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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822044/capsule-commentary-on-phelan-et-al-medical-school-factors-associated-with-changes-in-implicit-and-explicit-bias-against-gay-and-lesbian-people-among-3492-graduating-medical-students
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808590/genesis-and-maintenance-of-attentional-biases-the-role-of-the-locus-coeruleus-noradrenaline-system
#2
REVIEW
Mana R Ehlers, Rebecca M Todd
Emotionally arousing events are typically better remembered than mundane ones, in part because emotionally relevant aspects of our environment are prioritized in attention. Such biased attentional tuning is itself the result of associative processes through which we learn affective and motivational relevance of cues. We propose that the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NA) system plays an important role in the genesis of attentional biases through associative learning processes as well as their maintenance...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808252/altered-awareness-of-action-in-parkinson-s-disease-evaluations-by-explicit-and-implicit-measures
#3
Naho Saito, Keisuke Takahata, Hodaka Yamakado, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Satoshi Saito, Ryosuke Takahashi, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
Deficits in the integration of motor prediction and its feedback have been reported in Parkinson's disease. Conscious awareness of action is proposed to emerge under the integration of motor prediction and its feedback. Thus, it may lead to changes in the awareness of the authorship of action (in other words, the sense of agency) in Parkinson's disease. We have employed both explicit and implicit measures to assess the awareness of action in Parkinson's disease and matched controls. As an explicit measure, an action recognition task requiring explicit judgments was used...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803349/scary-symptoms-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-evidence-for-symptom-interpretation-bias-in-pathological-health-anxiety
#4
Zhimin Yan, Michael Witthöft, Josef Bailer, Carsten Diener, Daniela Mier
Patients with pathological health anxiety (PHA) tend to automatically interpret bodily sensations as sign of a severe illness. To elucidate the neural correlates of this cognitive bias, we applied an functional magnetic resonance imaging adaption of a body-symptom implicit association test with symptom words in patients with PHA (n = 32) in comparison to patients with depression (n = 29) and healthy participants (n = 35). On the behavioral level, patients with PHA did not significantly differ from the control groups...
August 12, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795835/explicit-goal-driven-attention-unlike-implicitly-learned-attention-spreads-to-secondary-tasks
#5
Douglas A Addleman, Jinyi Tao, Roger W Remington, Yuhong V Jiang
To what degree does spatial attention for one task spread to all stimuli in the attended region, regardless of task relevance? Most models imply that spatial attention acts through a unitary priority map in a task-general manner. We show that implicit learning, unlike endogenous spatial cuing, can bias spatial attention within one task without biasing attention to a spatially overlapping secondary task. Participants completed a visual search task superimposed on a background containing scenes, which they were told to encode for a later memory task...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792940/differences-in-words-used-to-describe-racial-and-gender-groups-in-medical-student-performance-evaluations
#6
David A Ross, Dowin Boatright, Marcella Nunez-Smith, Ayana Jordan, Adam Chekroud, Edward Z Moore
PURPOSE: The transition from medical school to residency is a critical step in the careers of physicians. Because of the standardized application process-wherein schools submit summative Medical Student Performance Evaluations (MSPE's)-it also represents a unique opportunity to assess the possible prevalence of racial and gender disparities, as shown elsewhere in medicine. METHOD: The authors conducted textual analysis of MSPE's from 6,000 US students applying to 16 residency programs at a single institution in 2014-15...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771402/improving-culturally-appropriate-care-using-a-community-based-participatory-research-approach-evaluation-of-a-multicomponent-cultural-competency-training-program-arkansas-2015-2016
#7
Pearl Anna McElfish, Christopher R Long, Brett Rowland, Sarah Moore, Ralph Wilmoth, Britni Ayers
INTRODUCTION: The United States continues to become more racially and ethnically diverse, and racial/ethnic minority communities encounter sociocultural barriers to quality health care, including implicit racial/ethnic bias among health care providers. In response, health care organizations are developing and implementing cultural competency curricula. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we developed and evaluated a cultural competency training program to improve the delivery of culturally appropriate care in Marshallese and Hispanic communities...
