keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

implicit bias

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092078/the-dot-probe-task-to-measure-emotional-attention-a-suitable-measure-in-comparative-studies
#1
Rianne van Rooijen, Annemie Ploeger, Mariska E Kret
For social animals, attending to and recognizing the emotional expressions of other individuals is of crucial importance for their survival and likely has a deep evolutionary origin. Gaining insight into how emotional expressions evolved as adaptations over the course of evolution can be achieved by making direct cross-species comparisons. To that extent, experimental paradigms that are suitable for investigating emotional processing across species need to be developed and evaluated. The emotional dot-probe task, which measures attention allocation toward emotional stimuli, has this potential...
January 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090351/the-prevalence-and-practice-impact-of-weight-bias-amongst-australian-dietitians
#2
T M Diversi, R Hughes, K J Burke
OBJECTIVES: This study explored weight bias amongst Australian Accredited Practising Dietitians (APDs) and the effect of client weight status on dietetic practice. METHODS: Participants were 201 APDs, recruited using purposive sampling. A self-administered questionnaire, the fat phobia scale (FPS), was completed to assess explicit weight bias. Participants were then randomized to receive either a female within the healthy weight range or female with obesity, accompanied by an identical case study for a condition unrelated to weight...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080104/measuring-black-men-s-police-based-discrimination-experiences-development-and-validation-of-the-police-and-law-enforcement-ple-scale
#3
Devin English, Lisa Bowleg, Ana Maria Del Río-González, Jeanne M Tschann, Robert P Agans, David J Malebranche
OBJECTIVES: Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale...
January 12, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080083/the-empathy-impulse-a-multinomial-model-of-intentional-and-unintentional-empathy-for-pain
#4
C Daryl Cameron, Victoria L Spring, Andrew R Todd
Empathy for pain is often described as automatic. Here, we used implicit measurement and multinomial modeling to formally quantify unintentional empathy for pain: empathy that occurs despite intentions to the contrary. We developed the pain identification task (PIT), a sequential priming task wherein participants judge the painfulness of target experiences while trying to avoid the influence of prime experiences. Using multinomial modeling, we distinguished 3 component processes underlying PIT performance: empathy toward target stimuli (Intentional Empathy), empathy toward prime stimuli (Unintentional Empathy), and bias to judge target stimuli as painful (Response Bias)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073958/rudeness-and-medical-team-performance
#5
Arieh Riskin, Amir Erez, Trevor A Foulk, Kinneret S Riskin-Geuz, Amitai Ziv, Rina Sela, Liat Pessach-Gelblum, Peter A Bamberger
OBJECTIVES: Rudeness is routinely experienced by medical teams. We sought to explore the impact of rudeness on medical teams' performance and test interventions that might mitigate its negative consequences. METHODS: Thirty-nine NICU teams participated in a training workshop including simulations of acute care of term and preterm newborns. In each workshop, 2 teams were randomly assigned to either an exposure to rudeness (in which the comments of the patient's mother included rude statements completely unrelated to the teams' performance) or control (neutral comments) condition, and 2 additional teams were assigned to rudeness with either a preventative (cognitive bias modification [CBM]) or therapeutic (narrative) intervention...
January 10, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029402/racial-bias-is-associated-with-ingroup-death-rate-for-blacks-and-whites-insights-from-project-implicit
#6
Jordan B Leitner, Eric Hehman, Ozlem Ayduk, Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton
RATIONALE: Research suggests that, among Whites, racial bias predicts negative ingroup health outcomes. However, little is known about whether racial bias predicts ingroup health outcomes among minority populations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current research was to understand whether racial bias predicts negative ingroup health outcomes for Blacks. METHOD: We compiled racial bias responses from 250,665 Blacks and 1,391,632 Whites to generate county-level estimates of Blacks' and Whites' implicit and explicit biases towards each other...
