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implicit bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455445/adaptive-reinventing-implicit-bias-and-the-co-construction-of-social-change
#1
Javeed Sukhera, Alexandra Milne, Pim W Teunissen, Lorelei Lingard, Chris Watling
Emerging research on implicit bias recognition and management within health professions describes individually focused educational interventions without considering workplace influences. Workplace learning theories highlight how individual agency and workplace structures dynamically interact to produce change within individuals and learning environments. Promoting awareness of individual biases shaped by clinical learning environments may therefore represent a unique type of workplace learning. We sought to explore how individuals and the workplace learning environment interact once awareness of implicit biases are triggered within learners...
February 17, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453778/-i-m-happy-to-own-my-implicit-biases-public-encounters-with-the-implicit-association-test
#2
Jeffery Yen, Kevin Durrheim, Romin W Tafarodi
The implicit association test (IAT) and concept of implicit bias have significantly influenced the scientific, institutional, and public discourse on racial prejudice. In spite of this, there has been little investigation of how ordinary people make sense of the IAT and the bias it claims to measure. This article examines the public understanding of this research through a discourse analysis of reactions to the IAT and implicit bias in the news media. It demonstrates the ways in which readers interpreted, related to, and negotiated the claims of IAT science in relation to socially shared and historically embedded concerns and identities...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450789/control-by-association-transfer-of-implicitly-primed-attentional-states-across-linked-stimuli
#3
Christina Bejjani, Ziwei Zhang, Tobias Egner
Although cognitive control has traditionally been viewed in opposition to associative learning, recent studies show that people can learn to link particular stimuli with specific cognitive control states (e.g., high attentional selectivity). Here, we tested whether such learned stimulus-control associations can transfer across paired-associates. In the Stimulus-Stimulus (S-S) Association phase, specific face or house images repeatedly preceded the presentation of particular scene stimuli, creating paired face/house-scene associates in memory...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438844/top-down-expectation-effects-of-food-labels-on-motivation
#4
Joost Wegman, Ilke van Loon, Paul A M Smeets, Roshan Cools, Esther Aarts
Labels on food packages inform our beliefs, shaping our expectations of food properties, such as its expected taste and healthiness. These beliefs can influence the processing of caloric rewards beyond objective sensory properties and have the potential to impact decision making. However, no studies, within or beyond the food domain, have assessed how written information, such as food labels, affect implicit motivation to obtain rewards, even though choices in daily life might be strongly driven by implicit motivational biases...
February 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420647/authors-and-editors-assort-on-gender-and-geography-in-high-rank-ecological-publications
#5
Kezia R Manlove, Rebecca M Belou
Peer-reviewed publication volume and caliber are widely-recognized proxies for academic merit, and a strong publication record is essential for academic success and advancement. However, recent work suggests that publication productivity for particular author groups may also be determined in part by implicit biases lurking in the publication pipeline. Here, we explore patterns of gender, geography, and institutional rank among authors, editorial board members, and handling editors in high-impact ecological publications during 2015 and 2016...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407747/pre-and-postprandial-variation-in-implicit-attention-to-food-images-reflects-appetite-and-sensory-specific-satiety
#6
Graeme R Davidson, Timo Giesbrecht, Anna M Thomas, Tim C Kirkham
Implicit attentional processes are biased toward food-related stimuli, with the extent of that bias reflecting relative motivation to eat. These interactions have typically been investigated by comparisons between fasted and sated individuals. In this study, temporal changes in implicit attention to food were assessed in relation to natural, spontaneous changes in appetite occurring before and after an anticipated midday meal. Non-fasted adults performed an emotional blink of attention (EBA) task at intervals, before and after consuming preferred, pre-selected sandwiches to satiety...
February 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407526/measurement-of-food-related-approach-avoidance-biases-larger-biases-when-food-stimuli-are-task-relevant
#7
Anja Lender, Adrian Meule, Mike Rinck, Timo Brockmeyer, Jens Blechert
Strong implicit responses to food have evolved to avoid energy depletion but contribute to overeating in today's affluent environments. The Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) supposedly assesses implicit biases in response to food stimuli: Participants push pictures on a monitor "away" or pull them near with a joystick that controls a corresponding image zoom. One version of the task couples movement direction with image content-independent features, for example, pulling blue-framed images and pushing green-framed images regardless of content ('irrelevant feature version')...
