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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846731/dynamic-connectivity-patterns-in-conscious-and-unconscious-brain
#1
Yuncong Ma, Christina Hamilton, Nanyin Zhang
Brain functional connectivity undergoes dynamic changes from the awake to unconscious states. However, how the dynamics of functional connectivity patterns are linked to consciousness at the behavioral level remains elusive. Here we acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data during wakefulness and graded levels of consciousness in rats. Data were analyzed using a dynamic approach combining the sliding-window method and k-means clustering. Our results demonstrate that whole-brain networks contain several quasi-stable patterns that dynamically recurred from the awake state into anesthetized states...
November 15, 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830470/the-influence-of-masked-stimuli-on-response-selection-evidence-from-a-semantic-categorization-task
#2
Brenda Ocampo
Unconscious visual stimuli can be processed by human observers and influence their behaviour. A striking example is a phenomenon known as "free-choice priming," where masked "prime" stimuli-of which participants are unaware-modulate which of two response alternatives they are likely to choose. Recent efforts to uncover the mechanisms underlying this intriguing effect have revealed that free-choice priming can emerge even in the absence of automatized stimulus-response (S-R) associations between masked primes and specific motor responses, indicating that free choices can be influenced by a masked prime's meaning (Ocampo, 2015)...
November 9, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822188/the-reliability-of-child-friendly-race-attitude-implicit-association-tests
#3
Amanda Williams, Jennifer R Steele
Implicit attitudes are evaluations that are made automatically, unconsciously, unintentionally, or without conscious and deliberative processing (Nosek et al., 2007; Gawronski and De Houwer, 2014). For the last two decades implicit measures have been developed and used to assess people's attitudes and social cognition, with the most widely used measure being the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 2003). This measure has been used extensively to assess racial biases and a number of studies have examined the reliability of the IAT when administered to adults (Cunningham et al...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819255/an-adaptive-and-generalizable-closed-loop-system-for-control-of-medically-induced-coma-and-other-states-of-anesthesia
#4
Yuxiao Yang, Maryam M Shanechi
OBJECTIVE: Design of closed-loop anesthetic delivery (CLAD) systems is an important topic, particularly for medically induced coma, which needs to be maintained for long periods. Current CLADs for medically induced coma require a separate offline experiment for model parameter estimation, which causes interruption in treatment and is difficult to perform. Also, CLADs may exhibit bias due to inherent time-variation and non-stationarity, and may have large infusion rate variations at steady state...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793506/diversity-inclusion-and-representation-it%C3%A2-is-time-to-act
#5
Johnson B Lightfoote, Curtiland Deville, Loralie D Ma, Karen M Winkfield, Katarzyna J Macura
Although the available pool of qualified underrepresented minority and women medical school graduates has expanded in recent decades, their representation in the radiological professions has improved only marginally. Recognizing this deficit in diversity, many professional medical societies, including the ACR, have incorporated these values as core elements of their missions and instituted programs that address previously identified barriers to a more diverse workforce. These barriers include insufficient exposure of underrepresented minorities and women to radiology and radiation oncology; misperception of these specialties as non-patient care and not community service; unconscious bias; and delayed preparation of candidates to compete successfully for residency positions...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778303/will-the-conscious-subconscious-pacing-quagmire-help-elucidate-the-mechanisms-of-self-paced-exercise-new-opportunities-in-dual-process-theory-and-process-tracing-methods
#6
Dominic Micklewright, Sue Kegerreis, John Raglin, Florentina Hettinga
The extent to which athletic pacing decisions are made consciously or subconsciously is a prevailing issue. In this article we discuss why the one-dimensional conscious-subconscious debate that has reigned in the pacing literature has suppressed our understanding of the multidimensional processes that occur in pacing decisions. How do we make our decisions in real-life competitive situations? What information do we use and how do we respond to opponents? These are questions that need to be explored and better understood, using smartly designed experiments...
