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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813460/mechanisms-for-pattern-specificity-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Osvaldo Matías Velarde, Germán Mato, Damián Dellavale
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widely used technique for treating advanced stages of neurological and psychiatric illness. In the case of motor disorders related to basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction, several mechanisms of action for the DBS therapy have been identified which might be involved simultaneously or in sequence. However, the identification of a common key mechanism underlying the clinical relevant DBS configurations has remained elusive due to the inherent complexity related to the interaction between the electrical stimulation and the neural tissue, and the intricate circuital structure of the BG-thalamocortical network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811636/mussel-inspired-polynorepinephrine-functionalized-electrospun-polycaprolactone-microfibers-for-muscle-regeneration
#2
Ying Liu, Guoqiang Zhou, Zhu Liu, Mengyu Guo, Xiumei Jiang, Mehmet Berat Taskin, Zhongyang Zhang, Jing Liu, Jinglong Tang, Ru Bai, Flemming Besenbacher, Menglin Chen, Chunying Chen
Electrospun scaffolds with excellent mechanical properties, high specific surface area and a commendable porous network are widely used in tissue engineering. Improving the hydrophilicity and cell adhesion of hydrophobic substrates is the key point to enhance the effectiveness of electrospun scaffolds. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous membranes with appropriate diameter were selected and coated by mussel-inspired poly norepinephrine (pNE). And norepinephrine is a catecholamine functioning as a hormone and neurotransmitter in the human brain...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810910/comprehensive-evaluation-of-gene-expression-signatures-in-response-to-electroacupuncture-stimulation-at-zusanli-st36-acupoint-by-transcriptomic-analysis
#3
Jing-Shan Wu, Hsin-Yi Lo, Chia-Cheng Li, Feng-Yuan Chen, Chien-Yun Hsiang, Tin-Yun Ho
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) has been applied to treat and prevent diseases for years. However, molecular events happened in both the acupunctured site and the internal organs after EA stimulation have not been clarified. METHODS: Here we applied transcriptomic analysis to explore the gene expression signatures after EA stimulation. Mice were applied EA stimulation at ST36 for 15 min and nine tissues were collected three hours later for microarray analysis...
August 15, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809853/rna-seq-analysis-of-amygdala-tissue-reveals-characteristic-expression-profiles-in-schizophrenia
#4
X Chang, Y Liu, C-G Hahn, R E Gur, P M A Sleiman, H Hakonarson
The amygdala brain region has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia through emotion processing. However, transcriptome messages in the amygdala of schizophrenia patients have not been well studied. We used RNA sequencing to investigate gene-expression profiling in the amygdala tissues, and identified 569 upregulated and 192 downregulated genes from 22 schizophrenia patients and 24 non-psychiatric controls. Gene functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that the downregulated genes were enriched in pathways such as 'synaptic transmission' and 'behavior', whereas the upregulated genes were significantly over-represented in gene ontology pathways such as 'immune response' and 'blood vessel development'...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808032/mechanical-constraint-from-growing-jaw-facilitates-mammalian-dental-diversity
#5
Elodie Renvoisé, Kathryn D Kavanagh, Vincent Lazzari, Teemu J Häkkinen, Ritva Rice, Sophie Pantalacci, Isaac Salazar-Ciudad, Jukka Jernvall
Much of the basic information about individual organ development comes from studies using model species. Whereas conservation of gene regulatory networks across higher taxa supports generalizations made from a limited number of species, generality of mechanistic inferences remains to be tested in tissue culture systems. Here, using mammalian tooth explants cultured in isolation, we investigate self-regulation of patterning by comparing developing molars of the mouse, the model species of mammalian research, and the bank vole...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807900/heart-morphogenesis-gene-regulatory-networks-revealed-by-temporal-expression-analysis
#6
Jonathon T Hill, Bradley Demarest, Megan Smith, Bushra Gorsi, H Joseph Yost
During embryogenesis, the heart forms as a linear tube that then undergoes multiple simultaneous morphogenetic events to obtain its mature shape. To understand the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) driving this phase of heart development, during which many congenital heart disease malformations likely arise, we conducted an RNA-seq time course in zebrafish from 30 hpf to 72 hpf and identified 5,861 genes with altered expression. We then clustered the genes by temporal expression pattern, identified transcription factor binding motifs enriched in each cluster, and generated a model GRN for the major gene batteries in heart morphogenesis...
August 14, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803705/collagen-fibril-organization-in-chicken-and-porcine-skeletal-muscle-perimysium-under-applied-tension-and-compression
#7
Melika Mohammadkhah, Paula Murphy, Ciaran K Simms
The tension/compression asymmetry observed in the stress-stretch response of skeletal muscle is not well understood. The collagen network in the extracellular matrix (ECM) almost certainly plays a major role, but the details are unknown. This paper reports qualitatively and quantitatively on skeletal muscle ECM reorganization during applied deformation using confocal imaging of collagen through use of a fluorescently-tagged specific collagen binding protein (CNA35-EGFP) of porcine and chicken muscle samples under tensile and compressive deformation in both the fibre and cross-fibre directions...
