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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920752/the-effect-of-emotion-and-reward-contingencies-on-relational-memory-in-major-depression-an-eye-movement-study-with-follow-up
#1
Viola L Nemeth, Gergo Csete, Gergely Drotos, Nora Greminger, Zoltan Janka, Laszlo Vecsei, Anita Must
Background: Episodic memory disturbances were found to constitute a potential trait marker for major depression (MD). The recall of positive or rewarding information in a relational context is specifically impaired. Eye-movement recording constitutes a novel, direct approach to examine implicit memory performance. Here we aimed to assess the effect of emotional context and implicit virtual monetary reward or loss on viewing patterns in association with relational memory in a 6-months follow-up study in MD. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with MD and 30 healthy participants were trained to associate a face (happy/sad/neutral) with a background scene...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911892/authorization-of-animal-experiments-is-based-on-confidence-rather-than-evidence-of-scientific-rigor
#2
Lucile Vogt, Thomas S Reichlin, Christina Nathues, Hanno Würbel
Accumulating evidence indicates high risk of bias in preclinical animal research, questioning the scientific validity and reproducibility of published research findings. Systematic reviews found low rates of reporting of measures against risks of bias in the published literature (e.g., randomization, blinding, sample size calculation) and a correlation between low reporting rates and inflated treatment effects. That most animal research undergoes peer review or ethical review would offer the possibility to detect risks of bias at an earlier stage, before the research has been conducted...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898705/the-role-of-the-amygdala-in-facial-trustworthiness-processing-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#3
Sara Santos, Inês Almeida, Bárbara Oliveiros, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Faces play a key role in signaling social cues such as signals of trustworthiness. Although several studies identify the amygdala as a core brain region in social cognition, quantitative approaches evaluating its role are scarce. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to assess the role of the amygdala in the processing of facial trustworthiness, by analyzing its amplitude BOLD response polarity to untrustworthy versus trustworthy facial signals under fMRI tasks through a Meta-analysis of effect sizes (MA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893266/assessing-civilian-perceptions-of-combat-veterans-an-iat-study
#4
Cade Schreger, Matthew Kimble
Objective: Evidence suggests that civilians may have considerable ambivalence to returning veterans. While civilians are frequently grateful for the service of military personnel, they can often be wary of the mental health and stability of returning veterans. If civilians do hold such negative biases toward veterans, whether implicit or explicit, this may have a significant impact on the ability of military personnel to integrate back into society. The goal of the study was to test whether participants held an implicit bias of mental instability toward veterans...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877113/the-effects-of-realistic-synaptic-distribution-and-3d-geometry-on-signal-integration-and-extracellular-field-generation-of-hippocampal-pyramidal-cells-and-inhibitory-neurons
#5
Attila I Gulyás, Tamás F Freund, Szabolcs Káli
In vivo and in vitro multichannel field and somatic intracellular recordings are frequently used to study mechanisms of network pattern generation. When interpreting these data, neurons are often implicitly considered as electrotonically compact cylinders with a homogeneous distribution of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. However, the actual distributions of dendritic length, diameter, and the densities of excitatory and inhibitory input are non-uniform and cell type-specific. We first review quantitative data on the dendritic structure and synaptic input and output distribution of pyramidal cells (PCs) and interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 area...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865113/implicit-moral-evaluations-a-multinomial-modeling-approach
#6
C Daryl Cameron, B Keith Payne, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Julian A Scheffer, Michael Inzlicht
Implicit moral evaluations-i.e., immediate, unintentional assessments of the wrongness of actions or persons-play a central role in supporting moral behavior in everyday life. Yet little research has employed methods that rigorously measure individual differences in implicit moral evaluations. In five experiments, we develop a new sequential priming measure-the Moral Categorization Task-and a multinomial model that decomposes judgment on this task into multiple component processes. These include implicit moral evaluations of moral transgression primes (Unintentional Judgment), accurate moral judgments about target actions (Intentional Judgment), and a directional tendency to judge actions as morally wrong (Response Bias)...
