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Breast cancer radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319436/estimating-the-risks-of-breast-cancer-radiotherapy-evidence-from-modern-radiation-doses-to-the-lungs-and-heart-and-from-previous-randomized-trials
#1
Carolyn Taylor, Candace Correa, Frances K Duane, Marianne C Aznar, Stewart J Anderson, Jonas Bergh, David Dodwell, Marianne Ewertz, Richard Gray, Reshma Jagsi, Lori Pierce, Kathleen I Pritchard, Sandra Swain, Zhe Wang, Yaochen Wang, Tim Whelan, Richard Peto, Paul McGale
Purpose Radiotherapy reduces the absolute risk of breast cancer mortality by a few percentage points in suitable women but can cause a second cancer or heart disease decades later. We estimated the absolute long-term risks of modern breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods First, a systematic literature review was performed of lung and heart doses in breast cancer regimens published during 2010 to 2015. Second, individual patient data meta-analyses of 40,781 women randomly assigned to breast cancer radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy in 75 trials yielded rate ratios (RRs) for second primary cancers and cause-specific mortality and excess RRs (ERRs) per Gy for incident lung cancer and cardiac mortality...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315967/relationship-of-breast-mri-to-recurrence-rates-in-patients-undergoing-breast-conservation-treatment
#2
Maureen V Hill, Julia L Beeman, Khushboo Jhala, Stefan D Holubar, Kari M Rosenkranz, Richard J Barth
PURPOSE: The effect of pre-operative MRI on the in-breast tumor recurrence rate (IBTR) of patients undergoing breast-conservation treatment (BCT) remains uncertain. We began to routinely perform pre-operative MRI in 2006. Our goal was to determine the effect of pre-operative MRI on IBTR. METHODS: Retrospective review of a prospective database of all patients undergoing BCT (n = 1396) from 2000 to 2010. IBTR were calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates. RESULTS: 664 (47...
March 18, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315507/polymorphisms-and-mutations-in-gstp1-rad51-xrcc1-and-xrcc3-genes-in-breast-cancer-patients
#3
Mazhar Salim Al Zoubi, Katia Zavaglia, Chiara Mazanti, Mohammad Al Hamad, Khalid Al Batayneh, Alaa A A Aljabali, Generoso Bevilacqua
BACKGROUND: Genotoxic factors, including ionizing radiation and oxidative stress, are associated with genomic instability and development of breast cancer (BC). The homologous recombination DNA repair (HRR) pathway, base excision repair (BER) mechanism, and antioxidative enzymes are required as defense mechanisms against these DNA damaging agents. GSTP1, XRCC1, XRCC3 and RAD51 proteins are essential components of antioxidation, BER and HRR of DNA, respectively. Deficiencies in BER, HRR and antioxidation pathways are involved in the progression of cancer...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315200/radiation-induced-cardiovascular-disease
#4
REVIEW
Deepa Raghunathan, Misha Iftikhar Khilji, Saamir A Hassan, Syed Wamique Yusuf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Thoracic radiation therapy is an effective treatment for several malignancies, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer. Over the years, however, the incidence of cardiovascular events has increased in these patients, notably in younger survivors who do not have traditional risk factors. This review summarizes the pathology, incidence, clinical presentation, and management of cardiac events after radiation therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Mediastinal radiation therapy accelerates the atherosclerosis process, resulting in early onset coronary artery disease...
May 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314541/risk-of-subsequent-primary-kidney-cancer-after-another-malignancy-a-population-based-study
#5
Omar Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: Population-based data on the development of kidney cancer as a second malignant neoplasm following the diagnosis of other common malignancies are rare. This clinical scenario has been evaluated within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SEER-9 database (1973-2013) was queried using the SEER*Stat program to determine the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of kidney cancer development following each one of 10 common invasive malignancies (colorectal, breast, prostate, lung, thyroid, corpus uteri, urinary bladder, kidney/renal pelvis, cutaneous melanoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma)...
