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unconscious bias

Shui'er Han, Claudia Lunghi, David Alais
Continuous flash suppression (CFS) is a psychophysical technique where a rapidly changing Mondrian pattern viewed by one eye suppresses the target in the other eye for several seconds. Despite the widespread use of CFS to study unconscious visual processes, the temporal tuning of CFS suppression is currently unknown. In the present study we used spatiotemporally filtered dynamic noise as masking stimuli to probe the temporal characteristics of CFS. Surprisingly, we find that suppression in CFS peaks very prominently at approximately 1 Hz, well below the rates typically used in CFS studies (10 Hz or more)...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Patricia Bucknor-Ferron, Lori Zagaja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Nursing
Anthony G Messina, Michael Wang, Marshall J Ward, Chase C Wilker, Brett B Smith, Daniel P Vezina, Nathan Leon Pace
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia is usually associated with unconsciousness. 'Awareness' is when patients have postoperative recall of events or experiences during surgery. 'Wakefulness' is when patients become conscious during surgery, but have no postoperative recollection of the period of consciousness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of two types of anaesthetic interventions in reducing clinically significant awareness:- anaesthetic drug regimens; and- intraoperative anaesthetic depth monitors...
October 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gordon Lee Gillespie, Tracy Pritchard, Karen Bankston, Jasmine Burno, Greer Glazer
BACKGROUND: The lack of diversity in the nursing profession could be an outcome of unconscious biases. Forums allowing the personal reflection and discourse of these unconscious biases are needed in order for a diverse and inclusive learning environment to exist. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of students, staff, faculty members, and guests participating in a forum on diversity and inclusion. METHODS: An exploratory design was used to understand the experiences of college of nursing students, staff, faculty members, and guests who participated in a diversity and inclusion intervention sponsored by the college of nursing's Diversity Advisory Council...
August 30, 2016: Nursing Outlook
Apoorva Rajiv Madipakkam, Marcus Rothkirch, Gregor Wilbertz, Philipp Sterzer
Efficient threat detection from the environment is critical for survival. Accordingly, fear-conditioned stimuli receive prioritized processing and capture overt and covert attention. However, it is unknown whether eye movements are influenced by unconscious fear-conditioned stimuli. We performed a classical fear-conditioning procedure and subsequently recorded participants' eye movements while they were exposed to fear-conditioned stimuli that were rendered invisible using interocular suppression. Chance-level performance in a forced-choice-task demonstrated unawareness of the stimuli...
September 26, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Quinn Capers, Daniel Clinchot, Leon McDougle, Anthony G Greenwald
PROBLEM: Implicit white race preference has been associated with discrimination in the education, criminal justice, and health care systems and could impede the entry of African Americans into the medical profession, where they and other minorities remain underrepresented. Little is known about implicit racial bias in medical school admissions committees. APPROACH: To measure implicit racial bias, all 140 members of the Ohio State University College of Medicine (OSUCOM) admissions committee took the black-white implicit association test (IAT) prior to the 2012-2013 cycle...
September 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Diana J Burgess, Mary Catherine Beach, Somnath Saha
Like the population at large, health care providers hold implicit racial and ethnic biases that may contribute to health care disparities. Little progress has been made in identifying and implementing effective strategies to address these normal but potentially harmful unconscious cognitive processes. We propose that meditation training designed to increase healthcare providers' mindfulness skills is a promising and potentially sustainable way to address this problem. Emerging evidence suggests that mindfulness practice can reduce the provider contribution to healthcare disparities through several mechanisms including: reducing the likelihood that implicit biases will be activated in the mind, increasing providers' awareness of and ability to control responses to implicit biases once activated, increasing self-compassion and compassion toward patients, and reducing internal sources of cognitive load (e...
September 15, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
Kershena Liao, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Andrew G Sikora
OBJECTIVE: The factors influencing head and neck surgical oncologists' goals of care and decisions to initiate conversations about transitioning to palliative-intent treatment for patients with limited curative treatment options are incompletely understood. Lack of guidance for physicians on this topic can lead to inconsistent utilization of palliative services, as well as confusing, upsetting experiences for patients and families. We review the literature investigating the clinical factors, inter- and intrapersonal factors, and financial and health care system considerations that head and neck cancer physicians weigh during this decision-making process...
September 13, 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Robert G Bergman, Rick L Danheiser
"… To what extent is reproducibility a significant issue in chemical research? How can problems involving irreproducibility be minimized? … Researchers should be aware of the dangers of unconscious investigator bias, all papers should provide adequate experimental detail, and Reviewers have a responsibility to carefully examine papers for adequacy of experimental detail and support for the conclusions …" Read more in the Editorial by Robert G. Bergman and Rick L. Danheiser.