November 16, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862713/impact-of-alcohol-promoting-and-alcohol-warning-advertisements-on-alcohol-consumption-affect-and-implicit-cognition-in-heavy-drinking-young-adults-a-laboratory-based-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Kaidy Stautz, Daniel Frings, Ian P Albery, Antony C Moss, Theresa M Marteau
OBJECTIVES: There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol-advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes. DESIGN: Between-participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions. METHODS: Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18-25) who self-reported as heavy drinkers were randomized to view one of three sets of 10 video advertisements that included either (1) alcohol-promoting, (2) alcohol-warning, or (3) non-alcohol advertisements...
November 11, 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861879/neural-correlates-of-explicit-and-implicit-emotion-processing-in-relation-to-treatment-response-in-pediatric-anxiety
#8
Katie L Burkhouse, Autumn Kujawa, Heide Klumpp, Kate D Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Approximately 40%-45% of youth with anxiety disorders do not achieve remission (or a substantial reduction in symptoms) following treatment, highlighting the need to identify predictors of treatment response. Given the well-established link between attentional biases and anxiety disorders in youth and adults, this study examined the neural correlates of directing attention toward and away from emotional faces in relation to pediatric anxiety treatment response. METHOD: Prior to beginning treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline or cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), 37 youth (age 7-19 years) with generalized and/or social anxiety disorder completed a task with conditions that manipulated whether participants were instructed to match emotional faces (explicit emotion processing) or match shapes in the context of emotional face distractors (implicit emotion processing) during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836635/attentional-bias-to-unhealthy-food-in-individuals-with-severe-obesity-and-binge-eating
#9
Michelle Deluchi, Fabiana Silva Costa, Rogério Friedman, Raul Gonçalves, Lisiane Bizarro
Attentional bias is an implicit cognition relevant to development and maintenance of obesity, but little is known of how binge eating modulates attentional bias in severe obesity. This study investigated attentional bias towards unhealthy foods at different stages of attentional processing in a clinical sample, comparing obese patients (Body Mass Index, BMI>35 kg/m(2)) with and without binge eating behaviors. Participants were separated into two groups according to their score on the Binge Eating Scale (BES): no binge eating (NB; score ≤17; n = 23) and binge eating (BE; score > 17; n = 19)...
November 9, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830470/the-influence-of-masked-stimuli-on-response-selection-evidence-from-a-semantic-categorization-task
#10
Brenda Ocampo
Unconscious visual stimuli can be processed by human observers and influence their behaviour. A striking example is a phenomenon known as "free-choice priming," where masked "prime" stimuli-of which participants are unaware-modulate which of two response alternatives they are likely to choose. Recent efforts to uncover the mechanisms underlying this intriguing effect have revealed that free-choice priming can emerge even in the absence of automatized stimulus-response (S-R) associations between masked primes and specific motor responses, indicating that free choices can be influenced by a masked prime's meaning (Ocampo, 2015)...
November 9, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822188/the-reliability-of-child-friendly-race-attitude-implicit-association-tests
#11
Amanda Williams, Jennifer R Steele
Implicit attitudes are evaluations that are made automatically, unconsciously, unintentionally, or without conscious and deliberative processing (Nosek et al., 2007; Gawronski and De Houwer, 2014). For the last two decades implicit measures have been developed and used to assess people's attitudes and social cognition, with the most widely used measure being the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 2003). This measure has been used extensively to assess racial biases and a number of studies have examined the reliability of the IAT when administered to adults (Cunningham et al...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820793/implicit-bias-an-opportunity-for-physician-assistants-to-mindfully-reduce-health-care-disparities
#12
Shalon Buchs, Karen Mulitalo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819458/i-saw-mine-first-a-prior-entry-effect-for-newly-acquired-ownership
#13
Grace Truong, Kevin H Roberts, Rebecca M Todd
Previous research has shown that attentional sets can be tuned to implicitly prioritize awareness of universally aversive or rewarding stimuli. But can mere ownership modulate implicit attentional prioritization as well? In Experiments 1 and 2, participants learned whether everyday objects belonged to them (self-owned) or the experimenter (other-owned) and completed a temporal order judgment task in which pairs of stimuli appeared onscreen with staggered timing. Results revealed a prior-entry effect, in which participants were more likely to report seeing a self-owned object first when 2 objects appeared simultaneously...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792911/towards-greater-understanding-of-addiction-stigma-intersectionality-with-race-ethnicity-and-gender
#14
Magdalena Kulesza, Mauri Matsuda, Jason J Ramirez, Alexandra J Werntz, Bethany A Teachman, Kristen P Lindgren
BACKGROUND: In spite of the significant burden associated with substance use disorders, especially among persons who inject drugs (PWIDs), most affected individuals do not engage with any type of formal or informal treatment. Addiction stigma, which is represented by negative social attitudes toward individuals who use alcohol and/or other drugs, is one of the barriers to care that is poorly understood. The current study: a) assessed implicit (indirect and difficult to consciously control) and explicit (consciously controlled) beliefs about PWIDs among visitors to a public web site; and b) experimentally investigated the effects of ethnicity/race and gender on those implicit and explicit beliefs...
