men and 19 healthy controls were assessed by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with a moral judgment paradigm consisting of 36 scenarios describing different types of offenses...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Tiffani J Johnson, Angela M Ellison, George Dalembert, Jessica Fowler, Menaka Dhingra, Kathy Shaw, Said Ibrahim
OBJECTIVE: Despite known benefits of diversity, certain racial/ethnic groups remain underrepresented in academic pediatrics. Little research exists regarding unconscious racial attitudes among pediatric faculty responsible for decisions on workforce recruitment and retention in academia. This study sought to describe levels of unconscious racial bias and perceived barriers to minority recruitment and retention among academic pediatric faculty leaders. METHODS: Authors measured unconscious racial bias in a sample of pediatric faculty attending diversity workshops conducted at local and national meetings in 2015...
2017: Journal of the National Medical Association
Miguel Gonzalez, Richard Watson, Seth Bullock
Social learning, defined as the imitation of behaviors performed by others, is recognized as a distinctive characteristic in humans and several other animal species. Previous work has claimed that the evolutionary fixation of social learning requires decision-making cognitive abilities that result in transmission bias (e.g., discriminatory imitation) and/or guided variation (e.g., adaptive modification of behaviors through individual learning). Here, we present and analyze a simple agent-based model that demonstrates that the transition from instinctive actuators (i...
October 6, 2017: Artificial Life
Elizabeth A Samuels, Dowin H Boatright, Leon Sanchez, Sheryl Heron, Aisha T Liferidge, Taneisha Wilson, Ava Pierce, Alden Landry, Lisa Moreno-Walton, Jeffrey Druck, Joel Moll, Bernard Lopez
We are writing in response to Dehon et al's article "A Systematic Review of the Impact of Physician Implicit Racial Bias on Clinical Decision Making"(1) in the August 2017 issue of Academic Emergency Medicine. As members of SAEM's Academy of Diversity and Inclusion in Emergency Medicine, we believe it is imperative to pursue research on the impact of bias and discrimination on clinical practice and healthcare outcomes. While we commend Dr. Dehon and her colleagues for their effort to assess the impact of implicit bias on clinical decision-making, we do not think that the evidence reviewed supports the breadth of their conclusions...
October 5, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Marilisa Boffo, Ronny Willemen, Thomas Pronk, Reinout W Wiers, Geert Dom
BACKGROUND: Disordered gamblers have phenotypical and pathological similarities to those with substance use disorders (SUD), including exaggerated automatic cognitive processing of motivationally salient gambling cues in the environment (i.e., attentional and approach bias). Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a family of computerised interventions that have proved effective in successfully re-training these automatic cognitive biases in SUD. CBM interventions can, in principle, be administered online, thus showing potential of being a low-cost, low-threshold addition to conventional treatments...
October 3, 2017: Trials
Freddy Odille, Aurélien Bustin, Shufang Liu, Bailiang Chen, Pierre-André Vuissoz, Jacques Felblinger, Laurent Bonnemains
PURPOSE: Segmentation of cardiac cine MRI data is routinely used for the volumetric analysis of cardiac function. Conventionally, 2D contours are drawn on short-axis (SAX) image stacks with relatively thick slices (typically 8 mm). Here, an acquisition/reconstruction strategy is used for obtaining isotropic 3D cine datasets; reformatted slices are then used to optimize the manual segmentation workflow. METHODS: Isotropic 3D cine datasets were obtained from multiple 2D cine stacks (acquired during free-breathing in SAX and long-axis (LAX) orientations) using nonrigid motion correction (cine-GRICS method) and super-resolution...
October 2, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Jamie Alexa Sherman, Jill Ehrenreich-May
Negative interpretation bias, a correlate of anxiety, is defined as an individual's tendency to interpret ambiguous events as negative or threatening. The current study examined associations between interpretation bias and anxiety symptoms in clinically anxious youth and potential moderators of these relationships. Thirty anxious youth and their parents participated in a clinical interview and reported on child anxiety symptoms. Youth completed implicit, explicit-personally irrelevant, and explicit-personally relevant interpretation bias measures...
September 30, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Bentley L Gibson, Philippe Rochat, Erin B Tone, Andrew S Baron
Implicit intergroup bias emerges early in development, are typically pro-ingroup, and remain stable across the lifespan. Such findings have been interpreted in terms of an automatic ingroup bias similar to what is observed with minimal groups paradigms. These studies are typically conducted with groups of high cultural standing (e.g., Caucasians in North America and Europe). Research conducted among culturally lower status groups (e.g., African-Americans, Latino-Americans) reveals a notable absence of an implicit ingroup bias...
2017: PloS One
Simon Ruch, Elizabeth Herbert, Katharina Henke
Common wisdom and scientific evidence suggest that good decisions require conscious deliberation. But growing evidence demonstrates that not only conscious but also unconscious thoughts influence decision-making. Here, we hypothesize that both consciously and unconsciously acquired memories guide decisions. Our experiment measured the influence of subliminally and supraliminally presented information on delayed (30-40 min) decision-making. Participants were presented with subliminal pairs of faces and written occupations for unconscious encoding...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Georgios Paslakis, Simone Kühn, Sebastian Grunert, Yesim Erim
Patients with binge eating disorder (BED) suffer from regular food binges with loss of control. This may be due to dysfunctional approach vs. avoidance tendencies towards food in BED. We applied an approach-avoidance task (AAT), in which n = 24 patients with obesity and active BED (OB-BED), n = 32 patients with obesity without current BED (OB), and n = 25 healthy controls (CO) either approached ("pulled") or avoided ("pushed") high (HC) vs. low calorie (LC) food pictures. We tested the hypothesis that OB-BED patients would show an approach bias (measured as different response times RT) towards HC food compared to the other groups...
September 27, 2017: Nutrients
Haiyan Zhou, Jialiang Guo, Xiaomeng Ma, Minghui Zhang, Liqing Liu, Lei Feng, Jie Yang, Zhijiang Wang, Gang Wang, Ning Zhong
Self-referential emotion refers to the process of evaluating emotional stimuli with respect to the self. Processes indicative of a self-positivity bias are reflected in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals at ~400 ms when the task does not require a discrimination of self from other. However, when distinguishing between self-referential and other-referential emotions is required, previous studies have shown inconsistent temporal dynamics of EEG signals in slightly different tasks. Based on the observation of early self-other discrimination, we hypothesized that self would be rapidly activated in the early stage to modulate emotional processing in the late stage during an implicit self-referential emotion...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Erin Dehon, Nicole Weiss, Sarah A Sterling
We appreciate the comments and concerns raised by members of SAEM's Academy of Diversity and Inclusion in Emergency Medicine(1) regarding the findings of our article, "A Systematic Review of the Impact of Physician Implicit Racial Bias on Clinical Decision Making."(2) We agree with Samuels et al.(1) that there are notable methodological limitations of earlier studies examining the influence of physician implicit bias on clinical decision making that must be considered when interpreting the findings of our systematic review...
September 20, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
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