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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672110/-the-empathy-impulse-a-multinomial-model-of-intentional-and-unintentional-empathy-for-pain-correction
#1
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "The empathy impulse: A multinomial model of intentional and unintentional empathy for pain" by C. Daryl Cameron, Victoria L. Spring and Andrew R. Todd ( Emotion , 2017[Apr], Vol 17[3], 395-411). In this article, there was an error in the calculation of some of the effect sizes. The w effect size was manually computed incorrectly. The incorrect number of total observations was used, which affected the final effect size estimates. This computing error does not change any of the results or interpretations about model fit based on the G² statistic, or about significant differences across conditions in process parameters...
April 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656015/confidence-judgments-during-ratio-comparisons-reveal-a-bayesian-bias
#2
Santiago Alonso-Diaz, Jessica F Cantlon
Rational numbers are essential in mathematics and decision-making but humans often and erroneously rely on the magnitude of the numerator or denominator to determine the relative size of a quotient. The source of this flawed whole number strategy is poorly understood. Here we test the Bayesian hypothesis that the human bias toward large values in the numerator or denominator of a ratio estimate is the result of higher confidence in large samples. Larger values are considered a better (more certain) instance of that ratio than the same ratio composed of smaller values...
April 12, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651896/cerebral-serotonin-transporter-measurements-with-11-c-dasb-a-review-on-acquisition-and-preprocessing-across-21-pet-centres
#3
Martin Nørgaard, Melanie Ganz, Claus Svarer, Ling Feng, Masanori Ichise, Rupert Lanzenberger, Mark Lubberink, Ramin V Parsey, Marios Politis, Eugenii A Rabiner, Mark Slifstein, Vesna Sossi, Tetsuya Suhara, Peter S Talbot, Federico Turkheimer, Stephen C Strother, Gitte M Knudsen
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging has become a prominent tool to capture the spatiotemporal distribution of neurotransmitters and receptors in the brain. The outcome of a PET study can, however, potentially be obscured by suboptimal and/or inconsistent choices made in complex processing pipelines required to reach a quantitative estimate of radioligand binding. Variations in subject selection, experimental design, data acquisition, preprocessing, and statistical analysis may lead to different outcomes and neurobiological interpretations...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626076/predicting-opioid-use-disorder-in-patients-with-chronic-pain-who-present-to-the-emergency-department
#4
Robert Andrew Gardner, Kori L Brewer, Dennis B Langston
BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) patients with chronic pain challenge providers to make quick and accurate assessments without an in-depth pain management consultation. Emergency physicians need reliable means to determine which patients may receive opioid therapy without exacerbating opioid use disorder (OUD). METHODS: Eighty-nine ED patients with a chief complaint of chronic pain were enrolled. Researchers administered questionnaires and reviewed medical and state prescription monitoring database information...
April 6, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624093/robustness-of-parameter-estimation-to-assumptions-of-normality-in-the-multidimensional-graded-response-model
#5
Chun Wang, Shiyang Su, David J Weiss
A central assumption that is implicit in estimating item parameters in item response theory (IRT) models is the normality of the latent trait distribution, whereas a similar assumption made in categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) models is the multivariate normality of the latent response variables. Violation of the normality assumption can lead to biased parameter estimates. Although previous studies have focused primarily on unidimensional IRT models, this study extended the literature by considering a multidimensional IRT model for polytomous responses, namely the multidimensional graded response model...
April 6, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621945/empathy-intervention-to-reduce-implicit-bias-in-pre-service-teachers
#6
Denise K Whitford, Andrea M Emerson
There have been long-term concerns regarding discriminatory discipline practices used with culturally and linguistically diverse students, with little research on the impact teacher-centered empathy interventions may have on this population. This randomized pretest-posttest control group design investigates the ability of a brief empathy-inducing intervention to improve the implicit bias of pre-service teachers, as measured by the Implicit Association Test. We found the empathy intervention statistically significant at decreasing the implicit bias of White female pre-service teachers toward Black individuals ( F = 7...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616572/science-reflects-history-as-society-influences-science-brief-history-of-race-race-correction-and-the-spirometer
#7
Heidi L Lujan, Stephen E DiCarlo
Spirometers are used globally to diagnose respiratory diseases, and most commercially available spirometers "correct" for race. "Race correction" is built into the software of spirometers. To evaluate pulmonary function and to make recordings, the operator must enter the subject's race. In fact, the Joint Working Party of the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society recommends the use of race- and ethnic-specific reference values. In the United States, spirometers apply correction factors of 10-15% for individuals labeled "Black" and 4-6% for people labeled "Asian...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609099/direct-speech-quotations-promote-low-relative-clause-attachment-in-silent-reading-of-english
#8
Bo Yao, Christoph Scheepers
The implicit prosody hypothesis (Fodor, 1998, 2002) proposes that silent reading coincides with a default, implicit form of prosody to facilitate sentence processing. Recent research demonstrated that a more vivid form of implicit prosody is mentally simulated during silent reading of direct speech quotations (e.g., Mary said, "This dress is beautiful"), with neural and behavioural consequences (e.g., Yao, Belin, & Scheepers, 2011; Yao & Scheepers, 2011). Here, we explored the relation between 'default' and 'simulated' implicit prosody in the context of relative-clause (RC) attachment in English...
