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Lung cancer radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538401/atrial-fibrillation-was-changed-into-sinus-bradycardia-in-a-ros1-positive-advanced-lung-adenocarcinoma-patient-who-achieved-durable-response-to-crizotinib-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Lan Liu, Jing Wu, Wei Zhao, Mei-Juan Huang
RATIONAL: The c-ros oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1)-rearrangements represent a new and rare genetic subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer. In recent years, the use of crizotinib in ROS1-rearranged lung cancer exhibits significant clinical efficacy. Crizotinib is generally well tolerated and the most frequent adverse events include visual disorders, gastrointestinal disturbances, cardiac, and endocrine abnormalities. From a cardiac perspective, crizotinib is associated with 2 main cardiac effects, QT interval prolongation and bradycardia...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537761/correlation-analysis-of-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-and-18-f-fluoroazomycin-arabinoside-uptake-distributions-in-lung-tumours-during-radiation-therapy
#2
Dario Di Perri, John A Lee, Anne Bol, François-Xavier Hanin, Guillaume Janssens, Daniel Labar, Annie Robert, Edmond Sterpin, Xavier Geets
BACKGROUND: PET-guided dose painting (DP) aims to target radioresistant tumour regions in order to improve radiotherapy (RT) outcome. Besides the well-known [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), the hypoxia positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [(18)F]fluoroazomycin arabinoside (FAZA) could provide further useful information to guide the radiation dose prescription. In this study, we compare the spatial distributions of FDG and FAZA PET uptakes in lung tumours. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with unresectable lung cancer underwent FDG and FAZA 4D-PET/CT on consecutive days at three time-points: prior to RT (pre), and during the second (w2), and the third (w3) weeks of RT...
May 24, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535153/high-energy-particle-beam-and-gamma-radiation-exposure-familial-relatedness-and-cancer-in-mice
#3
Pavel Chernyavskiy, Elijah F Edmondson, Michael M Weil, Mark P Little
BACKGROUND: Some highly penetrant familial cancer syndromes exhibit elevated leukaemia risk, and there is evidence for familial clustering of lung cancer and other common cancers. Lung cancer and leukaemia are strongly radiogenic, but there are few indications that high-energy beam irradiation is markedly more effective than lower-energy radiation. METHODS: We used a Cox model with familially structured random effects to assess 16 mortality end points in a group of 1850 mice in 47 families maintained in a circular-breeding scheme, exposed to accelerated Si or Fe ions (0...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533476/neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-is-a-prognostic-marker-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-stage-iiia-and-iiib-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-combined-modality-therapy
#4
Katherine A Scilla, Søren M Bentzen, Vincent K Lam, Pranshu Mohindra, Elizabeth M Nichols, Melissa A Vyfhuis, Neha Bhooshan, Steven J Feigenberg, Martin J Edelman, Josephine L Feliciano
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a measure of systemic inflammation that appears prognostic in localized and advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Increased systemic inflammation portends a poorer prognosis in cancer patients. We hypothesized that low NLR at diagnosis is associated with improved overall survival (OS) in locally advanced NSCLC (LANSCLC) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Records from 276 patients with stage IIIA and IIIB NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation with or without surgery between 2000 and 2010 with adequate data were retrospectively reviewed...
May 22, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532605/risk-of-hypothyroidism-among-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-treated-with-radiation-therapy-a-population-based-cohort-study
#5
Chao-Yueh Fan, Chun-Shu Lin, Hsing-Lung Chao, Wen-Yen Huang, Yu-Fu Su, Kuen-Tze Lin, I-Ju Tsai, Chia-Hung Kao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the incidence and risk of hypothyroidism among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiation therapy (RT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified 14,893 NPC patients and 16,105 other head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with RT without thyroidectomy from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan between 2000 and 2011. Each NPC patient was randomly frequency-matched with four individuals without NPC by age, sex, and index year...
May 19, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532508/is-it-possible-for-knowledge-based-planning-to-improve-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-plan-quality-for-planners-with-different-planning-experiences-in-left-sided-breast-cancer-patients
#6
Juanqi Wang, Weigang Hu, Zhaozhi Yang, Xiaohui Chen, Zhiqiang Wu, Xiaoli Yu, Xiaomao Guo, Saiquan Lu, Kaixuan Li, Gongyi Yu
BACKGROUND: Knowledge-based planning (KBP) is a promising technique that can improve plan quality and increase planning efficiency. However, no attempts have been made to extend the domain of KBP for planners with different planning experiences so far. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potential gains for planners with different planning experiences after implementing KBP in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for left-sided breast cancer patients. METHODS: The model libraries were populated with 80 expert clinical plans from treated patients who previously received left-sided breast-conserving surgery and IMRT with simultaneously integrated boost...
