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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813980/human-mimetic-forearm-mechanism-towards-bionic-arm
#1
Minsang Seo, Hogyun Kim, Youngjin Choi
The paper presents a mechanical forearm mechanism to extend the pronation and supination (P/S) movement of the trans-radial amputee when he/she is able to conduct the P/S motion partially with his/her remaining forearm. The P/S motions of the existing prostheses and robotic arms developed till now are completely different from those of the human. When we are to develop the robotic prostheses for the amputees, two important issues should be considered such as cosmetic issue to look like normal arm and motion harmony issue between robotic prosthesis and the amputated living arm...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794001/randomized-comparison-of-ridaforolimus-eluting-and-zotarolimus-eluting-coronary-stents-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-primary-results-from-the-bionics-trial
#2
David E Kandzari, Pieter C Smits, Michael P Love, Ori Ben-Yehuda, Shmuel Banai, Simon D Robinson, Michael Jonas, Ran Kornowski, Rodrigo Bagur, Andres Iniguez, Haim D Danenberg, Robert L Feldman, Rajiv Jauhar, Harish Chandna, Manish A Parikh, Gidon Y Perlman, Mercedes Balcells, Peter M Markham, Melek Ozgu Ozan, Philippe Genereux, Elazer Edelman, Martin B Leon, Gregg W Stone
Background -The safety and efficacy of a novel cobalt alloy-based coronary stent with a durable elastomeric polymer eluting the antiproliferative agent ridaforolimus for treatment of patients with coronary artery disease is undetermined. Methods -A prospective, international 1:1 randomized trial was conducted to evaluate in a noninferiority design the relative safety and efficacy of ridaforolimus-eluting stents (RES) and slow-release zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) among 1,919 patients at 76 centers undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention...
August 9, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793152/identification-of-characters-and-localization-of-images-using-direct-multiple-electrode-stimulation-with-a-suprachoroidal-retinal-prosthesis
#3
Mohit N Shivdasani, Nicholas C Sinclair, Lisa N Gillespie, Matthew A Petoe, Samuel A Titchener, James B Fallon, Thushara Perera, Darien Pardinas-Diaz, Nick M Barnes, Peter J Blamey
Purpose: Retinal prostheses provide vision to blind patients by eliciting phosphenes through electrical stimulation. This study explored whether character identification and image localization could be achieved through direct multiple-electrode stimulation with a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. Methods: Two of three retinitis pigmentosa patients implanted with a suprachoroidal electrode array were tested on three psychophysical tasks. Electrode patterns were stimulated to elicit perception of simple characters, following which percept localization was tested using either static or dynamic images...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792045/rapid-fabrication-of-bio-inspired-nanostructure-with-hydrophobicity-and-antireflectivity-on-polystyrene-surface-replicating-from-cicada-wings
#4
Heng Xie, Han-Xiong Huang, Yu-Jiang Peng
The fine nanostructure on the cicada wing of Cryptotympana atrata fabricius, which exhibits hydrophobicity and antireflectivity, is carefully examined. A promising strategy is proposed for facilely and successively replicating the natural functional nanostructure of the cicada wing onto polystyrene (PS) surfaces. First, a nickel replica with tapered nanopores is fabricated by combining electroless plating and subsequent electroplating with the natural cicada wing as an original template. Then, using microinjection compression molding, with the nickel replica as a template, the tapered nanopores are transcribed onto the PS surface, resulting in orderly and densely arranged nanopillars with a mean diameter of about 156 nm and a mean pitch of about 180 nm...
August 9, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776504/effect-of-counterface-roughness-on-the-friction-of-bionic-wall-shaped-microstructures-for-gecko-like-attachments
#5
Haytam Kasem, Yossi Cohen
Hairy adhesive systems involved in gecko locomotion have drawn the interest of many researchers regarding the development of bionic solutions for fast and reversible adhesive technologies. To date, despite extensive efforts to design gecko-inspired adhesive surfaces, adhesion and friction capacities are often evaluated using smooth and rigid counterfaces, in general glass, whereas most natural and artificial surfaces inevitably have a certain level of roughness. For that reason, in this study experiments tested the effects of the substrate roughness on the friction of bionic wale-shaped microstructures for gecko-like attachments...