August 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803113/how-a-decreased-fibrillar-interconnectivity-influences-stiffness-and-swelling-properties-during-early-cartilage-degeneration
#8
Mieke Nickien, Ashvin Thambyah, Neil D Broom
OBJECTIVE: The functional coupling between the fibrillar network and the high-swelling proteoglycans largely determines the mechanical properties of the articular cartilage matrix. The objective of this new study was to show specifically how changes in fibrillar interconnectivity arising from early cartilage degeneration influence transverse stiffness and swelling properties at the tissue level. DESIGN: Radial zone transverse layers of cartilage matrix were obtained from intact and mildly degenerate bovine patellae...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802251/microrna-720-regulates-e-cadherin-%C3%AE-e-catenin-complex-and-promotes-renal-cell-carcinoma
#9
Nadeem S Bhat, Melissa Colden, Altaf A Dar, Sharanjot Saini, Prerna Arora, Varahram Shahryari, Soichiro Yamamura, Yuichiro Tanaka, Taku Kato, Shahana Majid, Rajvir Dahiya
MicroRNAs are implicated in regulating cancer progression and metastasis. Here we show that miR-720 is positively associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Elevated levels of miR-720 were observed in a panel of RCC cell lines and clinical tissues compared to non-malignant cell line and normal samples. Loss of miR-720 function inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion and induced apoptosis in RCC cell lines in vitro and repressed tumor growth in xenograft mouse model. Conversely, gain of miR-720 function in non-malignant HK-2 cells induced pro-cancerous characteristics...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801229/immunomodulation-a-definitive-role-of-microrna-142
#10
REVIEW
Salil Sharma
Majority of microRNAs are evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. This is suggestive of their similar roles in regulation of gene networks. In addition to their conserved mature sequences and regulatory roles, a few microRNAs show very cell or tissue specific expression. These microRNAs are highly enriched in some cell types or organs. One such microRNA is microRNA-142 (miR-142). The classical stem-loop structure of miR142 encodes for two species of mature microRNAs; miR142-5p and miR142-3p. MiR-142 is abundant in cells of hematopoietic origin, and therefore, aptly plays a role in lineage differentiation of hematopoietic cells...
August 9, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798251/lungmap-the-molecular-atlas-of-lung-development-program
#11
Maryanne E Ardini-Poleske, Robert Fred Clark, Charles Ansong, James P Carson, Richard A Corley, Gail H Deutsch, James S Hagood, Naftali Kaminski, Thomas J Mariani, Steven S Potter, Gloria S Pryhuber, David Warburton, Jeffrey A Whitsett, Scott M Palmer, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, The LungMAP Consortium
The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute is funding an effort to create a molecular atlas of the developing lung (LungMAP) to serve as a research resource and public education tool. The lung is a complex organ with lengthy development time driven by interactive gene networks and dynamic crosstalk among multiple cell types to control and coordinate lineage specification, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, morphogenesis and injury repair. A better understanding of the processes that regulate lung development, particularly alveologenesis, will have significant impact on survival rates for premature infants born with incomplete lung development and will facilitate lung injury repair and regeneration in adults...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797711/identification-of-a-myofibroblast-specific-expression-signature-in-skin-wounds
#12
Vera Bergmeier, Julia Etich, Lena Pitzler, Christian Frie, Manuel Koch, Matthias Fischer, Gunter Rappl, Hinrich Abken, James J Tomasek, Bent Brachvogel
After skin injury fibroblasts migrate into the wound and transform into contractile, extracellular matrix-producing myofibroblasts to promote skin repair. Persistent activation of myofibroblasts can cause excessive fibrotic reactions, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We used SMA-GFP transgenic mice to study myofibroblast recruitment and activation in skin wounds. Myofibroblasts were initially recruited to wounds three days post injury, their number reached a maximum after seven days and subsequently declined...