October 20, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992442/is-implicit-motor-learning-preserved-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#7
E Kal, M Winters, J van der Kamp, H Houdijk, E Groet, C van Bennekom, E Scherder
Many stroke patients experience difficulty with performing dual-tasks. A promising intervention to target this issue is implicit motor learning, as it should enhance patients' automaticity of movement. Yet, although it is often thought that implicit motor learning is preserved post-stroke, evidence for this claim has not been systematically analysed yet. Therefore, we systematically reviewed whether implicit motor learning is preserved post-stroke, and whether patients benefit more from implicit than from explicit motor learning...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965555/virtual-embodiment-of-white-people-in-a-black-virtual-body-leads-to-a-sustained-reduction-in-their-implicit-racial-bias
#8
Domna Banakou, Parasuram D Hanumanthu, Mel Slater
Virtual reality can be used to visually substitute a person's body by a life-sized virtual one. Such embodiment results in a perceptual illusion of body ownership over the virtual body (VB). Previous research has shown that the form of the VB can influence implicit attitudes. In particular, embodying White people in a Black virtual body is associated with an immediate decrease in their implicit racial bias against Black people. We tested whether the reduction in implicit bias lasts for at least 1 week and whether it is enhanced by multiple exposures...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955960/the-risk-environment-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-users-in-the-uk-examining-motivations-practices-and-accounts-of-use
#9
Gisella Hanley Santos, Ross Coomber
BACKGROUND: The numbers using illicit anabolic-androgenic steroids are a cause of concern for those seeking to reduce health harms. Using the 'risk environment' as a conceptual framework to better comprehend how steroid users' practices and perspectives impact on health risks, this paper examines steroid user motivations, patterns of use, and the ways in which these practices are accounted for. METHODS: As part of a wider mixed-method study into performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) use and supply in one mid-sized city in South West England, qualitative interviews were undertaken with 22 steroid users...
December 7, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934568/the-inevitability-of-assessing-reasons-in-debates-about-conscientious-objection-in-medicine
#10
Robert F Card
This article first critically reviews the major philosophical positions in the literature on conscientious objection and finds that they possess significant flaws. A substantial number of these problems stem from the fact that these views fail to assess the reasons offered by medical professionals in support of their objections. This observation is used to motivate the reasonability view, one part of which states: A practitioner who lodges a conscientious refusal must publicly state his or her objection as well as the reasoned basis for the objection and have these subjected to critical evaluation before a conscientious exemption can be granted (the reason-giving requirement)...
January 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920752/the-effect-of-emotion-and-reward-contingencies-on-relational-memory-in-major-depression-an-eye-movement-study-with-follow-up
#11
Viola L Nemeth, Gergo Csete, Gergely Drotos, Nora Greminger, Zoltan Janka, Laszlo Vecsei, Anita Must
Background: Episodic memory disturbances were found to constitute a potential trait marker for major depression (MD). The recall of positive or rewarding information in a relational context is specifically impaired. Eye-movement recording constitutes a novel, direct approach to examine implicit memory performance. Here we aimed to assess the effect of emotional context and implicit virtual monetary reward or loss on viewing patterns in association with relational memory in a 6-months follow-up study in MD. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with MD and 30 healthy participants were trained to associate a face (happy/sad/neutral) with a background scene...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911892/authorization-of-animal-experiments-is-based-on-confidence-rather-than-evidence-of-scientific-rigor
#12
Lucile Vogt, Thomas S Reichlin, Christina Nathues, Hanno Würbel
Accumulating evidence indicates high risk of bias in preclinical animal research, questioning the scientific validity and reproducibility of published research findings. Systematic reviews found low rates of reporting of measures against risks of bias in the published literature (e.g., randomization, blinding, sample size calculation) and a correlation between low reporting rates and inflated treatment effects. That most animal research undergoes peer review or ethical review would offer the possibility to detect risks of bias at an earlier stage, before the research has been conducted...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898705/the-role-of-the-amygdala-in-facial-trustworthiness-processing-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#13
Sara Santos, Inês Almeida, Bárbara Oliveiros, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Faces play a key role in signaling social cues such as signals of trustworthiness. Although several studies identify the amygdala as a core brain region in social cognition, quantitative approaches evaluating its role are scarce. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to assess the role of the amygdala in the processing of facial trustworthiness, by analyzing its amplitude BOLD response polarity to untrustworthy versus trustworthy facial signals under fMRI tasks through a Meta-analysis of effect sizes (MA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893266/assessing-civilian-perceptions-of-combat-veterans-an-iat-study
#14
Cade Schreger, Matthew Kimble