August 3, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766754/grounding-by-attention-simulation-in-peripersonal-space-pupils-dilate-to-pinch-grip-but-not-big-size-nominal-classifier
#8
Marit Lobben, Agata Bochynska
Grammatical categories represent implicit knowledge, and it is not known if such abstract linguistic knowledge can be continuously grounded in real-life experiences, nor is it known what types of mental states can be simulated. A former study showed that attention bias in peripersonal space (PPS) affects reaction times in grammatical congruency judgments of nominal classifiers, suggesting that simulated semantics may include reenactment of attention. In this study, we contrasted a Chinese nominal classifier used with nouns denoting pinch grip objects with a classifier for nouns with big object referents in a pupil dilation experiment...
August 1, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766125/medical-school-factors-associated-with-changes-in-implicit-and-explicit-bias-against-gay-and-lesbian-people-among-3492-graduating-medical-students
#9
Sean M Phelan, Sara E Burke, Rachel R Hardeman, Richard O White, Julia Przedworski, John F Dovidio, Sylvia P Perry, Michael Plankey, Brooke A Cunningham, Deborah Finstad, Mark W Yeazel, Michelle van Ryn
BACKGROUND: Implicit and explicit bias among providers can influence the quality of healthcare. Efforts to address sexual orientation bias in new physicians are hampered by a lack of knowledge of school factors that influence bias among students. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether medical school curriculum, role modeling, diversity climate, and contact with sexual minorities predict bias among graduating students against gay and lesbian people. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
August 1, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751824/face-race-processing-and-racial-bias-in-early-development-a-perceptual-social-linkage
#10
Kang Lee, Paul C Quinn, Olivier Pascalis
Infants have asymmetrical exposure to different types of faces (e.g., more human than other-species, more female than male, and more own-race than other-race). What are the developmental consequences of such experiential asymmetry? Here we review recent advances in research on the development of cross-race face processing. The evidence suggests that greater exposure to own- than other-race faces in infancy leads to developmentally early perceptual differences in visual preference, recognition, category formation, and scanning of own- and other-race faces...
June 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749312/do-cultures-vary-in-self-enhancement-erp-behavioral-and-self-report-evidence
#11
Ryan S Hampton, Michael E W Varnum
Psychologists have long debated whether self-enhancement is universal or varies across cultures. Extant studies using explicit and implicit measures have provided mixed results. In this study (N = 93; 35 European American, 58 Chinese: 28 tested in English, 30 tested in Mandarin), we measured self-enhancement covertly using an ERP paradigm. Self-enhancement was also assessed via self-report and reaction-time based measures. Americans showed strong evidence of self-enhancement across all measures, whereas this effect was absent or weaker among Chinese, who instead showed an other-enhancing bias across measures...
July 27, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740821/validating-the-construct-of-aberrant-salience-in-schizophrenia-behavioral-evidence-for-an-automatic-process
#12
Teresa Katthagen, Felix Dammering, Norbert Kathmann, Jakob Kaminski, Henrik Walter, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
Suspecting significance behind ordinary events is a common feature in psychosis and it is assumed to occur due to aberrant salience attribution. The Salience Attribution Test (SAT; Roiser et al., 2009) measures aberrant salience as a bias towards one out of two equally reinforced cue features as opposed to adaptive salience towards features indicating high reinforcement. This is the first study to validate the latent constructs involved in salience attribution in patients. Forty-nine schizophrenia patients and forty-four healthy individuals completed the SAT, a novel implicit salience paradigm (ISP), a reversal learning task and a neuropsychological test battery...
December 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736213/beyond-expectations-the-responses-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-to-visual-food-cues
#13
Luz Verastegui-Tena, Aurelia Schulte-Holierhoek, Hans van Trijp, Betina Piqueras-Fiszman
Self-report measures rely on cognitive and rational processes and may not, therefore, be the most suitable tools to investigate implicit or unconscious factors within a sensory experience. The responses from the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which are not susceptible to bias due to their involuntary nature, may provide a better insight. Expectations are important for the consumer-product interaction and should be considered. However, research using ANS responses has not focused thoroughly on expectations...
