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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226966/using-trial-level-data-and-multilevel-modeling-to-investigate-within-task-change-in-event-related-potentials
#1
Hannah I Volpert-Esmond, Edgar C Merkle, Meredith P Levsen, Tiffany A Ito, Bruce D Bartholow
EEG data, and specifically the ERP, provide psychologists with the power to examine quickly occurring cognitive processes at the native temporal resolution at which they occur. Despite the advantages conferred by ERPs to examine processes at different points in time, ERP researchers commonly ignore the trial-to-trial temporal dimension by collapsing across trials of similar types (i.e., the signal averaging approach) because of constraints imposed by repeated measures ANOVA. Here, we present the advantages of using multilevel modeling (MLM) to examine trial-level data to investigate change in neurocognitive processes across the course of an experiment...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226526/we-need-personalized-assessments-for-implicit-bias-in-higher-risk-situations
#2
EDITORIAL
David B Waisel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225371/breaking-the-prejudice-habit-mechanisms-timecourse-and-longevity
#3
Patrick S Forscher, Chelsea Mitamura, Emily L Dix, William T L Cox, Patricia G Devine
The prejudice habit-breaking intervention (Devine et al., 2012) and its offshoots (e.g., Carnes et al., 2012) have shown promise in effecting long-term change in key outcomes related to intergroup bias, including increases in awareness, concern about discrimination, and, in one study, long-term decreases in implicit bias. This intervention is based on the premise that unintentional bias is like a habit that can be broken with sufficient motivation, awareness, and effort. We conducted replication of the original habit-breaking intervention experiment in a sample more than three times the size of the original (N = 292)...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223490/implicit-causality-bias-in-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Haley C Dresang, Lyn S Turkstra
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury often experience impairments in pragmatic language functions. Pragmatic language has been studied primarily in connected language genres such as narratives. It may be, however, that individuals with traumatic brain injury also miss microscopic cues, such as social cues embedded in single word meanings or sentence structure. The current study examined one type of sentence-level pragmatic language cue: implicit causality bias...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220702/the-effect-of-subjective-awareness-measures-on-performance-in-artificial-grammar-learning-task
#5
Ivan I Ivanchei, Nadezhda V Moroshkina
Systematic research into implicit learning requires well-developed awareness-measurement techniques. Recently, trial-by-trial measures have been widely used. However, they can increase complexity of a study because they are an additional experimental variable. We tested the effects of these measures on performance in artificial grammar learning study. Four groups of participants were assigned to different awareness measures conditions: confidence ratings, post-decision wagering, decision strategy attribution or none...
December 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217835/bayesian-prediction-intervals-for-assessing-p-value-variability-in-prospective-replication-studies
#6
Olga Vsevolozhskaya, Gabriel Ruiz, Dmitri Zaykin
Increased availability of data and accessibility of computational tools in recent years have created an unprecedented upsurge of scientific studies driven by statistical analysis. Limitations inherent to statistics impose constraints on the reliability of conclusions drawn from data, so misuse of statistical methods is a growing concern. Hypothesis and significance testing, and the accompanying P-values are being scrutinized as representing the most widely applied and abused practices. One line of critique is that P-values are inherently unfit to fulfill their ostensible role as measures of credibility for scientific hypotheses...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213252/hemispheric-asymmetries-in-price-estimation-do-brain-hemispheres-attribute-different-monetary-values
#7
Felice Giuliani, Anita D'Anselmo, Luca Tommasi, Alfredo Brancucci, Davide Pietroni
The Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect has been associated with a wide range of magnitude processing. This effect is due to an implicit relationship between numbers and horizontal space, according to which weaker magnitudes and smaller numbers are represented on the left, whereas stronger magnitudes and larger numbers are represented on the right. However, for some particular type of magnitudes such as price, judgments may be also influenced by perceived quality and thus involving valence attribution biases driven by brain asymmetries...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187831/learning-where-to-look-for-high-value-improves-decision-making-asymmetrically
#8
Jaron T Colas, Joy Lu
Decision making in any brain is imperfect and costly in terms of time and energy. Operating under such constraints, an organism could be in a position to improve performance if an opportunity arose to exploit informative patterns in the environment being searched. Such an improvement of performance could entail both faster and more accurate (i.e., reward-maximizing) decisions. The present study investigated the extent to which human participants could learn to take advantage of immediate patterns in the spatial arrangement of serially presented foods such that a region of space would consistently be associated with greater subjective value...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187391/implicit-gender-bias-and-the-use-of-cardiovascular-tests-among-cardiologists
#9
Stacie L Daugherty, Irene V Blair, Edward P Havranek, Anna Furniss, L Miriam Dickinson, Elhum Karimkhani, Deborah S Main, Frederick A Masoudi
BACKGROUND: Physicians' gender bias may contribute to gender disparities in cardiovascular testing. We used the Implicit Association Test to examine the association of implicit gender biases with decisions to use cardiovascular tests. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 2014, cardiologists completed Implicit Association Tests and a clinical vignette with patient gender randomly assigned. The Implicit Association Tests measured implicit gender bias for the characteristics of strength and risk taking...