October 25, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776633/unexpected-arousal-modulates-the-influence-of-sensory-noise-on-confidence
#7
Micah Allen, Darya Frank, D Samuel Schwarzkopf, Francesca Fardo, Joel S Winston, Tobias U Hauser, Geraint Rees
Human perception is invariably accompanied by a graded feeling of confidence that guides metacognitive awareness and decision-making. It is often assumed that this arises solely from the feed-forward encoding of the strength or precision of sensory inputs. In contrast, interoceptive inference models suggest that confidence reflects a weighted integration of sensory precision and expectations about internal states, such as arousal. Here we test this hypothesis using a novel psychophysical paradigm, in which unseen disgust-cues induced unexpected, unconscious arousal just before participants discriminated motion signals of variable precision...
October 25, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767078/the-temporal-frequency-tuning-of-continuous-flash-suppression-reveals-peak-suppression-at-very-low-frequencies
#8
Shui'er Han, Claudia Lunghi, David Alais
Continuous flash suppression (CFS) is a psychophysical technique where a rapidly changing Mondrian pattern viewed by one eye suppresses the target in the other eye for several seconds. Despite the widespread use of CFS to study unconscious visual processes, the temporal tuning of CFS suppression is currently unknown. In the present study we used spatiotemporally filtered dynamic noise as masking stimuli to probe the temporal characteristics of CFS. Surprisingly, we find that suppression in CFS peaks very prominently at approximately 1 Hz, well below the rates typically used in CFS studies (10 Hz or more)...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759727/five-strategies-to-combat-unconscious-bias
#9
Patricia Bucknor-Ferron, Lori Zagaja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755648/anaesthetic-interventions-for-prevention-of-awareness-during-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Anthony G Messina, Michael Wang, Marshall J Ward, Chase C Wilker, Brett B Smith, Daniel P Vezina, Nathan Leon Pace
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia is usually associated with unconsciousness. 'Awareness' is when patients have postoperative recall of events or experiences during surgery. 'Wakefulness' is when patients become conscious during surgery, but have no postoperative recollection of the period of consciousness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of two types of anaesthetic interventions in reducing clinically significant awareness:- anaesthetic drug regimens; and- intraoperative anaesthetic depth monitors...
October 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692895/an-evaluation-of-forums-for-discussions-on-inclusion-in-a-college-of-nursing
#11
Gordon Lee Gillespie, Tracy Pritchard, Karen Bankston, Jasmine Burno, Greer Glazer
BACKGROUND: The lack of diversity in the nursing profession could be an outcome of unconscious biases. Forums allowing the personal reflection and discourse of these unconscious biases are needed in order for a diverse and inclusive learning environment to exist. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of students, staff, faculty members, and guests participating in a forum on diversity and inclusion. METHODS: An exploratory design was used to understand the experiences of college of nursing students, staff, faculty members, and guests who participated in a diversity and inclusion intervention sponsored by the college of nursing's Diversity Advisory Council...
August 30, 2016: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684607/probing-the-influence-of-unconscious-fear-conditioned-visual-stimuli-on-eye-movements
#12
Apoorva Rajiv Madipakkam, Marcus Rothkirch, Gregor Wilbertz, Philipp Sterzer
Efficient threat detection from the environment is critical for survival. Accordingly, fear-conditioned stimuli receive prioritized processing and capture overt and covert attention. However, it is unknown whether eye movements are influenced by unconscious fear-conditioned stimuli. We performed a classical fear-conditioning procedure and subsequently recorded participants' eye movements while they were exposed to fear-conditioned stimuli that were rendered invisible using interocular suppression. Chance-level performance in a forced-choice-task demonstrated unawareness of the stimuli...
September 26, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680316/implicit-racial-bias-in-medical-school-admissions
#13
Quinn Capers, Daniel Clinchot, Leon McDougle, Anthony G Greenwald
PROBLEM: Implicit white race preference has been associated with discrimination in the education, criminal justice, and health care systems and could impede the entry of African Americans into the medical profession, where they and other minorities remain underrepresented. Little is known about implicit racial bias in medical school admissions committees. APPROACH: To measure implicit racial bias, all 140 members of the Ohio State University College of Medicine (OSUCOM) admissions committee took the black-white implicit association test (IAT) prior to the 2012-2013 cycle...