January 30, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402630/implicit-attentional-bias-for-facial-emotion-in-dissociative-seizures-additional-evidence
#8
Susannah Pick, John D C Mellers, Laura H Goldstein
This study sought to extend knowledge about the previously reported preconscious attentional bias (AB) for facial emotion in patients with dissociative seizures (DS) by exploring whether the finding could be replicated, while controlling for concurrent anxiety, depression, and potentially relevant cognitive impairments. Patients diagnosed with DS (n=38) were compared with healthy controls (n=43) on a pictorial emotional Stroop test, in which backwardly masked emotional faces (angry, happy, neutral) were processed implicitly...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399210/the-impact-of-mindfulness-and-perspective-taking-on-implicit-associations-toward-the-elderly-a-relational-frame-theory-account
#9
Darren J Edwards, Ciara McEnteggart, Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, Rob Lowe, Nicky Evans, Roger Vilardaga
Perspective-taking interventions have been shown to improve attitudes toward social outgroups. In contrast, similar interventions have produced opposite effects (i.e., enhanced negativity) in the context of attitudes toward elderly groups. The current study investigated whether a brief perspective-taking intervention enhanced with mindfulness would be associated with less negativity than perspective-taking alone. One hundred five participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions which comprised of an active or control perspective-taking component and an active or control mindfulness component...
December 2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390806/theoretical-restrictions-on-longest-implicit-time-scales-in-markov-state-models-of-biomolecular-dynamics
#10
Anton V Sinitskiy, Vijay S Pande
Markov state models (MSMs) have been widely used to analyze computer simulations of various biomolecular systems. They can capture conformational transitions much slower than an average or maximal length of a single molecular dynamics (MD) trajectory from the set of trajectories used to build the MSM. A rule of thumb claiming that the slowest implicit time scale captured by an MSM should be comparable by the order of magnitude to the aggregate duration of all MD trajectories used to build this MSM has been known in the field...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382558/damage-to-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-is-associated-with-impairments-in-both-spontaneous-and-deliberative-moral-judgments
#11
C Daryl Cameron, Justin Reber, Victoria L Spring, Daniel Tranel
Implicit moral evaluations-spontaneous, unintentional assessments of the moral status of actions or persons-play a pivotal role in supporting moral behavior, yet little research has attempted to model variability in these moral evaluations across healthy and clinical populations. Prior research reveals that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is a critical area underpinning affect and morality, and patients with vmPFC lesions show abnormalities in moral judgment and moral behavior. We use indirect measurement and multinomial modeling to understand differences in implicit moral evaluations among patients with vmPFC lesions...
January 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380294/reduction-of-implicit-cognitive-bias-with-cathodal-tdcs-to-the-left-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Philipp Alexander Schroeder, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Christian Plewnia
Implicit associations can interfere with cognitive operations and behavioral decisions without direct intention. Enhancement of neural activity with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was proposed to reduce implicit associations by means of improved cognitive control. However, a targeted reduction of distractive implicit associations by inhibitory cathodal tDCS, recently shown in spatial-numerical associations, provides an interesting alternative approach to support goal-directed behavior with transcranial brain stimulation...
January 29, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378468/the-self-reference-effect-in-memory-an-implicit-way-to-assess-affective-self-representations-in-social-anxiety
#13
Sandrine Kalenzaga, Virginie Jouhaud
This study was designed to assess, through the self-reference effect in memory, whether affective self-representations were modulated by the retrieval conditions and the severity of social anxiety. Three groups (high socially anxious, low socially anxious and non-anxious) were compared on a self-referential task that involved encoding affective trait adjectives under three conditions: self-reference encoding, encoding with reference to the perception of self by others, and other-reference encoding. Memory for trait adjectives was tested on both a free recall task and a Remember/Know/Guess recognition task...
January 29, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361958/ethnic-bias-and-clinical-decision-making-among-new-zealand-medical-students-an-observational-study
#14
Ricci Harris, Donna Cormack, James Stanley, Elana Curtis, Rhys Jones, Cameron Lacey
BACKGROUND: Health professional racial/ethnic bias may impact on clinical decision-making and contribute to subsequent ethnic health inequities. However, limited research has been undertaken among medical students. This paper presents findings from the Bias and Decision-Making in Medicine (BDMM) study, which sought to examine ethnic bias (Māori (indigenous peoples) compared with New Zealand European) among medical students and associations with clinical decision-making. METHODS: All final year New Zealand (NZ) medical students in 2014 and 2015 (n = 888) were invited to participate in a cross-sectional online study...
