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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725189/inversion-reveals-perceptual-asymmetries-in-the-configural-processing-of-human-body
#1
Daniele Marzoli, Chiara Lucafò, Caterina Padulo, Giulia Prete, Laura Giacinto, Luca Tommasi
Ambiguous human bodies performing unimanual/unipedal actions are perceived more frequently as right-handed/footed rather than left-handed/footed, which suggests a perceptual and attentional bias toward the right side of others' body. A bias toward the right arm of human bodies could be adaptive in social life, most social interactions occurring with right-handed individuals, and the implicit knowledge that the dominant hand of humans is usually placed on their right side might also be included in body configural information...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719661/minimizing-endpoint-variability-through-reinforcement-learning-during-reaching-movements-involving-shoulder-elbow-and-wrist
#2
David Marc Anton Mehler, Alexandra Reichenbach, Julius Klein, Jörn Diedrichsen
Reaching movements are comprised of the coordinated action across multiple joints. The human skeleton is redundant for this task because different joint configurations can lead to the same endpoint in space. How do people learn to use combinations of joints that maximize success in goal-directed motor tasks? To answer this question, we used a 3-degree-of-freedom manipulandum to measure shoulder, elbow and wrist joint movements during reaching in a plane. We tested whether a shift in the relative contribution of the wrist and elbow joints to a reaching movement could be learned by an implicit reinforcement regime...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716588/cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-extrastriate-visual-cortex-modulates-implicit-anti-fat-bias-in-male-but-not-female-participants
#3
Valentina Cazzato, Stergios Makris, Cosimo Urgesi
Explicit negative attitudes towards obese individuals are well documented and seem to modulate the activity of perceptual areas, such as the Extrastriate Body Area (EBA) in the lateral occipito-temporal cortex, which is critical for body-shape perception. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether EBA serves a role in implicit weight-stereotypical bias, thus reflecting stereotypical trait attribution on the basis of perceptual cues. Here, we used an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to investigate whether applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over bilateral extrastriate visual cortex reduces pre-existing implicit weight stereotypical associations (i...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711114/the-effects-of-training-contingency-awareness-during-attention-bias-modification-on-learning-and-stress-reactivity
#4
Amit Lazarov, Rany Abend, Shiran Seidner, Daniel S Pine, Yair Bar-Haim
Current attention bias modification (ABM) procedures are designed to implicitly train attention away from threatening stimuli with the hope of reducing stress reactivity and anxiety symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying effective ABM delivery are not well understood, with awareness of the training contingency suggested as one possible factor contributing to ABM efficacy. Here, 45 high-anxious participants were trained to divert attention away from threat in two ABM sessions. They were randomly assigned to one of three training protocols: an implicit protocol, comprising two standard implicit ABM training sessions; an explicit protocol, comprising two sessions with explicit instruction as to the attention training contingency; and an implicit-explicit protocol, in which participants were not informed of the training contingency in the first ABM session and informed of it at the start of the second session...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710010/local-network-component-analysis-for-quantifying-transcription-factor-activities
#5
Qianqian Shi, Chuanchao Zhang, Weifeng Guo, Tao Zeng, Lina Lu, Zhonglin Jiang, Ziming Wang, Juan Liu, Luonan Chen
Transcription factors (TFs) could regulate physiological transitions or determine stable phenotypic diversity. The accurate estimation on TF regulatory signals or functional activities is of great significance to guide biological experiments or elucidate molecular mechanisms, but still remains challenging. Traditional methods identify TF regulatory signals at the population level, which masks heterogeneous regulation mechanisms in individuals or subgroups, thus resulting in inaccurate analyses. Here, we propose a novel computational framework, namely Local Network Component Analysis (LNCA), to exploit data heterogeneity and automatically quantify accurate transcription factor activity (TFA) in practical terms, through integrating the partitioned expression sets (i...