March 31, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608998/retraining-automatic-action-tendencies-in-obesity
#9
Nora Mehl, Lara Mueller-Wieland, David Mathar, Annette Horstmann
Eating behavior in obesity resembles addictive disorders in that individuals have difficulties inhibiting problematic eating behavior. They show an approach bias - a tendency to approach rather than avoid problematic stimuli. Here, we investigate the existence of such a bias towards healthy and unhealthy food in individuals with normal-weight and obesity. We further aimed to assess whether it is possible to retrain a bias, and whether training would differentially affect our two weight groups. 60 participants completed a training form of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) on three consecutive days...
March 30, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606408/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-and-bias-in-the-evaluation-and-reporting-of-abusive-head-trauma
#10
Kent P Hymel, Antoinette L Laskey, Kathryn R Crowell, Ming Wang, Veronica Armijo-Garcia, Terra N Frazier, Kelly S Tieves, Robin Foster, Kerri Weeks
OBJECTIVE: To characterize racial and ethnic disparities in the evaluation and reporting of suspected abusive head trauma (AHT) across the 18 participating sites of the Pediatric Brain Injury Research Network (PediBIRN). We hypothesized that such disparities would be confirmed at multiple sites and occur more frequently in patients with a lower risk for AHT. STUDY DESIGN: Aggregate and site-specific analysis of the cross-sectional PediBIRN dataset, comparing AHT evaluation and reporting frequencies in subpopulations of white/non-Hispanic and minority race/ethnicity patients with lower vs higher risk for AHT...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601645/testing-the-effects-of-explicit-and-implicit-bidimensional-attitudes-on-objectively-measured-speeding-behaviour
#11
Rebecca McCartan, Mark A Elliott, Stefania Pagani, Eimear Finnegan, Steve W Kelly
Bidimensional attitudes have been shown to independently predict behaviour, with the positive dimension of attitude being a stronger predictor of behaviour than the negative dimension (e.g., Elliott, Brewster, et al., 2015, Br. J. Psychol, 106, 656). However, this positivity bias has been demonstrated with explicit attitude measures only and explicit attitude measures tap deliberative processes rather than automatic processes, which are known to be important in the execution of many behaviours. The aim of this study was to test whether implicit bidimensional attitudes can account for variance in speeding behaviour over and above explicit bidimensional attitudes and whether the positivity bias that is typically found with explicit attitudes generalizes to implicit attitudes...
March 30, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596869/retraining-of-automatic-action-tendencies-in-individuals-with-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Hannah Ferentzi, Hannah Scheibner, Reinout Wiers, Eni S Becker, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Sylvia Beisel, Mike Rinck
Obesity is a major health concern, characterized by an automatically activated tendency to (over)-eat. Recent research suggests that an effective way to counteract automatic approach tendencies in unhealthy consumption behavior might be approach bias modification. Therefore, we investigated an approach-avoidance training for unhealthy food cues in 189 patients with obesity of a psychosomatic inpatient clinic who were participating in a nutrition advice program. Patients in the active training group were trained to make avoidance movements (pushing a joystick) in response to unhealthy food pictures and approach movements (pulling the joystick) in response to positive pictures, while the control group received sham training (approaching and avoiding both picture types)...
March 26, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580846/barriers-to-medication-adherence-in-asthma-the-importance-of-culture-and-context
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth L McQuaid
OBJECTIVE: Significant disparities exist in asthma outcomes. Racial and ethnic minorities have lower controller medication adherence, which may contribute to differences in asthma morbidity between minority and non-minority groups. The objective of this review is to identify individual, patient-provider communication, and systems issues that contribute to this pattern of medication underuse and to discuss potential strategies for intervention. DATA SOURCES: Data were gathered from numerous sources, including reports of pharmacy and medical records, observational studies, and trials...