November 29, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183247/is-the-devil-in-the-detail-evidence-for-s-s-learning-after-unconditional-stimulus-revaluation-in-human-evaluative-conditioning-under-a-broader-set-of-experimental-conditions
#10
Hannah Jensen-Fielding, Camilla C Luck, Ottmar V Lipp
Whether valence change during evaluative conditioning is mediated by a link between the conditional stimulus (CS) and the unconditional stimulus (US; S-S learning) or between the CS and the unconditional response (S-R learning) is a matter of continued debate. Changing the valence of the US after conditioning, known as US revaluation, can be used to dissociate these accounts. Changes in CS valence after US revaluation provide evidence for S-S learning but if CS valence does not change, evidence for S-R learning is found...
November 28, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179660/teaching-resident-physicians-the-power-of-implicit-bias-and-how-it-impacts-patient-care-utilizing-patients-who-have-experienced-incarceration-as-a-model
#11
Sabrina Hofmeister, Andrya Soprych
Over 2 million adults in the United States are incarcerated and over 650,000 return to the community each year. This disparate population is known to have an elevated burden of chronic disease and lower socioeconomic status. Medical residency training about care of incarcerated or previously incarcerated patients is significantly lacking in the United States. Curriculum can be developed and implemented in residency programs to help physicians learn how to work with this population, be sensitive to their unique needs, and achieve positive health outcomes...
July 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171321/changes-in-medical-student-implicit-attitudes-following-a-health-equity-curricular-intervention
#12
Katie F Leslie, Susan Sawning, M Ann Shaw, Leslee J Martin, Ryan C Simpson, Jennifer E Stephens, V Faye Jones
PURPOSE: This study assessed the: (1) effect of an LGBTQI + health equity curriculum (eQuality) on implicit attitudes among first (M1) and second year (M2) medical students and (2) utility of dedicated time to explore implicit bias. METHOD: Implicit biases were assessed at baseline using implicit association tests (IAT) for all M2s and a random sample of first years (M1A). These students were then debriefed on strategies to mitigate bias. Following eQuality, all M1 and M2s completed post-intervention IATs...
November 24, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170634/lost-in-time-and-space-states-of-high-arousal-disrupt-implicit-acquisition-of-spatial-and-sequential-context-information
#13
Thomas Maran, Pierre Sachse, Markus Martini, Barbara Weber, Jakob Pinggera, Stefan Zuggal, Marco Furtner
Biased cognition during high arousal states is a relevant phenomenon in a variety of topics: from the development of post-traumatic stress disorders or stress-triggered addictive behaviors to forensic considerations regarding crimes of passion. Recent evidence indicates that arousal modulates the engagement of a hippocampus-based "cognitive" system in favor of a striatum-based "habit" system in learning and memory, promoting a switch from flexible, contextualized to more rigid, reflexive responses. Existing findings appear inconsistent, therefore it is unclear whether and which type of context processing is disrupted by enhanced arousal...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163092/how-well-can-saliency-models-predict-fixation-selection-in-scenes-beyond-central-bias-a-new-approach-to-model-evaluation-using-generalized-linear-mixed-models
#14
Antje Nuthmann, Wolfgang Einhäuser, Immo Schütz
Since the turn of the millennium, a large number of computational models of visual salience have been put forward. How best to evaluate a given model's ability to predict where human observers fixate in images of real-world scenes remains an open research question. Assessing the role of spatial biases is a challenging issue; this is particularly true when we consider the tendency for high-salience items to appear in the image center, combined with a tendency to look straight ahead ("central bias"). This problem is further exacerbated in the context of model comparisons, because some-but not all-models implicitly or explicitly incorporate a center preference to improve performance...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156368/self-and-team-prioritisation-effects-in-perceptual-matching-evidence-for-a-shared-representation
#15
Florence Enock, Jie Sui, Miles Hewstone, Glyn W Humphreys
Previous research has demonstrated that in-group favouritism occurs not only in higher-level judgments such as reward allocation, but also in low-level perceptual and attentional tasks. Recently, Moradi, Sui, Hewstone, and Humphreys (2015) found a novel effect of in-group bias on a simple perceptual matching task in which football fans responded more efficiently to stimuli newly associated with their own football team than stimuli associated with rival or neutral teams. This result is consistent with a robust self-bias effect in which individuals show a large performance advantage in responding to stimuli associated with the self over stimuli associated with a close friend or a stranger (Sui, He, & Humphreys, 2012)...