January 23, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346690/using-standardized-patient-assessments-to-evaluate-a-health-literacy-curriculum
#15
Gail S Marion, Jade M Hairston, Stephen W Davis, Julienne K Kirk
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients' health literacy is a growing concern as patients are expected to perform more self-care. While many US schools implement health literacy in their curricula, time spent on the topic ranges from 0 to 8 hours and is largely didactic. Evaluation of health literacy skills is not well defined. The effectiveness of a health literacy curriculum for third-year medical students was evaluated by two standardized patients assessments (SPAs). METHODS: All third-year medical students complete a required 4-week clerkship in family medicine...
January 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346033/the-psychology-of-elite-cycling-a-systematic-review
#16
David J Spindler, Mark S Allen, Stewart A Vella, Christian Swann
This systematic review sought to synthesise what is currently known about the psychology of elite cycling. Nine electronic databases were searched in March 2017 for studies reporting an empirical test of any psychological construct in an elite cycling sample. Fourteen studies (total n = 427) met inclusion criteria. Eight studies were coded as having high risk of bias. Themes extracted included mood, anxiety, self-confidence, pain, and cognitive function. Few studies had similar objectives meaning that in many instances findings could not be synthesised in a meaningful way...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343456/eeg-dynamics-and-neural-generators-in-implicit-navigational-image-processing-in-adults-with-adhd
#17
A Leroy, G Petit, D Zarka, A M Cebolla, E Palmero-Soler, J Strul, B Dan, P Verbanck, G Cheron
In contrast to childhood ADHD that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, most adults with ADHD predominantly exhibit inattention. We used a new oddball paradigm using implicit navigational images and analysed EEG dynamics with swLORETA inverse modelling of the evoked potential generators to study cortical processing in adults with ADHD and age-matched controls. In passive observation, we demonstrated that P350 amplitude, alpha-beta oscillation event-related synchronization (ERS) anticipation, and beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) were significantly smaller in ADHD...
January 14, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324241/low-dimensional-representation-of-cardiac-motion-using-barycentric-subspaces-a-new-group-wise-paradigm-for-estimation-analysis-and-reconstruction
#18
Marc-Michel Rohé, Maxime Sermesant, Xavier Pennec
One major challenge when trying to build low-dimensional representation of the cardiac motion is its natural circular pattern during a cycle, therefore making the mean image a poor descriptor of the whole sequence. Therefore, traditional approaches for the analysis of the cardiac deformation use one specific frame of the sequence - the end-diastolic (ED) frame - as a reference to study the whole motion. Consequently, this methodology is biased by this empirical choice. Moreover, the ED image might be a poor reference when looking at large deformation for example at the end-systolic (ES) frame...
December 23, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322316/intentional-binding-of-visual-effects
#19
Miriam Ruess, Roland Thomaschke, Andrea Kiesel
When an action produces an effect, the effect is perceived earlier in time compared to a stimulus without preceding action. This temporal bias is called intentional binding (IB) and serves as an implicit measure of sense of agency. Typically, IB is investigated by presenting a rotating clock hand while participants execute an action and perceive a resulting tone. Participants are asked to estimate the time point of tone onset by referring to the clock hand position. This time point estimate is compared to a time point estimate of a tone in a condition in which the tone occurs without preceding action...
January 10, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317763/a-direct-effect-of-perception-on-action-when-grasping-a-cup
#20
E Rounis, V van Polanen, M Davare
Affordances represent features of an object that trigger specific actions. Here we tested whether the presence and orientation of a handle on a cup could bias grasping movements towards it in conditions where subjects were explicitly told to ignore the handle. We quantified the grip aperture profile of twelve healthy participants instructed to grasp a cup from its body while it either had no handle, a handle pointing towards, or away from the grasping hand (3 'move' conditions, with large grip aperture). To ensure the smaller grip aperture afforded by the handle was implicitly processed, we interspersed trials in which participants had to grasp the cup from its handle or a handle not attached to a cup with a small grip aperture...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
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