August 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775347/liquid-metal-amoeba-with-spontaneous-pseudopodia-formation-and-motion-capability
#6
Liang Hu, Bin Yuan, Jing Liu
The unique motion of amoeba with a deformable body has long been an intriguing issue in scientific fields ranging from physics, bionics to mechanics. So far, most of the currently available artificial machines are still hard to achieve the complicated amoeba-like behaviors including stretching pseudopodia. Here through introducing a multi-materials system, we discovered a group of very unusual biomimetic amoeba-like behaviors of self-fueled liquid gallium alloy on the graphite surface immersed in alkaline solution...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773858/protein-peptide-aggregation-and-amyloidosis-on-biointerfaces
#7
REVIEW
Qi Lu, Qiuhan Tang, Yuting Xiong, Guangyan Qing, Taolei Sun
Recently, studies of protein/peptide aggregation, particularly the amyloidosis, have attracted considerable attention in discussions of the pathological mechanisms of most neurodegenerative diseases. The protein/peptide aggregation processes often occur at the membrane-cytochylema interface in vivo and behave differently from those occurring in bulk solution, which raises great interest to investigate how the interfacial properties of artificial biomaterials impact on protein aggregation. From the perspective of bionics, current progress in this field has been obtained mainly from four aspects: (1) hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces; (2) charged surface; (3) chiral surface; and (4) biomolecule-related interfaces...
August 30, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773827/study-on-the-impact-resistance-of-bionic-layered-composite-of-tic-tib%C3%A2-al-from-al-ti-b%C3%A2-c-system
#8
Qian Zhao, Yunhong Liang, Zhihui Zhang, Xiujuan Li, Luquan Ren
Mechanical property and impact resistance mechanism of bionic layered composite was investigated. Due to light weight and high strength property, white clam shell was chosen as bionic model for design of bionic layered composite. The intercoupling model between hard layer and soft layer was identical to the layered microstructure and hardness tendency of the white clam shell, which connected the bionic design and fabrication. TiC-TiB₂ reinforced Al matrix composites fabricated from Al-Ti-B₄C system with 40 wt...
August 20, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757796/bionic-design-for-reducing-adhesive-resistance-of-the-ridger-inspired-by-a-boar-s-head
#9
Jianqiao Li, Yunpeng Yan, Benard Chirende, Xuejiao Wu, Zhaoliang Wang, Meng Zou
The main feature of the boar's head used to root around for food is the front part, which is similar to the ridger in terms of function, load, and environment. In this paper, the boar's head was selected as the biological prototype for developing a new ridger. The point cloud of the head was captured by a 3D scanner, and then, the head surface was reconstructed using 3D coordinates. The characteristic curves of the front part of the boar's head were extracted, and then, five cross-sectional curves and one vertical section curve were fitted...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752028/approaches-to-establish-q-markers-for-the-quality-standards-of-traditional-chinese-medicines
#10
REVIEW
Wenzhi Yang, Yibei Zhang, Wanying Wu, Luqi Huang, Dean Guo, Changxiao Liu
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a pivotal role in maintaining the health of Chinese people and is now gaining increasing acceptance around the global scope. However, TCM is confronting more and more concerns with respect to its quality. The intrinsic "multicomponent and multitarget" feature of TCM necessitates the establishment of a unique quality and bioactivity evaluation system, which is different from that of the Western medicine. However, TCM is investigated essentially as "herbal medicine" or "natural product", and the pharmacopoeia quality monographs are actually chemical-markers-based, which can ensure the consistency only in the assigned chemical markers, but, to some extent, have deviated from the basic TCM theory...
July 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739519/bionic-brain-controlling-a-prosthetic-hand
#11
Rahul Jandial, Reid Hoshide
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728475/bill-gibson-pioneering-bionic-ear-surgeon
#12
Richard Ramsden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722645/verification-of-a-proposed-clinical-electroacoustic-test-protocol-for-personal-digital-modulation-receivers-coupled-to-cochlear-implant-sound-processors
#13
Erika L Nair, Rhonda Sousa, Shannon Wannagot
BACKGROUND: Guidelines established by the AAA currently recommend behavioral testing when fitting frequency modulated (FM) systems to individuals with cochlear implants (CIs). A protocol for completing electroacoustic measures has not yet been validated for personal FM systems or digital modulation (DM) systems coupled to CI sound processors. In response, some professionals have used or altered the AAA electroacoustic verification steps for fitting FM systems to hearing aids when fitting FM systems to CI sound processors...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715851/paradigm-shifts-peregrinations-and-pixies-in-ophthalmology
#14
REVIEW
A O Minas Coroneo
Defending vision, our highest bandwidth sense, challenges human ingenuity. Replacing or repairing highly specialized but scarce tissue within constraints of transparency, tissue shape and alignment, tissue borders and pressure maintenance, presents special challenges. Many, mostly destructive surgical procedures, were developed prior to an understanding of underlying pathophysiology. For a number of conditions, both reconstructive and destructive procedures co-exist yet there are few guidelines as to the better approach...