August 7, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793269/cell-type-specific-gene-programs-of-the-normal-human-nephron-define-kidney-cancer-subtypes
#13
David Lindgren, Pontus Eriksson, Krzysztof Krawczyk, Helén Nilsson, Jennifer Hansson, Srinivas Veerla, Jonas Sjölund, Mattias Höglund, Martin E Johansson, Håkan Axelson
Comprehensive transcriptome studies of cancers often rely on corresponding normal tissue samples to serve as a transcriptional reference. In this study, we performed in-depth analyses of normal kidney tissue transcriptomes from the TCGA and demonstrate that the histological variability in cellularity, inherent in the kidney architecture, lead to considerable transcriptional differences between samples. This should be considered when comparing expression profiles of normal and cancerous kidney tissues. We exploited these differences to define renal-cell-specific gene signatures and used these as a framework to analyze renal cell carcinoma (RCC) ontogeny...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790856/role-of-downregulated-mir-133a-3p-expression-in-bladder-cancer-a-bioinformatics-study
#14
Li Gao, Sheng-Hua Li, Yi-Xin Tian, Qing-Qing Zhu, Gang Chen, Yu-Yan Pang, Xiao-Hua Hu
It has been discovered that miR-133a-3p acts as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer (BC). Nevertheless, the function of miR-133a-3p in BC remains unclarified. Thus, we carried out this study to validate the expression of miR-133a-3p in BC and provide insights into the molecular mechanism underlying it. To assess the expression of miR-133a-3p in BC, we searched eligible studies from literature and Gene expression Omnibus (GEO) to perform a meta-analysis. We also plotted the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve to evaluate the diagnostic ability of miR-133a-3p in BC...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782694/co-regulation-of-micrornas-and-transcription-factors-in-cardiomyocyte-specific-differentiation-of-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-an-aspect-from-transcriptome-analysis
#15
Lin Gan, Bernd Denecke
The differentiation process of embryonic stem cells is a comprehensive process regulated by a variety of factors in response to stimulus. Studies of this process can be focused on cell biology as well as on molecular biology level. In this paper we identified the co-regulation of molecular regulators and their interactions during cardiomyocyte specific differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells based on parallel genome wide transcriptome analyses of mRNA and microRNA. Differentially expressed mRNAs and microRNAs were identified according to their expression profiles...
August 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781902/study-on-lesion-assessment-of-cerebello-thalamo-cortical-network-in-wilson-s-disease-with-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#16
Anqin Wang, Hongli Wu, Chunsheng Xu, Lanfeng Tang, Jaeyoun Lee, Min Wang, Man Jiang, Chuanfu Li, Qi Lu, Chunyun Zhang
Wilson's disease (WD) is a genetic disorder of copper metabolism with pathological copper accumulation in the brain and any other tissues. This article aimed to assess lesions in cerebello-thalamo-cortical network with an advanced technique of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in WD. 35 WD patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited to accept diffusion-weighted images with 15 gradient vectors and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The DTI parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusion (MD), were calculated by diffusion kurtosis estimator software...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779864/neurological-complications-of-endocrine-disease
#17
Karen S Carvalho, Tal Grunwald, Francesco De Luca
The endocrine system is a complex group of organs and glands that relates to multiple other organs and systems in the body with the ultimate goal of maintaining homeostasis. This complex network functions through hormones excreted by several glands and released in the blood, targeting different body tissues and modulating their function. Any primary disorders affecting the endocrine glands and altering the amount of hormones synthesized and released will lead to disruption in the functions of multiple organs...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778066/inhibition-of-lsd1-epigenetically-attenuates-oral-cancer-growth-and-metastasis
#18
Saqer F Alsaqer, Mustafa M Tashkandi, Vinay K Kartha, Ya-Ting Yang, Yazeed Alkheriji, Andrew Salama, Xaralabos Varelas, Maria Kukuruzinska, Stefano Monti, Manish V Bais
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a nuclear histone demethylase and a member of the amine oxidase (AO) family. LSD1 is a flavin-containing AO that specifically catalyzes the demethylation of mono- and di-methylated histone H3 lysine 4 through an FAD-dependent oxidative reaction. LSD1 is inappropriately upregulated in lung, liver, brain and esophageal cancers, where it promotes cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. However, unlike other lysine-specific demethylases, the role and specific targets of LSD1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) pathogenesis remain unknown...
July 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771315/autofluorescence-free-targeted-tumor-imaging-based-on-luminous-nanoparticles-with-composition-dependent-size-and-persistent-luminescence
#19
Jie Wang, Qinqin Ma, Xiao-Xiao Hu, Haoyang Liu, Wei Zheng, Xueyuan Chen, Quan Yuan, Weihong Tan
Optical bioimaging is an indispensable tool in modern biology and medicine, but the technique is susceptible to autofluorescence interference. Persistent nanophosphors provide an easy-to-perform and highly efficient means to eliminate tissue autofluorescence. However, direct synthesis of persistent nanophosphors with tunable properties to meet different bioimaging requirements remains largely unexplored. In this work, zinc gallogermanate (Zn1+xGa2-2xGexO4:Cr, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5, ZGGO:Cr) persistent luminescence nanoparticles with composition-dependent size and persistent luminescence are reported...
August 8, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769963/tissue-specific-floral-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-sexually-deceptive-orchid-chiloglottis-trapeziformis-provides-insights-into-the-biosynthesis-and-regulation-of-its-unique-uv-b-dependent-floral-volatile-chiloglottone-1
#20
Darren C J Wong, Ranamalie Amarasinghe, Claudia Rodriguez-Delgado, Rodney Eyles, Eran Pichersky, Rod Peakall
The Australian sexually deceptive orchid, Chiloglottis trapeziformis, employs a unique UV-B-dependent floral volatile, chiloglottone 1, for specific male wasp pollinator attraction. Chiloglottone 1 and related variants (2,5-dialkylcyclohexane-1,3-diones), represent a unique class of specialized metabolites presumed to be the product of cyclization between two fatty acid (FA) precursors. However, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of precursors, intermediates, and transcriptional regulation remains to be discovered...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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