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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725865/the-science-of-empathy
#1
Helen Riess
Empathy plays a critical interpersonal and societal role, enabling sharing of experiences, needs, and desires between individuals and providing an emotional bridge that promotes pro-social behavior. This capacity requires an exquisite interplay of neural networks and enables us to perceive the emotions of others, resonate with them emotionally and cognitively, to take in the perspective of others, and to distinguish between our own and others' emotions. Studies show empathy declines during medical training...
June 2017: Journal of patient experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708467/gender-differences-in-surgical-treatment-of-patients-with-cleft-lip-and-palate
#2
Anna Paganini, Camilla Hörfelt, Hans Mark
Numerous gender-based differences in medical treatment have been recognized due to conscious or unconscious perceptions, i.e. gender bias. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether gender differences exist in the surgical treatment of patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) anomalies. This study is a retrospective review of 235 consecutive patients with non-syndromic unilateral CLP or bilateral CLP born between 1966 and 1986. Each chart was reviewed, and 2178 surgical procedures were registered and categorized as primary surgery (primary lip, palatal and alveolar repair) or secondary surgery (aesthetic and functional revision)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659843/leaky-pipeline-myths-in-search-of-gender-effects-on-the-job-market-and-early-career-publishing-in-philosophy
#3
Sean Allen-Hermanson
That philosophy is an outlier in the humanities when it comes to the underrepresentation of women has been the occasion for much discussion about possible effects of subtle forms of prejudice, including implicit bias and stereotype threat. While these ideas have become familiar to the philosophical community, there has only recently been a surge of interest in acquiring field-specific data. This paper adds to quantitative findings bearing on hypotheses about the effects of unconscious prejudice on two important stages along career pathways: tenure-track hiring and early career publishing...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632597/leadership-communication-and-negotiation-across-a-diverse-workforce-an-aoa-critical-issues-symposium
#4
Denis R Clohisy, Michael J Yaszemski, Joanne Lipman
The current workforce in the United States is rapidly changing and is increasingly inclusive of individuals from a broad range of ages, ethnicities, and cultural backgrounds. Engaging and leading a diverse workforce creates great opportunities for innovation and adaptation in our evolving medical economic and clinical care delivery environment. For optimal engagement of employees and partners, orthopaedic surgeons must develop the necessary skills for executing change inside complex organizations and across teams composed of a variety of providers and skilled workers...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628955/recovering-the-father-in-mind-and-flesh-history-triadic-functioning-and-developmental-implications
#5
Michael J Diamond
This paper aims to restore the father and paternal function to their rightful place alongside the mother and maternity in order to counter the prevailing matricentric, dyadic bias in psychoanalytic theory and technique. The author contends that both the symbolic and the actual, flesh-and-blood father are necessary to optimize his child's development. The paternal function inevitably operates in a triadic matrix; thirdness is always psychically in existence-with the father ever present in the mother's unconscious mind-and the paternal third is necessary to open up symbolic space...
April 2017: Psychoanalytic Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536918/-cognitive-errors-in-diagnostic-decision-making
#6
REVIEW
Martin Gäbler
Approximately 10-15% of our diagnostic decisions are faulty and may lead to unfavorable and dangerous outcomes, which could be avoided. These diagnostic errors are mainly caused by cognitive biases in the diagnostic reasoning process.Our medical diagnostic decision-making is based on intuitive "System 1" and analytical "System 2" diagnostic decision-making and can be deviated by unconscious cognitive biases.These deviations can be positively influenced on a systemic and an individual level. For the individual, metacognition (internal withdrawal from the decision-making process) and debiasing strategies, such as verification, falsification and rule out worst-case scenarios, can lead to improved diagnostic decisions making...