February 27, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300190/a-mechanistic-study-of-gold-nanoparticle-radiosensitisation-using-targeted-microbeam-irradiation
#6
Mihaela Ghita, Stephen J McMahon, Laura E Taggart, Karl T Butterworth, Giuseppe Schettino, Kevin M Prise
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been demonstrated as effective radiosensitizing agents in a range of preclinical models using broad field sources of various energies. This study aimed to distinguish between these mechanisms by applying subcellular targeting using a soft X-ray microbeam in combination with GNPs. DNA damage and repair kinetics were determined following nuclear and cytoplasmic irradiation using a soft X-ray (carbon K-shell, 278 eV) microbeam in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and AG01522 fibroblast cells with and without GNPs...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297338/epid-based-in-vivo-dosimetry-system-clinical-experience-and-results
#7
Sofia Celi, Emilie Costa, Claas Wessels, Alejandro Mazal, Alain Fourquet, Pascal Francois
Mandatory in several countries, in vivo dosimetry has been recognized as one of the next milestones in radiation oncology. Our department has implemented clinically an EPID based in vivo dosimetry system, EPIgray, by DOSISOFT S.A., since 2006. An analysis of the measurements per linac and energy over a two-year period was performed, which included a more detailed examination per technique and treatment site over a six-month period. A comparison of the treatment planning system doses and the doses estimated by EPIgray shows a mean of the differences of 1...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293119/intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-for-breast-cancer-current-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Milly Buwenge, Silvia Cammelli, Ilario Ammendolia, Giorgio Tolento, Alice Zamagni, Alessandra Arcelli, Gabriella Macchia, Francesco Deodato, Savino Cilla, Alessio G Morganti
BACKGROUND: Owing to highly conformed dose distribution, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential to improve treatment results of radiotherapy (RT). Postoperative RT is a standard adjuvant treatment in conservative treatment of breast cancer (BC). The aim of this review is to analyze available evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on IMRT in BC, particularly in terms of reduction of side effects. METHODS: A literature search of the bibliographic database PubMed, from January 1990 through November 2016, was performed...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293107/nh4hco3-gas-generating-liposomal-nanoparticle-for-photoacoustic-imaging-in-breast-cancer
#9
Jizhu Xia, Gang Feng, Xiaorong Xia, Lan Hao, Zhigang Wang
In this study, we have developed a biodegradable nanomaterial for photoacoustic imaging (PAI). Its biodegradation products can be fully eliminated from a living organism. It is a gas-generating nanoparticle of liposome-encapsulating ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) solution, which is safe, effective, inexpensive, and free of side effects. When lasers irradiate these nanoparticles, NH4HCO3 decomposes to produce CO2, which can absorb much of the light energy under laser irradiation with a specific wavelength, and then expand under heat to generate a thermal acoustic wave...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291382/cost-implications-of-an-evidence-based-approach-to-radiation-treatment-after-lumpectomy-for-early-stage-breast-cancer
#10
Rachel A Greenup, Rachel C Blitzblau, Kevin L Houck, Julie Ann Sosa, Janet Horton, Jeffrey M Peppercorn, Alphonse G Taghian, Barbara L Smith, E Shelley Hwang
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer treatment costs are rising, and identification of high-value oncology treatment strategies is increasingly needed. We sought to determine the potential cost savings associated with an evidence-based radiation treatment (RT) approach among women with early-stage breast cancer treated in the United States. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified women with T1-T2 N0 invasive breast cancers treated with lumpectomy during 2011...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290769/sequencing-brain-metastases-and-opportunities-for-targeted-therapies
#11
Ugonma N Chukwueke, Priscilla K Brastianos
CNS metastases have long been recognized as a common and late complication of systemic malignancies. They represent the most common tumor of the brain. As outcomes and overall survival improve with better tolerated and more durable responses from therapies for systemic cancers, the incidence and prevalence of brain metastases is likely to increase. Among the most common systemic cancers leading to brain metastases include lung, melanoma, breast (triple-negative histology) and renal cell cancers. To date, there has been infrequent involvement of gastrointestinal and gynecologic malignancies; however, this may also change, reflecting improvement in overall survival and therapeutic regimens...
March 14, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290336/mammographic-image-reject-rate-analysis-and-cause-a-national-maltese-study
#12
N Mercieca, J L Portelli, H Jadva-Patel
Mammography is used as a first-line investigation in the detection of breast cancer and imaging is required to be of optimal quality and achieved without adverse effects on the health of individuals. Repeated images come at a cost in terms of radiation dose, discomfort to clients and unnecessary financial burdens. No studies investigating mammography quality in Malta had been previously undertaken. Hence, this research aimed to investigate whether mammography is being performed at an acceptable level, through the investigation of reject rates...
February 2017: Radiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285936/enhancing-the-effect-of-4mev-electron-beam-using-gold-nanoparticles-in-breast-cancer-cells
#13
Somayeh Sadat Mehrnia, Bijan Hashemi, Seyed Javad Mowla, Azim Arbabi
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been applied as radiosensitizer in radiotherapy. Limited reports have shown that GNPs may be effective as a dose enhancer agent for electron radiation therapy. Some Monte Carlo Simulation studies have shown that selecting suitable size of GNPs and electron energies are critical for effective dose enhancement. The aim of this study was to assess possible radiosensitization effect of GNPs on cancer cell treated with 4MeV electron beams. Approximately 10nm GNPs were synthesized and characterized by electron microscope and dynamic light scattering...