October 4, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Carla A Houkamau, Kathrine Clarke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
Gil Rubinstein, Miriam Ethel Bentwich
This qualitative research examines the influence of animosity on physicians during clinical encounters and its ethical implications. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Israeli-Jewish physicians: four treated Syrians and six treated Palestinian terrorists/Hezbollah militants or Palestinian civilians. An interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to uncover main themes in these interviews. Whereas the majority of physicians stated they are obligated to treat any patient, physicians who treated Syrians exhibited stronger emotional expression and implicit empathy, while less referring to the presence of the Israeli-Arab conflict...
August 16, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
Gianluca Garulli, Andrea Lucchi, Pierluigi Berti, Carlo Gabbianelli, Luca Maria Siani
BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (E.R.A.S.) programs are now widely accepted in colonic laparoscopic resections because of faster recovery and less perioperative complications. The aim of this study was to assess safety and feasibility of discharging patients operated on by laparoscopic colectomy on postoperative day 2, so long as the first flatus has passed and in the absence of complication-related symptoms. METHODS: This study was a non-inferiority, open-label, single-center, prospective, randomized study comparing "Ultra" to Classic E...
August 12, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Abi Rimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Masahiro Matsuo, Fumi Masuda, Yukiyoshi Sumi, Masahiro Takahashi, Naoto Yamada, Masako Hasegawa Ohira, Koichi Fujiwara, Takashi Kanemura, Hiroshi Kadotani
BACKGROUND: Humans spend more than one-fourth of their life sleeping, and sleep quality has been significantly linked to health. However, the objective examination of ambulatory sleep quality remains a challenge, since sleep is a state of unconsciousness, which limits the reliability of self-reports. Therefore, a non-invasive, continuous, and objective method for the recording and analysis of naturalistic sleep is required. OBJECTIVE: Portable sleep recording devices provide a suitable solution for the ambulatory analysis of sleep quality...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Angela M Johnson, Rosalind Kirk, Alfreda Jordan Rooks, Maria Muzik
Objectives To explore African American women's breastfeeding thoughts, attitudes, and experiences with healthcare professionals and subsequent influences on their breastfeeding interest and behavior. Insight was also sought about the most effective practices to provide breastfeeding support to African American women. Methods Thirty-eight pregnant or lactating African American women and racially diverse health professionals were recruited and participated in one of six membership specific focus groups in the metro Detroit area...
July 23, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Young Duck Shin, Jin Ho Bae, Eun Jung Kwon, Hyeon Tae Kim, Tae-Soo Lee, Young Jin Choi
In unconscious patients, pupillary light reflex is an indicator of brain damage. In the current study, a smartphone application was developed for the purpose of measuring pupillary light reflex with an aim to determine the agreement between pupillary light reflex measurements using a smartphone application (APP) and a penlight (PEN). The APP acquires five sequential photographs using the camera flash in order to stimulate the pupil. The initial image is captured prior to the flash, and the subsequent image is obtained while the flash is on...
August 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Nicole A Phillips, Shruti C Tannan, Loree K Kalliainen
BACKGROUND: While explicit sex-based discrimination has largely been deemed unacceptable in professional settings, implicit gender bias persists and results in a significant lack of parity in plastic surgery and beyond. Implicit gender bias is the result of a complex interplay of cultural and societal expectations, learned behaviors, and standardized associations. As such, both male and female surgeons are subject to its influence. METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted, examining theories of gender bias, current manifestations of gender bias in plastic surgery and other fields, and interventions designed to address gender bias...
July 5, 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Sebastian Wiberg, Christian Hassager, Jakob Hartvig Thomsen, Martin Frydland, Dan Eik Høfsten, Thomas Engstrøm, Lars Køber, Henrik Schmidt, Jacob Eifer Møller, Jesper Kjaergaard
BACKGROUND: Attenuating the neurological damage occurring after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is an ongoing research effort. This dual-centre study investigates the neuroprotective effects of the glucagon-like-peptide-1 analogue Exenatide administered within 4 hours from the return of spontaneous circulation to comatose patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS/DESIGN: This pilot study will randomize a total of 120 unconscious patients with sustained return of spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest undergoing targeted temperature management in a blinded one-to-one fashion to a 6-hour and 15-minute infusion of either Exenatide or placebo...
2016: Trials
Amanda L Holm, Marla Rowe Gorosh, Megan Brady, Denise White-Perkins
PROBLEM: Despite increasing awareness of the social determinants of health, health care disparities among sociocultural groups persist. Health care providers' unconscious bias resulting from unrecognized social privilege is one contributor to these disparities. APPROACH: In 2009, Henry Ford Health System initiated the Healthcare Equity Campaign both to raise employees' awareness of inequalities related to the social determinants of health and to increase their motivation to reduce them...
June 28, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Melissa Dominicé Dao
Discrimination and inequalities in healthcare can be experienced by many patients due to many characteristics ranging from the obviously visible to the more subtly noticeable, such as race and ethnicity, legal status, social class, linguistic fluency, health literacy, age, gender and weight. Discrimination can take a number of forms including overt racist statement, stereotyping or explicit and implicit attitudes and biases. This paper presents the case study of a complex transcultural clinical encounter between the mother of a young infant in a highly vulnerable social situation and a hospital healthcare team...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
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