July 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725189/inversion-reveals-perceptual-asymmetries-in-the-configural-processing-of-human-body
#14
Daniele Marzoli, Chiara Lucafò, Caterina Padulo, Giulia Prete, Laura Giacinto, Luca Tommasi
Ambiguous human bodies performing unimanual/unipedal actions are perceived more frequently as right-handed/footed rather than left-handed/footed, which suggests a perceptual and attentional bias toward the right side of others' body. A bias toward the right arm of human bodies could be adaptive in social life, most social interactions occurring with right-handed individuals, and the implicit knowledge that the dominant hand of humans is usually placed on their right side might also be included in body configural information...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719661/minimizing-endpoint-variability-through-reinforcement-learning-during-reaching-movements-involving-shoulder-elbow-and-wrist
#15
David Marc Anton Mehler, Alexandra Reichenbach, Julius Klein, Jörn Diedrichsen
Reaching movements are comprised of the coordinated action across multiple joints. The human skeleton is redundant for this task because different joint configurations can lead to the same endpoint in space. How do people learn to use combinations of joints that maximize success in goal-directed motor tasks? To answer this question, we used a 3-degree-of-freedom manipulandum to measure shoulder, elbow and wrist joint movements during reaching in a plane. We tested whether a shift in the relative contribution of the wrist and elbow joints to a reaching movement could be learned by an implicit reinforcement regime...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716588/cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-extrastriate-visual-cortex-modulates-implicit-anti-fat-bias-in-male-but-not-female-participants
#16
Valentina Cazzato, Stergios Makris, Cosimo Urgesi
Explicit negative attitudes toward obese individuals are well documented and seem to modulate the activity of perceptual areas, such as the Extrastriate Body Area (EBA) in the lateral occipito-temporal cortex, which is critical for body-shape perception. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether EBA serves a role in implicit weight-stereotypical bias, thus reflecting stereotypical trait attribution on the basis of perceptual cues. Here, we used an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to investigate whether applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over bilateral extrastriate visual cortex reduces pre-existing implicit weight stereotypical associations (i...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711114/the-effects-of-training-contingency-awareness-during-attention-bias-modification-on-learning-and-stress-reactivity
#17
Amit Lazarov, Rany Abend, Shiran Seidner, Daniel S Pine, Yair Bar-Haim
Current attention bias modification (ABM) procedures are designed to implicitly train attention away from threatening stimuli with the hope of reducing stress reactivity and anxiety symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying effective ABM delivery are not well understood, with awareness of the training contingency suggested as one possible factor contributing to ABM efficacy. Here, 45 high-anxious participants were trained to divert attention away from threat in two ABM sessions. They were randomly assigned to one of three training protocols: an implicit protocol, comprising two standard implicit ABM training sessions; an explicit protocol, comprising two sessions with explicit instruction as to the attention training contingency; and an implicit-explicit protocol, in which participants were not informed of the training contingency in the first ABM session and informed of it at the start of the second session...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710010/local-network-component-analysis-for-quantifying-transcription-factor-activities
#18
Qianqian Shi, Chuanchao Zhang, Weifeng Guo, Tao Zeng, Lina Lu, Zhonglin Jiang, Ziming Wang, Juan Liu, Luonan Chen
Transcription factors (TFs) could regulate physiological transitions or determine stable phenotypic diversity. The accurate estimation on TF regulatory signals or functional activities is of great significance to guide biological experiments or elucidate molecular mechanisms, but still remains challenging. Traditional methods identify TF regulatory signals at the population level, which masks heterogeneous regulation mechanisms in individuals or subgroups, thus resulting in inaccurate analyses. Here, we propose a novel computational framework, namely Local Network Component Analysis (LNCA), to exploit data heterogeneity and automatically quantify accurate transcription factor activity (TFA) in practical terms, through integrating the partitioned expression sets (i...
July 11, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701977/foreign-languages-sound-fast-evidence-from-implicit-rate-normalization
#19
Hans Rutger Bosker, Eva Reinisch
Anecdotal evidence suggests that unfamiliar languages sound faster than one's native language. Empirical evidence for this impression has, so far, come from explicit rate judgments. The aim of the present study was to test whether such perceived rate differences between native and foreign languages (FLs) have effects on implicit speech processing. Our measure of implicit rate perception was "normalization for speech rate": an ambiguous vowel between short /a/ and long /a:/ is interpreted as /a:/ following a fast but as /a/ following a slow carrier sentence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700624/intergroup-contact-throughout-the-lifespan-modulates-implicit-racial-biases-across-perceivers-racial-group
#20
Jennifer T Kubota, Jaelyn Peiso, Kori Marcum, Jasmin Cloutier
Few researchers have investigated how contact across the lifespan influences racial bias and whether diversity of contact is beneficial regardless of the race of the perceiver. This research aims to address these gaps in the literature with a focus on how diversity in childhood and current contact shapes implicit racial bias across perceivers' racial group. In two investigations, participants completed an Implicit Association Test and a self-report measure of the racial diversity of their current and childhood contact...
2017: PloS One
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