July 11, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701977/foreign-languages-sound-fast-evidence-from-implicit-rate-normalization
#6
Hans Rutger Bosker, Eva Reinisch
Anecdotal evidence suggests that unfamiliar languages sound faster than one's native language. Empirical evidence for this impression has, so far, come from explicit rate judgments. The aim of the present study was to test whether such perceived rate differences between native and foreign languages (FLs) have effects on implicit speech processing. Our measure of implicit rate perception was "normalization for speech rate": an ambiguous vowel between short /a/ and long /a:/ is interpreted as /a:/ following a fast but as /a/ following a slow carrier sentence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700624/intergroup-contact-throughout-the-lifespan-modulates-implicit-racial-biases-across-perceivers-racial-group
#7
Jennifer T Kubota, Jaelyn Peiso, Kori Marcum, Jasmin Cloutier
Few researchers have investigated how contact across the lifespan influences racial bias and whether diversity of contact is beneficial regardless of the race of the perceiver. This research aims to address these gaps in the literature with a focus on how diversity in childhood and current contact shapes implicit racial bias across perceivers' racial group. In two investigations, participants completed an Implicit Association Test and a self-report measure of the racial diversity of their current and childhood contact...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697903/implicit-self-other-discrimination-affects-the-interplay-between-multisensory-affordances-of-mental-representations-of-faces
#8
David Zeugin, Norhan Arfa, Michael Notter, Micah M Murray, Silvio Ionta
Face recognition is an apparently straightforward but, in fact, complex ability, encompassing the activation of at least visual and somatosensory representations. Understanding how identity shapes the interplay between these face-related affordances could clarify the mechanisms of self-other discrimination. To this aim, we exploited the so-called "face inversion effect" (FIE), a specific bias in the mental rotation of face images (of other people): with respect to inanimate objects, face images require longer time to be mentally rotated from the upside-down...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685971/self-compassion-moderates-the-predictive-effects-of-implicit-cognitions-on-subjective-well-being
#9
Wendy J Phillips, Donald W Hine, Anthony D G Marks
This study examined whether self-compassion may regulate the effects of implicit cognitions (automatic and preconscious responses) on the subjective well-being of Australian adults (N = 132). As hypothesized, self-compassion moderated the predictive effects of 2 implicit cognitions (positive attention bias and implicit self-esteem) on 2 indicators of subjective well-being (life satisfaction and depressive symptoms). Low implicit self-esteem and weak positive attention bias predicted more depressive symptoms and lower life satisfaction only for participants who were low in self-compassion...
July 6, 2017: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682086/constructing-bias-conceptualization-breaks-the-link-between-implicit-bias-and-fear-of-black-americans
#10
Kent M Lee, Kristen A Lindquist, B Keith Payne
Negative affect toward outgroup members has long been known to predict discriminatory behavior. However, psychological constructionist theories of emotion suggest that negative affect may not always reflect antipathy for outgroup members. Rather, the subjective experience depends on how negative affect is conceptualized as specific discrete emotions (e.g., fear vs. sympathy). Our current research integrates theories of implicit bias with psychological constructionist theories of emotion to understand the implications of negative affect toward outgroup members...
July 6, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675437/the-moderating-role-of-socially-desirable-responding-in-implicit-explicit-attitudes-toward-asylum-seekers
#11
Joel R Anderson
Implicit and explicit attitudes correlate under certain conditions and researchers are interested in the moderating factors of this relationship. This paper explored the role of socially desirable responding in this relationship by testing the hypothesis that impression management (IM; i.e., deliberate response modification) and self-deceptive enhancement (SDE; i.e., positive self-bias) play moderating roles in the relationship of implicit-explicit attitudes toward asylum seekers in Australia. Seventy-four students responded to a battery of measures and the results revealed that IM (but not SDE) moderated this relationship to the extent that higher IM scores weakened the correspondence between implicit and explicit attitude scores...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659843/leaky-pipeline-myths-in-search-of-gender-effects-on-the-job-market-and-early-career-publishing-in-philosophy
#12
Sean Allen-Hermanson
That philosophy is an outlier in the humanities when it comes to the underrepresentation of women has been the occasion for much discussion about possible effects of subtle forms of prejudice, including implicit bias and stereotype threat. While these ideas have become familiar to the philosophical community, there has only recently been a surge of interest in acquiring field-specific data. This paper adds to quantitative findings bearing on hypotheses about the effects of unconscious prejudice on two important stages along career pathways: tenure-track hiring and early career publishing...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658015/a-framework-for-integrating-implicit-bias-recognition-into-health-professions-education
#13
Javeed Sukhera, Chris Watling
Existing literature on implicit bias is fragmented and comes from a variety of fields like cognitive psychology, business ethics, and higher education, but implicit-bias-informed educational approaches have been underexplored in health professions education and are difficult to evaluate using existing tools. Despite increasing attention to implicit bias recognition and management in health professions education, many programs struggle to meaningfully integrate these topics into curricula. The authors propose a six-point actionable framework for integrating implicit bias recognition and management into health professions education that draws on the work of previous researchers and includes practical tools to guide curriculum developers...