September 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665499/mindfulness-practice-a-promising-approach-to-reducing-the-effects-of-clinician-implicit-bias-on-patients
#14
Diana J Burgess, Mary Catherine Beach, Somnath Saha
Like the population at large, health care providers hold implicit racial and ethnic biases that may contribute to health care disparities. Little progress has been made in identifying and implementing effective strategies to address these normal but potentially harmful unconscious cognitive processes. We propose that meditation training designed to increase healthcare providers' mindfulness skills is a promising and potentially sustainable way to address this problem. Emerging evidence suggests that mindfulness practice can reduce the provider contribution to healthcare disparities through several mechanisms including: reducing the likelihood that implicit biases will be activated in the mind, increasing providers' awareness of and ability to control responses to implicit biases once activated, increasing self-compassion and compassion toward patients, and reducing internal sources of cognitive load (e...
September 15, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625024/factors-influencing-head-and-neck-surgical-oncologists-transition-from-curative-to-palliative-treatment-goals
#15
Kershena Liao, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Andrew G Sikora
OBJECTIVE: The factors influencing head and neck surgical oncologists' goals of care and decisions to initiate conversations about transitioning to palliative-intent treatment for patients with limited curative treatment options are incompletely understood. Lack of guidance for physicians on this topic can lead to inconsistent utilization of palliative services, as well as confusing, upsetting experiences for patients and families. We review the literature investigating the clinical factors, inter- and intrapersonal factors, and financial and health care system considerations that head and neck cancer physicians weigh during this decision-making process...
September 13, 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558212/reproducibility-in-chemical-research
#16
EDITORIAL
Robert G Bergman, Rick L Danheiser
"… To what extent is reproducibility a significant issue in chemical research? How can problems involving irreproducibility be minimized? … Researchers should be aware of the dangers of unconscious investigator bias, all papers should provide adequate experimental detail, and Reviewers have a responsibility to carefully examine papers for adequacy of experimental detail and support for the conclusions …" Read more in the Editorial by Robert G. Bergman and Rick L. Danheiser.
October 4, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538045/why-are-those-most-in-need-of-sudden-unexplained-infant-death-sudi-prevention-information-the-least-likely-to-receive-it-a-comment-on-unconscious-bias-and-m%C3%A4-ori-health
#17
Carla A Houkamau, Kathrine Clarke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527727/the-enemy-as-a-patient-what-can-be-learned-from-the-emotional-experience-of-physicians-and-why-does-it-matter-ethically
#18
Gil Rubinstein, Miriam Ethel Bentwich
This qualitative research examines the influence of animosity on physicians during clinical encounters and its ethical implications. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Israeli-Jewish physicians: four treated Syrians and six treated Palestinian terrorists/Hezbollah militants or Palestinian civilians. An interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to uncover main themes in these interviews. Whereas the majority of physicians stated they are obligated to treat any patient, physicians who treated Syrians exhibited stronger emotional expression and implicit empathy, while less referring to the presence of the Israeli-Arab conflict...
August 16, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519593/-ultra-e-r-a-s-in-laparoscopic-colectomy-for-cancer-discharge-after-the-first-flatus-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#19
Gianluca Garulli, Andrea Lucchi, Pierluigi Berti, Carlo Gabbianelli, Luca Maria Siani
BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (E.R.A.S.) programs are now widely accepted in colonic laparoscopic resections because of faster recovery and less perioperative complications. The aim of this study was to assess safety and feasibility of discharging patients operated on by laparoscopic colectomy on postoperative day 2, so long as the first flatus has passed and in the absence of complication-related symptoms. METHODS: This study was a non-inferiority, open-label, single-center, prospective, randomized study comparing "Ultra" to Classic E...
August 12, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511864/avoiding-unconscious-bias
#20
Abi Rimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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