March 23, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571927/implicit-physician-biases-in-periviability-counseling
#14
Natasha Shapiro, Elena V Wachtel, Sean M Bailey, Michael M Espiritu
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether neonatologists show implicit racial and/or socioeconomic biases and whether these are predictive of recommendations at extreme periviability. STUDY DESIGN: A nationwide survey using a clinical vignette of a woman in labor at 232/7 weeks of gestation asked physicians how likely they were to recommend intensive vs comfort care. Participants were randomized to 1 of 4 versions of the vignette in which racial and socioeconomic stimuli were varied, followed by 2 implicit association tests (IATs)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565606/biases-in-perceiving-gaze-vergence
#15
Alysha T T Nguyen, Colin J Palmer, Yumiko Otsuka, Colin W G Clifford
The focus of another person's gaze is an important cue in social interactions, helping us to understand others' intentions, predict their behavior, and allocate our own attention appropriately. The perception of gaze vergence provides information about the distance at which another person is fixating, but has yet to receive much empirical attention. Here, we report that observers display systematic biases when perceiving others' gaze vergence and depth of fixation. Specifically, they perceive others as having convergent gaze and fixating at closer distances, especially when gaze is directed downward or observed under conditions of sensory uncertainty...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562253/describing-perceived-racial-bias-among-youth-with-sickle-cell-disease
#16
Emily O Wakefield, Ashley Pantaleao, Jill M Popp, Lourdes P Dale, James P Santanelli, Mark D Litt, William T Zempsky
Objectives: Sickle cell disease (SCD) predominately affects Black Americans. This is the first study of its kind to describe the racial bias experiences of youth with SCD and their reactions to these experiences. Methods: Participants were 20 youth with SCD (ages 13-21 years) who were asked to describe any racial bias events they experienced, as recorded on the Perception of Racism in Children and Youth measure (PRaCY). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by two independent raters using a conventional content analysis approach...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557297/-why-even-bother-they-are-not-going-to-do-it-the-structural-roots-of-racism-and-discrimination-in-lactation-care
#17
Erin V Thomas
Through semi-structured interviews with 36 International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs) who assist mothers with breastfeeding, this study takes a systematic look at breastfeeding disparities. Specifically, this study documents race-based discrimination against patients in the course of lactation care and links the implicit bias literature to breastfeeding disparities. IBCLCs report instances of race-based discrimination against patients such as unequal care provided to patients of color and overt racist remarks said in front of or behind patient's backs...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550755/we-need-to-talk-about-manels-the-problem-of-implicit-gender-bias-in-sport-and-exercise-medicine
#18
EDITORIAL
Sheree Bekker, Osman H Ahmed, Ummukulthoum Bakare, Tracy A Blake, Alison M Brooks, Todd E Davenport, Luciana De Michelis Mendonça, Lauren V Fortington, Michael Himawan, Joanne L Kemp, Karen Litzy, Roland F Loh, James MacDonald, Carly D McKay, Andrea B Mosler, Margo Mountjoy, Ann Pederson, Melanie I Stefan, Emma Stokes, Amy J Vassallo, Jackie L Whittaker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546966/a-nurse-researcher-s-guide-to-reflexive-interviewing
#19
Holly Lear, Winifred Eboh, Lesley Diack
BACKGROUND: In a wider doctoral study related to unfavourable experiences of nursing students studying abroad, the researcher undertook a reflexive interview to reduce the potential for bias. AIM: To discuss a method for conducting reflexive interviews and recommend their use to nurse researchers. DISCUSSION: A reflexive interview was undertaken to reduce bias and pilot an original interview instrument. A senior researcher interviewed the researcher using original questions that would be used to interview participants in the wider doctoral study...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544114/post-decision-wagering-after-perceptual-judgments-reveals-bi-directional-certainty-readouts
#20
Caio M Moreira, Max Rollwage, Kristin Kaduk, Melanie Wilke, Igor Kagan
Humans and other animals constantly evaluate their decisions in order to learn and behave adaptively. Experimentally, such evaluation processes are accessed using metacognitive reports made after decisions, typically using verbally formulated confidence scales. When subjects report high confidence, it reflects a high certainty of being correct, but a low confidence might signify either low certainty about the outcome, or a high certainty of being incorrect. Hence, metacognitive reports might reflect not only different levels of decision certainty, but also two certainty directions (certainty of being correct and certainty of being incorrect)...
March 20, 2018: Cognition
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