June 27, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655901/chronic-sleep-restriction-increases-negative-implicit-attitudes-toward-arab-muslims
#14
Anna Alkozei, William D S Killgore, Ryan Smith, Natalie S Dailey, Sahil Bajaj, Monika Haack
Chronic sleep restriction is a common experience; and while it has negative physiological effects, little is known about how it affects human behavior. To date, no study has investigated whether chronic sleep restriction can influence implicit attitudes (e.g., towards a race). Here, in a randomized, counterbalanced crossover design, we subjected participants to 3 weeks of chronic sleep restriction in the lab (i.e., 3 weekly cycles of 5 nights of 4 hours of sleep per night followed by 2 nights of 8 hours of sleep) and found evidence for an increased negative implicit bias towards Arab Muslims...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646003/implicit-weight-bias-in-children-age-9-to-11-years
#15
Asheley Cockrell Skinner, Keith Payne, Andrew J Perrin, Abigail T Panter, Janna B Howard, Anna Bardone-Cone, Cynthia M Bulik, Michael J Steiner, Eliana M Perrin
OBJECTIVES: Assess implicit weight bias in children 9 to 11 years old. METHODS: Implicit weight bias was measured in children ages 9 to 11 (N = 114) by using the Affect Misattribution Procedure. Participants were shown a test image of a child for 350 milliseconds followed by a meaningless fractal (200 milliseconds), and then they were asked to rate the fractal image as "good" or "bad." We used 9 image pairs matched on age, race, sex, and activity but differing by weight of the child...
June 23, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644791/culture-and-moral-distress-what-s-the-connection-and-why-does-it-matter
#16
Nancy Berlinger, Annalise Berlinger
Culture is learned behavior shared among members of a group and from generation to generation within that group. In health care work, references to "culture" may also function as code for ethical uncertainty or moral distress concerning patients, families, or populations. This paper analyzes how culture can be a factor in patient-care situations that produce moral distress. It discusses three common, problematic situations in which assumptions about culture may mask more complex problems concerning family dynamics, structural barriers to health care access, or implicit bias...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644071/age-invariance-in-rapid-facial-affective-reactions-to-emotionally-valenced-stimuli
#17
Matthew R Nangle, Phoebe E Bailey, Julie D Henry, Georgina S Khlentzos, Kandice J Varcin, Alexis E Whitton
It has been suggested that an age-related positivity effect may only occur in the context of explicit information processing, but it is unclear whether this bias extends to the processing of rapid facial reactions. In addition, most studies that have looked for evidence of age-related implicit positivity have used attentional (as opposed to sensory) unawareness paradigms, or used broad-based indicators of attentional awareness that do not speak to the nature of the affective response. In the present study, younger and older adults were therefore asked to view non-facial images presented supraliminally (i...
June 23, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642364/the-accuracy-and-bias-of-single-step-genomic-prediction-for-populations-under-selection
#18
Wan-Ling Hsu, Dorian J Garrick, Rohan Luigi Fernando
In single-step analyses, missing genotypes are explicitly or implicitly imputed, and this requires centering the observed genotypes, using the means of the unselected founders. If genotypes are only available on selected individuals, centering on the unselected founder mean is not straightforward. Here, computer simulation is used to study an alternative analysis that does not require centering genotypes but fits the mean μg of unselected individuals as a fixed effect. Centering the entire matrix of observed and imputed genotypes using their sample means can be done to improve numerical properties of the analysis, in addition to fitting μg...
July 10, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633619/the-affect-misattribution-procedure
#19
Sarah Teige-Mocigemba, Manuel Becker, Jeffrey W Sherman, Regina Reichardt, Karl Christoph Klauer
The Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) has been forwarded as one of the most promising alternatives to the Implicit Association Test and the evaluative-priming task for measuring attitudes such as prejudice indirectly. We investigated whether the AMP is indeed able to detect an evaluative out-group bias. In contrast to recent conclusions about the robustness of AMP effects, six out of seven pilot studies indicated that participants did not show any prejudice effects in the AMP. Yet, these pilot studies were not fully conclusive with regard to our research question because they investigated different domains of prejudice, used small sample sizes, and employed a modified AMP version...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623756/longitudinal-investigation-into-implicit-stigma-of-epilepsy-among-japanese-medical-students-before-and-after-mass-media-coverage-of-car-accidents-associated-with-people-with-epilepsy
#20
Chizuko Nagamori, Keiko Hara, Katsuya Ohta, Miho Akaza, Yuki Sumi
OBJECTIVE: Public attitudes and stigma toward epilepsy may limit patient motivation for treatment and participation in social activities. Stigma research requiring individuals to report personal beliefs is useful but is subject to social desirability bias. Self-reporting methods often do not capture implicit attitudes; therefore, in this study, implicit stigma was measured using the implicit association test (IAT), which is a word sorting task to minimize this bias. Recently, in Japan, several serious car accidents caused by people with epilepsy (PWE) resulted in pedestrian fatalities...
June 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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