May 22, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530067/-stereotactic-ablative-body-radiation-sabr-a-new-therapeutic-option-for-treatment-of-stage-i-lung-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Sarit Appel, Zvi Symon
Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) also known as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) offers a new therapeutic option for stage 1 lung cancer that cannot undergo surgery due to co-morbidities or patient refusal. This treatment evolved in the last decade thanks to technologic advancement of radiation therapy planning and delivery that allow real time imaging of the tumor and real time position correction before every treatment. Ultra high doses of radiation cause ablation of the target with very low collateral scatter dose to surrounding tissue...
November 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529904/mini-review-of-conventional-and-hypofractionated-radiation-therapy-combined-with-immunotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Allison M Campbell, Roy H Decker
A successful antitumoral response requires immunological activation as well as an antigenic pool capable of stimulating both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Recent advances in immunotherapy have been aimed at boosting the activation status of the innate and adaptive immune system, including cytokine administration, monoclonal antibodies engineered to target high yield elements in oncogenic signaling pathways, cancer vaccines, and checkpoint inhibitors. Herein, we examine the ways that radiation therapy induced cell death provides a pool of stimulus antigen, and draw parallels from the immunobiology of autoimmunity to explore how the immunogenicity of antigen derived from radiation-induced cell death might augment the antitumoral response...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529902/current-state-of-immunotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Jyoti Malhotra, Salma K Jabbour, Joseph Aisner
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for more than 85% of all lung cancers. Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the standard first-line treatment for metastatic NSCLC when genomic testing reveals no targetable alteration such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) or ROS1 translocation/re-arrangements. But, chemotherapy produces response rates ranging only between 15-30%. For patients whose disease progresses on first-line chemotherapy, second-line therapy historically consists of taxane-based salvage chemotherapy with a response rate of less than 25%...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529901/combining-immunotherapy-and-radiation-therapy-for-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-thymic-tumors
#10
REVIEW
Suchit H Patel, Andreas Rimner, Roger B Cohen
Recent work with immunotherapy has shown promising results with treatment of several solid malignancies, and there are several reports of good systemic responses with the combination of immunotherapy and radiation therapy (RT), most notably in advanced melanoma. Given the rapid increase in the use of checkpoint blockade as well as anti-tumor vaccines, we review here the preclinical rationale and ongoing clinical work in combining immunotherapy with RT for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and thymic tumors. While there are several reports of promising results with the combination of immunotherapy and conventional systemic treatment, we focus here on the ongoing clinical studies that combine immunotherapy with RT, and highlight the emerging data for this multimodality approach as well as key preclinical and clinical issues that remain to be addressed...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529900/immunotherapy-and-radiation-therapy-for-operable-early-stage-and-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Neil K Taunk, Andreas Rimner, Melissa Culligan, Joseph S Friedberg, Julie Brahmer, Jamie Chaft
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer mortality. Although a significant proportion of patients can be cured with surgery, with or without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation, a significant proportion of patients will fail, particularly distantly. Over fifty percent of patients present with stage IV disease. There are multiple forms of immunotherapy available including T-cell transfer, cytokine therapy, and oncolytic viruses. Checkpoint inhibitors have shown tremendous activity in NSCLC and are currently under intense study given promising data on response...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529899/clinical-experiences-of-combining-immunotherapy-and-radiation-therapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-lessons-from-melanoma
#12
REVIEW
Anusha Kalbasi, Ramesh Rengan
Radiation therapy (RT) is an essential component of local control for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but distant failures dictate the poor prognosis of this disease. Until recently, the possibility of using RT as an immunoadjuvant to stimulate a systemic anti-tumor immune response was not a realistic clinical opportunity. The emergence of immune checkpoint blockade as an effective immunotherapy for NSCLC has opened the door for combinatorial approaches involving RT. In melanoma, the body of preclinical evidence combining radiation and immunotherapy buoyed clinical efforts, from which promising results have begun to emerge...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529898/preclinical-rationale-for-combining-radiation-therapy-and-immunotherapy-beyond-checkpoint-inhibitors-i-e-cart
#13
REVIEW
James P Flynn, Mark H O'Hara, Saumil J Gandhi
An increasing appreciation for the role of the immune system in targeting cancer cells over the last decade has led to the development of several immunomodulatory agents aimed at enhancing the systemic antitumor immune response. One such method is the use of T cells that are genetically engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). The remarkable success of this approach in advanced hematologic malignancies has garnered much enthusiasm for using this novel tool in treating other cancers. However, multiple challenges have hampered the application of this therapy to a broader set of solid tumors, most notably lung cancer...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529897/uncovering-the-immune-tumor-microenvironment-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-to-understand-response-rates-to-checkpoint-blockade-and-radiation