May 23, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492707/the-strangest-of-all-encounters-racial-and-ethnic-discrimination-in-us-health-care
#7
Sherman A James
In 2003, a Committee of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences summarized hundreds of studies documenting that US racial minorities, especially African Americans, receive poorer quality health care for a wide variety of conditions than their White counterparts. These racial differences in health care persist after controlling for sociodemographic factors and patients' ability to pay for care. The Committee concluded that physicians' unconscious negative stereotypes of African Americans, and perhaps other people of color, likely contribute to these health care disparities...
May 8, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472533/a-systematic-review-of-the-impact-of-physician-implicit-racial-bias-on-clinical-decision-making
#8
Erin Dehon, Nicole Weiss, Jonathan Jones, Whitney Faulconer, Elizabeth Hinton, Sarah Sterling
OBJECTIVES: Disparities in diagnosis and treatment of racial minorities exist in the emergency department (ED). A better understanding of how physician implicit (unconscious) bias contributes to these disparities may help identify ways to eliminate such racial disparities. The objective of this systematic review was to examine and summarize the evidence on the association between physician implicit racial bias and clinical decision making. METHODS: Based on PRISMA guidelines, a structured electronic literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases was conducted...
May 4, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417507/understanding-the-roots-of-health-inequalities-requires-new-methods
#9
S Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408535/unconscious-bias-must-be-tackled-to-reduce-worry-about-overseas-trained-doctors-says-bapio
#10
Abi Rimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401131/perceptions-and-experiences-of-a-gender-gap-at-a-canadian-research-institute-and-potential-strategies-to-mitigate-this-gap-a-sequential-mixed-methods-study
#11
Alekhya Mascarenhas, Julia E Moore, Andrea C Tricco, Jemila Hamid, Caitlin Daly, Julie Bain, Sabrina Jassemi, Tara Kiran, Nancy Baxter, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: The gender gap in academia is long-standing. Failure to ensure that our academic faculty reflect our student pool and national population deprives Canada of talent. We explored the gender distribution and perceptions of the gender gap at a Canadian university-affiliated, hospital-based research institute. METHODS: We completed a sequential mixed-methods study. In phase 1, we used the research institute's registry of scientists (1999-2014) and estimated overall prevalence of a gender gap and the gap with respect to job description (e...
January 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342029/self-awareness-and-cultural-identity-as-an-effort-to-reduce-bias-in-medicine
#12
Augustus A White, Heather J Logghe, Dan A Goodenough, Linda L Barnes, Anne Hallward, Irving M Allen, David W Green, Edward Krupat, Roxana Llerena-Quinn
In response to persistently documented health disparities based on race and other demographic factors, medical schools have implemented "cultural competency" coursework. While many of these courses have focused on strategies for treating patients of different cultural backgrounds, very few have addressed the impact of the physician's own cultural background and offered methods to overcome his or her own unconscious biases. In hopes of training physicians to contextualize the impact of their own cultural background on their ability to provide optimal patient care, the authors created a 14-session course on culture, self-reflection, and medicine...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341310/women-in-leadership-why-so-few-and%C3%A2-what-to-do-about-it
#13
Christina M Surawicz
The numbers of women in medical school and in medical training have increased dramatically and are near 50% overall, but the number of women who advance to senior and leadership positions is not nearly this high. There are many reasons why the number of women in leadership roles in academic medicine has not kept pace with the number of women entering the field of medicine. Two popular themes are the glass ceiling (referring to an invisible barrier to advancement) and the leaky pipeline (the loss of women faculty along the path, or pipeline, to advancement)...
December 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326119/comparing-the-self-report-and-measured-smartphone-usage-of-college-students-a-pilot-study
#14
Heyoung Lee, Heejune Ahn, Trung Giang Nguyen, Sam-Wook Choi, Dae Jin Kim
OBJECTIVE: Nowadays smartphone overuse has become a social and medical concern. For the diagnosis and treatment, clinicians use the self-report information, but the report data often does not match actual usage pattern. The paper examines the similarity and variance in smartphone usage patterns between the measured data and self-reported data. METHODS: Together with the self-reported data, the real usage log data is collected from 35 college students in a metropolitan region of Northeast Asia, using Android smartphone monitoring application developed by the authors...