July 17, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700446/pure-tone-masking-patterns-for-monopolar-and-phantom-electrical-stimulation-in-cochlear-implants
#15
Aniket A Saoji, Kanthaiah Koka, Leonid M Litvak, Charles C Finley
OBJECTIVES: Monopolar stimulation of the most apical electrode produces the lowest pitch sensation in cochlear implants clinically. A phantom electrode that uses out-of-phase electrical stimulation between the most apical and the neighboring basal electrode can produce a lower pitch sensation than that associated with the most apical electrode. However, because of the absence of contacts beyond the apical tip of the array, the ability to assess the spread of electrical excitation associated with phantom stimulation is limited in the typical cochlear implant subject with no residual hearing...
July 11, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688907/face-identity-recognition-in-simulated-prosthetic-vision-is-poorer-than-previously-reported-and-can-be-improved-by-caricaturing
#16
Jessica L Irons, Tamara Gradden, Angel Zhang, Xuming He, Nick Barnes, Adele F Scott, Elinor McKone
The visual prosthesis (or "bionic eye") has become a reality but provides a low resolution view of the world. Simulating prosthetic vision in normal-vision observers, previous studies report good face recognition ability using tasks that allow recognition to be achieved on the basis of information that survives low resolution well, including basic category (sex, age) and extra-face information (hairstyle, glasses). Here, we test within-category individuation for face-only information (e.g., distinguishing between multiple Caucasian young men with hair covered)...
July 14, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685577/biomimetic-gastrointestinal-tract-functions-for-metal-absorption-assessment-in-edible-plants-comparison-to-in-vivo-absorption
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Luxiu Lin, Fengying Zheng, Haifeng Zhou, Shunxing Li
A biomimetic gastrointestinal tract, including in vitro digestion and biomimetic biomembrane extraction, has been proposed for absorption assessment of metals from edible plants. However, its validity is still unknown. Herein, two species of edible plants, Anoectochilus roxburghii and Radix astragali, were selected and digested in a bionic mouth, stomach, and intestine, and then trace metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, As, and Pb) were transformed to their final metal species. To check model predictability, in vitro and in vivo metal absorption were imitated and tested by monolayer liposome extraction and rat stomach or single-pass duodenal intestine, respectively...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682084/recovery-from-forward-masking-in-cochlear-implant-listeners-depends-on-stimulation-mode-level-and-electrode-location
#18
Monita Chatterjee, Aditya M Kulkarni
Psychophysical recovery from forward masking was measured in adult cochlear implant users of Cochlear(TM) and Advanced Bionics(TM) devices, in monopolar and in focused (bipolar and tripolar) stimulation modes, at four electrode sites across the arrays, and at two levels (loudness balanced across modes and electrodes). Results indicated a steeper psychophysical recovery from forward masking in monopolar over bipolar and tripolar modes, modified by differential effects of electrode and level. The interactions between factors varied somewhat across devices...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674482/feasibility-of-using-electrocochleography-for-objective-estimation-of-electro-acoustic-interactions-in-cochlear-implant-recipients-with-residual-hearing
#19
Kanthaiah Koka, Leonid M Litvak
Although cochlear implants (CI) traditionally have been used to treat individuals with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss, a recent trend is to implant individuals with residual low-frequency hearing. Patients who retain some residual acoustic hearing after surgery often can benefit from electro-acoustic stimulation (EAS) technologies, which combine conventional acoustic amplification with electrical stimulation. However, interactions between acoustic and electrical stimulation may affect outcomes adversely and are time-consuming and difficult to assess behaviorally...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667299/the-beetle-elytron-plate-a-lightweight-high-strength-and-buffering-functional-structural-bionic-material
#20
Xiaoming Zhang, Juan Xie, Jinxiang Chen, Yoji Okabe, Longcheng Pan, Mengye Xu
To investigate the characteristics of compression, buffering and energy dissipation in beetle elytron plates (BEPs), compression experiments were performed on BEPs and honeycomb plates (HPs) with the same wall thickness in different core structures and using different molding methods. The results are as follows: 1) The compressive strength and energy dissipation capacity in the BEP are 2.44 and 5.0 times those in the HP, respectively, when the plates are prepared using the full integrated method (FIM). 2) The buckling stress is directly proportional to the square of the wall thickness (t)...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
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