#14
REVIEW
Jonathan E Schoenhals, Steven N Seyedin, Clark Anderson, Eric D Brooks, Yun R Li, Ahmed I Younes, Sharareh Niknam, Ailin Li, Hampartsoum B Barsoumian, Maria Angelica Cortez, James W Welsh
The study of immunology has led to breakthroughs in treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The recent approval of an anti-PD1 checkpoint drug for NSCLC has generated much interest in novel combination therapies that might provide further benefit for patients. However, a better understanding of which combinations may (or may not) work in NSCLC requires understanding the lung immune microenvironment under homeostatic conditions and the changes in that microenvironment in the setting of cancer progression and with radiotherapy...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529896/advances-in-radiotherapy-techniques-and-delivery-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-benefits-of-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-proton-therapy-and-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Tejan P Diwanji, Pranshu Mohindra, Melissa Vyfhuis, James W Snider, Chaitanya Kalavagunta, Sina Mossahebi, Jen Yu, Steven Feigenberg, Shahed N Badiyan
The 21st century has seen several paradigm shifts in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in early-stage inoperable disease, definitive locally advanced disease, and the postoperative setting. A key driver in improvement of local disease control has been the significant evolution of radiation therapy techniques in the last three decades, allowing for delivery of definitive radiation doses while limiting exposure of normal tissues. For patients with locally-advanced NSCLC, the advent of volumetric imaging techniques has allowed a shift from 2-dimensional approaches to 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529895/special-topics-in-immunotherapy-and-radiation-therapy-reirradiation-and-palliation
#16
REVIEW
Tracey Evans, Christine Ciunci, Lauren Hertan, Daniel Gomez
Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, thus far, its use has only been established in patients with advanced disease either as first-line therapy in selected patients or following chemotherapy. What is not yet known is how best to incorporate radiation with immunotherapy agents. Many patients with advanced disease can benefit from palliative radiation, but the combination of radiation with immunotherapy has the potential to increase the toxicity of both modalities...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525996/cancer-risks-in-a-population-based-study-of-70-570-agricultural-workers-results-from-the-canadian-census-health-and-environment-cohort-canchec
#17
Linda Kachuri, M Anne Harris, Jill S MacLeod, Michael Tjepkema, Paul A Peters, Paul A Demers
BACKGROUND: Agricultural workers may be exposed to potential carcinogens including pesticides, sensitizing agents and solar radiation. Previous studies indicate increased risks of hematopoietic cancers and decreased risks at other sites, possibly due to differences in lifestyle or risk behaviours. We present findings from CanCHEC (Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort), the largest national population-based cohort of agricultural workers. METHODS: Statistics Canada created the cohort using deterministic and probabilistic linkage of the 1991 Canadian Long Form Census to National Cancer Registry records for 1992-2010...
May 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525608/surgical-resection-for-advanced-lung-cancer-using-the-hemi-clamshell-approach
#18
Yasushi Shintani, Ryu Kanzaki, Tomohiro Kawamura, Soichiro Funaki, Masato Minami, Meinoshin Okumura, Eiji Okura, Yoshihisa Kadota, Mitsunori Ohta
OBJECTIVES: The hemi-clamshell (HCS) approach consists of partial sternotomy with antero-lateral thoracotomy. This study evaluated the utilities and outcomes of the HCS approach in advanced lung cancer patients. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 45 patients who underwent surgery for advanced lung cancer via the HCS procedure between 2000 and 2014, the indications for surgery being tumour invasion extending to the aorta arch in 5, descending aorta in 9, main pulmonary artery in 5, superior vena cava in 6, right or left atrium in 4, apical thoracic dome in 7 patients and mediastinal lymphadenopathy for left-sided lung cancer in 12...
May 19, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523582/first-in-human-radiation-dosimetry-of-68-ga-nodaga-rgdyk
#19
Silvano Gnesin, Periklis Mitsakis, Francesco Cicone, Emmanuel Deshayes, Vincent Dunet, Augusto F Gallino, Marek Kosinski, Sébastien Baechler, Franz Buchegger, David Viertl, John O Prior
BACKGROUND: Integrin-targeting radiopharmaceuticals have potential broad applications, spanning from cancer theranostics to cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported preclinical dosimetry results of (68)Ga-NODAGA-RGDyK in mice. This study presents the first human dosimetry of (68)Ga-NODAGA-RGDyK in the five consecutive patients included in a clinical imaging protocol of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Five male patients underwent whole-body time-of-flight (TOF) PET/CT scans 10, 60 and 120 min after tracer injection (200 MBq)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523162/a-preliminary-exploration-of-the-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-applied-in-the-preoperative-evaluation-of-mediastinal-lymph-node-metastasis-of-lung-cancer
#20
Xin Ye, Shuo Chen, Yaru Tian, Bin You, Wenqian Zhang, Yan Zhao, Tao Jiang, Bin Hu, Hui Li
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) for distinguishing non-metastatic from metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes in lung cancer. METHODS: IVIM-diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) exams were performed preoperatively on 66 patients with lung cancer from October 2015 to June 2016 in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University. Fifty patients underwent enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) in our hospital, while the other 16 patients already had enhanced chest CT images when they were admitted...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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