Objective: Evidence suggests that civilians may have considerable ambivalence to returning veterans. While civilians are frequently grateful for the service of military personnel, they can often be wary of the mental health and stability of returning veterans. If civilians do hold such negative biases toward veterans, whether implicit or explicit, this may have a significant impact on the ability of military personnel to integrate back into society. The goal of the study was to test whether participants held an implicit bias of mental instability toward veterans...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877113/the-effects-of-realistic-synaptic-distribution-and-3d-geometry-on-signal-integration-and-extracellular-field-generation-of-hippocampal-pyramidal-cells-and-inhibitory-neurons
#15
Attila I Gulyás, Tamás F Freund, Szabolcs Káli
In vivo and in vitro multichannel field and somatic intracellular recordings are frequently used to study mechanisms of network pattern generation. When interpreting these data, neurons are often implicitly considered as electrotonically compact cylinders with a homogeneous distribution of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. However, the actual distributions of dendritic length, diameter, and the densities of excitatory and inhibitory input are non-uniform and cell type-specific. We first review quantitative data on the dendritic structure and synaptic input and output distribution of pyramidal cells (PCs) and interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 area...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865113/implicit-moral-evaluations-a-multinomial-modeling-approach
#16
C Daryl Cameron, B Keith Payne, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Julian A Scheffer, Michael Inzlicht
Implicit moral evaluations-i.e., immediate, unintentional assessments of the wrongness of actions or persons-play a central role in supporting moral behavior in everyday life. Yet little research has employed methods that rigorously measure individual differences in implicit moral evaluations. In five experiments, we develop a new sequential priming measure-the Moral Categorization Task-and a multinomial model that decomposes judgment on this task into multiple component processes. These include implicit moral evaluations of moral transgression primes (Unintentional Judgment), accurate moral judgments about target actions (Intentional Judgment), and a directional tendency to judge actions as morally wrong (Response Bias)...
November 16, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862713/impact-of-alcohol-promoting-and-alcohol-warning-advertisements-on-alcohol-consumption-affect-and-implicit-cognition-in-heavy-drinking-young-adults-a-laboratory-based-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Kaidy Stautz, Daniel Frings, Ian P Albery, Antony C Moss, Theresa M Marteau
OBJECTIVES: There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol-advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes. DESIGN: Between-participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions. METHODS: Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18-25) who self-reported as heavy drinkers were randomized to view one of three sets of 10 video advertisements that included either (1) alcohol-promoting, (2) alcohol-warning, or (3) non-alcohol advertisements...
February 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861879/neural-correlates-of-explicit-and-implicit-emotion-processing-in-relation-to-treatment-response-in-pediatric-anxiety
#18
Katie L Burkhouse, Autumn Kujawa, Heide Klumpp, Kate D Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Approximately 40%-45% of youth with anxiety disorders do not achieve remission (or a substantial reduction in symptoms) following treatment, highlighting the need to identify predictors of treatment response. Given the well-established link between attentional biases and anxiety disorders in youth and adults, this study examined the neural correlates of directing attention toward and away from emotional faces in relation to pediatric anxiety treatment response. METHOD: Prior to beginning treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline or cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), 37 youth (age 7-19 years) with generalized and/or social anxiety disorder completed a task with conditions that manipulated whether participants were instructed to match emotional faces (explicit emotion processing) or match shapes in the context of emotional face distractors (implicit emotion processing) during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836635/attentional-bias-to-unhealthy-food-in-individuals-with-severe-obesity-and-binge-eating
#19
Michelle Deluchi, Fabiana Silva Costa, Rogério Friedman, Raul Gonçalves, Lisiane Bizarro
Attentional bias is an implicit cognition relevant to development and maintenance of obesity, but little is known of how binge eating modulates attentional bias in severe obesity. This study investigated attentional bias towards unhealthy foods at different stages of attentional processing in a clinical sample, comparing obese patients (Body Mass Index, BMI>35 kg/m(2)) with and without binge eating behaviors. Participants were separated into two groups according to their score on the Binge Eating Scale (BES): no binge eating (NB; score ≤17; n = 23) and binge eating (BE; score > 17; n = 19)...
January 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830470/the-influence-of-masked-stimuli-on-response-selection-evidence-from-a-semantic-categorization-task
#20
Brenda Ocampo
Unconscious visual stimuli can be processed by human observers and influence their behaviour. A striking example is a phenomenon known as "free-choice priming," where masked "prime" stimuli-of which participants are unaware-modulate which of two response alternatives they are likely to choose. Recent efforts to uncover the mechanisms underlying this intriguing effect have revealed that free-choice priming can emerge even in the absence of automatized stimulus-response (S-R) associations between masked primes and specific motor responses, indicating that free choices can be influenced by a masked prime's meaning (Ocampo, 2015)...
January 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
keyword
keyword
63786
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"