November 17, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147006/the-influence-of-skin-colour-on-the-experience-of-ownership-in-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#16
Marilia Lira, Julia H Egito, Patricia A Dall'Agnol, David M Amodio, Óscar F Gonçalves, Paulo S Boggio
Racial prejudice is associated with a fundamental distinction between "us" and "them"-a distinction linked to the perceived overlap between representations of the self and others. Implicit prejudice has been shown to reduce the intensity of White individuals' hand ownership sensation as induced by the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) with dark rubber hands. However, evidence for this link to implicit prejudice comes from self-report questionnaire data regarding the RHI. As an alternative, we assessed the onset time of the RHI...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140915/the-actual-versus-idealized-self-exploring-responses-to-feedback-about-implicit-bias-in-health-professionals
#17
Javeed Sukhera, Alexandra Milne, Pim W Teunissen, Lorelei Lingard, Chris Watling
PURPOSE: Implicit bias can adversely affect health disparities. The implicit association test (IAT) is a prompt to stimulate reflection; however, feedback about bias may trigger emotions that reduce the effectiveness of feedback interventions. Exploring how individuals process feedback about implicit bias may inform bias recognition and management curricula. The authors sought to explore how health professionals perceive the influence of the experience of taking the IAT and receiving their results...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115675/examining-children-s-implicit-racial-attitudes-using-exemplar-and-category-based-measures
#18
Amanda Williams, Jennifer R Steele
The goal of this research was to examine children's implicit racial attitudes. Across three studies, a total of 359 White 5- to 12-year-olds completed child-friendly exemplar (Affective Priming Task; Affect Misattribution Procedure) and category-based (Implicit Association Test) implicit measures of racial attitudes. Younger children (5- to 8-year-olds) showed automatic ingroup positivity toward White child exemplars, whereas older children (9- to 12-year-olds) did not. Children also showed no evidence of automatic negativity toward Black exemplars, despite demonstrating consistent pro-White versus Black bias on the category-based measure...
November 8, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110668/measuring-the-bias-against-low-income-country-research-an-implicit-association-test
#19
Matthew Harris, James Macinko, Geronimo Jimenez, Pricila Mullachery
BACKGROUND: With an increasing array of innovations and research emerging from low-income countries there is a growing recognition that even high-income countries could learn from these contexts. It is well known that the source of a product influences perception of that product, but little research has examined whether this applies also in evidence-based medicine and decision-making. In order to examine likely barriers to learning from low-income countries, this study uses established methods in cognitive psychology to explore whether healthcare professionals and researchers implicitly associate good research with rich countries more so than with poor countries...
November 6, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096874/altering-spatial-priority-maps-via-statistical-learning-of-target-selection-and-distractor-filtering
#20
Oscar Ferrante, Alessia Patacca, Valeria Di Caro, Chiara Della Libera, Elisa Santandrea, Leonardo Chelazzi
The cognitive system has the capacity to learn and make use of environmental regularities - known as statistical learning (SL), including for the implicit guidance of attention. For instance, it is known that attentional selection is biased according to the spatial probability of targets; similarly, changes in distractor filtering can be triggered by the unequal spatial distribution of distractors. Open questions remain regarding the cognitive/neuronal mechanisms underlying SL of target selection and distractor filtering...
October 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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