December 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785857/malleability-of-implicit-associations-across-development
#15
Antonya Marie Gonzalez, William L Dunlop, Andrew Scott Baron
The prevalence of implicit intergroup bias in adults underscores the importance of knowing when during development such biases are most amenable to change. Although research suggests that implicit intergroup bias undergoes little change across development, no studies have directly examined whether developmental differences exist in the capacity for novel implicit associations to form or change. The present study examined this issue among children ages 5-12. Results from over 800 children provided evidence that novel implicit associations formed quickly, regardless of child age, association type (evaluative or non-evaluative) or the target of the association (social or non-social)...
October 27, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783012/discussion-understanding-and-overcoming-implicit-gender-bias-in-plastic-surgery
#16
Heather J Furnas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782970/hospital-cultural-competency-as-a-systematic-organizational-intervention-key-findings-from-the-national-center-for-healthcare-leadership-diversity-demonstration-project
#17
Robert Weech-Maldonado, Janice L Dreachslin, Josué Patien Epané, Judith Gail, Shivani Gupta, Joyce Anne Wainio
BACKGROUND: Cultural competency or the ongoing capacity of health care systems to provide for high-quality care to diverse patient populations (National Quality Forum, 2008) has been proposed as an organizational strategy to address disparities in quality of care, patient experience, and workforce representation. But far too many health care organizations still do not treat cultural competency as a business imperative and driver of strategy. PURPOSES: The aim of the study was to examine the impact of a systematic, multifaceted, and organizational level cultural competency initiative on hospital performance metrics at the organizational and individual levels...
October 25, 2016: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775407/positivity-bias-in-judging-ingroup-members-emotional-expressions
#18
Talya Lazerus, Zachary A Ingbretsen, Ryan M Stolier, Jonathan B Freeman, Mina Cikara
We investigated how group membership impacts valence judgments of ingroup and outgroup members' emotional expressions. In Experiment 1, participants, randomized into 2 novel, competitive groups, rated the valence of in- and outgroup members' facial expressions (e.g., fearful, happy, neutral) using a circumplex affect grid. Across all emotions, participants judged ingroup members' expressions as more positive than outgroup members' expressions. In Experiment 2, participants categorized fearful and happy expressions as being either positive or negative using a mouse-tracking paradigm...
December 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774072/processing-load-imposed-by-line-breaks-in-english-temporal-wh-questions
#19
Masako Hirotani, J Michael Terry, Norihiro Sadato
Prosody plays an important role in online sentence processing both explicitly and implicitly. It has been shown that prosodically packaging together parts of a sentence that are interpreted together facilitates processing of the sentence. This applies not only to explicit prosody but also implicit prosody. The present work hypothesizes that a line break in a written text induces an implicit prosodic break, which, in turn, should result in a processing bias for interpreting English wh-questions. Two experiments-one self-paced reading study and one questionnaire study-are reported...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769910/is-complex-allometry-in-field-metabolic-rates-of-mammals-a-statistical-artifact
#20
Gary C Packard
Recent reports indicate that field metabolic rates (FMRs) of mammals conform to a pattern of complex allometry in which the exponent in a simple, two-parameter power equation increases steadily as a dependent function of body mass. The reports were based, however, on indirect analyses performed on logarithmic transformations of the original data. I re-examined values for FMR and body mass for 114 species of mammal by the conventional approach to allometric analysis (to illustrate why the approach is unreliable) and by linear and nonlinear regression on untransformed variables (to illustrate the power and versatility of newer analytical methods)...
October 18, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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