March 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284674/the-cost-of-unconscious-bias-and-pattern%C3%A2-recognition
#15
Jenny Abramson, Elliot K Fishman, Karen M Horton, Sheila Sheth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276847/individual-interpersonal-and-organisational-factors-of-healthcare-conflict-a-scoping-review
#16
Sara Kim, Naike Bochatay, Annemarie Relyea-Chew, Elizabeth Buttrick, Chris Amdahl, Laura Kim, Elise Frans, Matthew Mossanen, Azhar Khandekar, Ryan Fehr, Young-Mee Lee
Unresolved conflicts among healthcare professionals can lead to difficult patient care consequences. This scoping review examines the current healthcare literature that reported sources and consequences of conflict associated with individual, interpersonal, and organisational factors. We identified 99 articles published between 2001 and 2015 from PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Excerpta Medical Database. Most reviewed studies relied on healthcare professionals' perceptions and beliefs associated with conflict sources and consequences, with few studies reporting behavioural or organisational change outcomes...
May 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276461/paired-synchronous-rhythmic-finger-tapping-without-an-external-timing-cue-shows-greater-speed-increases-relative-to-those-for-solo-tapping
#17
Masahiro Okano, Masahiro Shinya, Kazutoshi Kudo
In solo synchronization-continuation (SC) tasks, intertap intervals (ITI) are known to drift from the initial tempo. It has been demonstrated that people in paired and group contexts modulate their action timing unconsciously in various situations such as choice reaction tasks, rhythmic body sway, and hand clapping in concerts, which suggests the possibility that ITI drift is also affected by paired context. We conducted solo and paired SC tapping experiments with three tempos (75, 120, and 200 bpm) and examined whether tempo-keeping performance changed according to tempo and/or the number of players...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272112/starting-with-lucy-focusing-on-human-similarities-rather-than-differences-to-address-health-care-disparities
#18
Laura Clementz, Megan McNamara, Nicole M Burt, Matthew Sparks, Mamta K Singh
PROBLEM: Multicultural or cultural competence education to address health care disparities using the traditional categorical approach can lead to inadvertent adverse consequences. Nontraditional approaches that address these drawbacks while promoting humanistic care are needed. APPROACH: In September 2014, the Cleveland VA Medical Center's Center of Excellence in Primary Care Education Transforming Outpatient Care (CoEPCE-TOPC) collaborated with the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (CMNH) to develop the Original Identity program, which uses a biocultural anthropologic framework to help learners recognize and address unconscious bias and starts with a discussion of humans' shared origins...
March 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270395/leaky-pipeline-gender-bias-self-selection-or-all-three-a-quantitative-analysis-of-gender-balance-at-an-international-palliative-care-research-conference
#19
Katherine E Sleeman, Jonathan Koffman, Irene J Higginson
OBJECTIVES: The 'leaky pipeline' in academia is a clearly described phenomenon, but has not been examined in palliative care. We analysed the gender balance of speakers at the 9th World Research Congress of the European Association of Palliative Care (EAPC) to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the proportion of women and men with senior academic visibility in palliative care conference programmes. METHODS: The final programme of the 2016 EAPC World Congress was examined, and the gender of each speaker was recorded...
March 7, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267223/fundal-pressure-during-the-second-stage-of-labour
#20
REVIEW
G Justus Hofmeyr, Joshua P Vogel, Anna Cuthbert, Mandisa Singata
BACKGROUND: Fundal pressure during the second stage of labour (also known as the 'Kristeller manoeuvre') involves application of manual pressure to the uppermost part of the uterus directed towards the birth canal, in an attempt to assist spontaneous vaginal birth and avoid prolonged second stage or the need for operative birth. Fundal pressure has also been applied using an inflatable belt. Fundal pressure is widely used, however methods of its use vary widely. Despite strongly held opinions in favour of and against the use of fundal pressure, there is limited evidence regarding its maternal and neonatal benefits and harms...
March 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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