March 9, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285537/milestone-clinical-trials-of-the-national-surgical-adjuvant-breast-and-bowel-project-nsabp
#14
REVIEW
Priya Rastogi, D Lawrence Wickerham, Charles E Geyer, Eleftherios P Mamounas, Thomas B Julian, Norman Wolmark
The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) has made significant contributions in reducing the extent of breast surgery and in improving outcomes of patients with early-stage breast cancer through the conduct of large randomized clinical trials evaluating local and systemic therapy. In 2014, the NSABP merged with two other US National Cancer Institute-funded cooperative groups, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), to form NRG Oncology. The combined organization has 218 member institutions with more than 600 affiliate centers located throughout the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, and other international sites...
February 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284864/development-of-a-novel-near-infrared-fluorescent-theranostic-combretastain-a-4-analogue-yk-5-252-to-target-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#15
Yali Kong, Jacqueline Smith, Kongwen Li, Jake Cui, John Han, Shujie Hou, Milton L Brown
The treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a significant challenge to cancer research. The lack of hormone receptors limits the treatment options available to patients with this diagnosis, forcing them to endure prolonged radiation and chemotherapy. Anti-angiogenesis is a chemotherapeutic strategy that targets the vasculature of tumors. Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) is a well-known vasculature-disrupting agent, which has been shown to effectively kill a variety of cancers through inhibition of tubulin polymerization...
February 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282999/critical-decision-making-in-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-breast-cancer-in-a-neo-adjuvant-treatment-era
#16
Francesca De Felice, Mattia Falchetto Osti, Vitaliana De Sanctis, Daniela Musio, Vincenzo Tombolini
Introduction In breast cancer management, the role of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) has been the subject of intense controversy over the past several years, due to the improvement in neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) prescription. One of the most controversial questions regarding indication for adjuvant RT is whether or not RT is essential in patients with early stage disease at diagnosis. The value of adjuvant RT remains highly debatable in those patients with clinically negative nodes at the completion of NACT...
March 10, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282695/combined-laser-photocoagulation-and-anti-vegf-injection-treatment-in-radiation-retinopathy
#17
K Hurtikova, H Gerding
Background Radiation retinopathy can lead to a considerable reduction in visual acuity. We report 2 cases of radiation retinopathy in which a therapy with combined intravitreal anti-VEGF injection and laser photocoagulation (LPC) was used. Patient History Two 55-year-old women were referred to our clinic with radiation retinopathy, in the first case unilaterally after radiation due to endocrine orbitopathy (P1), in the second case in both eyes after palliative cerebral radiation for metastatic breast cancer (P2)...
March 10, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281862/model-based-approach-for-quantitative-estimates-of-skin-heart-and-lung-toxicity-risk-for-left-side-photon-and-proton-irradiation-after-breast-conserving-surgery
#18
Francesco Tommasino, Marco Durante, Vittoria D'Avino, Raffaele Liuzzi, Manuel Conson, Paolo Farace, Giuseppe Palma, Marco Schwarz, Laura Cella, Roberto Pacelli
BACKGROUND: Proton beam therapy represents a promising modality for left-side breast cancer (BC) treatment, but concerns have been raised about skin toxicity and poor cosmesis. The aim of this study is to apply skin normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) optimization in left-side BC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten left-side BC patients undergoing photon irradiation after breast-conserving surgery were randomly selected from our clinical database...
March 10, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281359/changes-in-skin-microcirculation-during-radiation-therapy-for-breast-cancer
#19
Erik Tesselaar, Anna M Flejmer, Simon Farnebo, Alexandru Dasu
BACKGROUND: The majority of breast cancer patients who receive radiation treatment are affected by acute radiation-induced skin changes. The assessment of these changes is usually done by subjective methods, which complicates the comparison between different treatments or patient groups. This study investigates the feasibility of new robust methods for monitoring skin microcirculation to objectively assess and quantify acute skin reactions during radiation treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Laser Doppler flowmetry, laser speckle contrast imaging, and polarized light spectroscopy imaging were used to measure radiation-induced changes in microvascular perfusion and red blood cell concentration (RBC) in the skin of 15 patients undergoing adjuvant radiation therapy for breast cancer...
March 10, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280388/alternative-therapies-for-metastatic-breast-cancer-multimodal-approach-targeting-tumor-cell-heterogeneity
#20
REVIEW
Manpreet Sambi, Sabah Haq, Vanessa Samuel, Bessi Qorri, Fiona Haxho, Kelli Hill, William Harless, Myron R Szewczuk
One of the primary challenges in developing effective therapies for malignant tumors is the specific targeting of a heterogeneous cancer cell population within the tumor. The cancerous tumor is made up of a variety of distinct cells with specialized receptors and proteins that could potentially be viable targets for drugs. In addition, the diverse signals from the local microenvironment may also contribute to the induction of tumor growth and metastasis. Collectively, these factors must be strategically studied and targeted in order to develop an effective treatment protocol...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
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