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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901316/small-subcompartmentalized-microreactors-as-support-for-hepatocytes
#1
Yan Zhang, Marie Baekgaard-Laursen, Brigitte Städler
Mimicking specific structural or functional aspects of cells is considered a promising approach to substitute for missing or lost cellular functions. However, the interaction of such artificial assemblies with their biological counterparts including the exploitation of the activity of the synthetic partner remains thus-far a rather unexplored avenue. Herein, the assembly of active microreactors with similar size to hepatocytes is reported. These microreactors are successfully cocultured with hepatocytes into bionic tissue for up to 10 d...
November 30, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879487/electrocochleography-in-cochlear-implant-recipients-with-residual-hearing-comparison-with-audiometric-thresholds
#2
Kanthaiah Koka, Aniket A Saoji, Leonid M Litvak
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether electrocochleography (ECoG) thresholds, especially cochlear microphonic and auditory nerve neurophonic thresholds, measured using an intracochlear electrode, can be used to predict pure-tone audiometric thresholds following cochlear implantation in ears with residual hearing. DESIGN: Pure-tone audiometric thresholds and ECoG waveforms were measured at test frequencies from 125 to 4000 Hz in 21 Advanced Bionics cochlear implant recipients with residual hearing in the implanted ear...
November 22, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836488/characterization-the-affinity-of-%C3%AE-1a-adrenoreceptor-by-cell-membrane-chromatography-with-frontal-analysis-and-stoichiometric-displacement-model
#3
Fen Wei, Sicen Wang, Nan Lv, Yusi Bu, Xiaoyu Xie
As a bionic chromatographic method, cell membrane chromatography (CMC) has been used widely in screening active components in traditional Chinese medicine. Nevertheless, few studies have characterized the affinity between drug and receptor by CMC model. In this study, the alpha 1 adrenoreceptor (α1A AR) high expression CMC method, combined with frontal analysis and stoichiometric displacement model respectively, was established for characterizing the affinity of seven alkaloids binding to the α1A AR. The results indicate that the seven alkaloids have similar interaction strengths with tamsulosin hydrochloride (α1A AR antagonist) between them and α1A AR...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825875/molecularly-imprinted-electrochemical-sensor-based-on-bioinspired-au-microflowers-for-ultra-trace-cholesterol-assay
#4
Hua Yang, Li Li, Yaping Ding, Daixin Ye, Yingzi Wang, Shiqiang Cui, Lanfeng Liao
A novel imprinted sensor for ultra-trace cholesterol (CHO) detection based on electropolymerized aminothiophenol (ATP) molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with dopamine@graphene (DGr) and bioinspired Au microflowers has been developed in this work. As the specific recognition element, the bioinspired Au microflowers were formed by Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and wrapped by bionic polydopamine film (PDA) through electropolymerization method. These excellent biocompatible materials could capture the target CHO effectively...
September 28, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808185/plant-nanotechnology-bionic-plant-can-sense-explosives
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802730/design-of-a-biologically-inspired-lower-limb-exoskeleton-for-human-gait-rehabilitation
#6
Mingxing Lyu, Weihai Chen, Xilun Ding, Jianhua Wang, Shaoping Bai, Huichao Ren
This paper proposes a novel bionic model of the human leg according to the theory of physiology. Based on this model, we present a biologically inspired 3-degree of freedom (DOF) lower limb exoskeleton for human gait rehabilitation, showing that the lower limb exoskeleton is fully compatible with the human knee joint. The exoskeleton has a hybrid serial-parallel kinematic structure consisting of a 1-DOF hip joint module and a 2-DOF knee joint module in the sagittal plane. A planar 2-DOF parallel mechanism is introduced in the design to fully accommodate the motion of the human knee joint, which features not only rotation but also relative sliding...
October 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795926/an-object-localization-optimization-technique-in-medical-images-using-plant-growth-simulation-algorithm
#7
Deblina Bhattacharjee, Anand Paul, Jeong Hong Kim, Mucheol Kim
The analysis of leukocyte images has drawn interest from fields of both medicine and computer vision for quite some time where different techniques have been applied to automate the process of manual analysis and classification of such images. Manual analysis of blood samples to identify leukocytes is time-consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells. In this article, the nature-inspired plant growth simulation algorithm has been applied to optimize the image processing technique of object localization of medical images of leukocytes...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794318/effects-of-stimulus-level-and-rate-on-psychophysical-thresholds-for-interleaved-pulse-trains-in-cochlear-implants
#8
Michelle L Hughes, Jenny L Goehring, Jacquelyn L Baudhuin, Kendra K Schmid
This study examined channel interactions using interleaved pulse trains to assess masking and potential facilitative effects in cochlear-implant recipients using clinically relevant stimuli. Psychophysical thresholds were measured for two adjacent mid-array electrodes; one served as the masker and the other as the probe. Two rates representative of those found in present-day strategies were tested: 1700 and 3400 pulses per second per channel. Four masker levels ranging from sub-threshold to loud-but-comfortable were tested...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757072/influence-of-biphasic-stimulation-on-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-for-neuroprosthetic-devices
#9
Rachelle T Hassarati, L John R Foster, Rylie A Green
The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH) coated electrodes...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755356/initial-operative-experience-and-short-term-hearing-preservation-results-with-a-mid-scala-cochlear-implant-electrode-array
#10
Maja Svrakic, J Thomas Roland, Sean O McMenomey, Mario A Svirsky
OBJECTIVE: To describe our initial operative experience and hearing preservation results with the Advanced Bionics (AB) Mid Scala Electrode (MSE). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Sixty-three MSE implants in pediatric and adult patients were compared with age- and sex-matched 1j electrode implants from the same manufacturer. All patients were severe to profoundly deaf. INTERVENTION: Cochlear implantation with either the AB 1j electrode or the AB MSE...
December 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753530/friction-properties-of-biological-functional-materials-pvdf-membranes
#11
Long Chen, Changan Di, Xuguang Chen, Zhengzhi Li, Jia Luo
Touch is produced by sensations that include approaching, sliding, pressing, and temperature. This concept has become a target of research in biotechnology, especially in the field of bionic biology. This study measured sliding and pressing with traditional tactile sensors in order to improve a machine operator's judgment of surface roughness. Based on the theory of acoustic emission, this study combined polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with a sonic transducer to produce tactile sensors that can detect surface roughness...
October 18, 2016: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753086/high-variability-of-facial-muscle-innervation-by-facial-nerve-branches-a-prospective-electrostimulation-study
#12
Ashraf Raslan, Gerd Fabian Volk, Martin Möller, Vincent Stark, Nikolas Eckhardt, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To examine by intraoperative electric stimulation which peripheral facial nerve (FN) branches are functionally connected to which facial muscle functions. STUDY DESIGN: Single-center prospective clinical study. METHODS: Seven patients whose peripheral FN branching was exposed during parotidectomy under FN monitoring received a systematic electrostimulation of each branch starting with 0.1 mA and stepwise increase to 2 mA with a frequency of 3 Hz...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752220/drag-reduction-and-performance-improvement-of-hydraulic-torque-converters-with-multiple-biological-characteristics
#13
Liu Chunbao, Li Li, Lei Yulong, Liu Changsuo, Zhang Yubo
Fish-like, dolphin-like, and bionic nonsmooth surfaces were employed in a hydraulic torque converter to achieve drag reduction and performance improvement, which were aimed at reducing profile loss, impacting loss and friction loss, respectively. YJSW335, a twin turbine torque converter, was bionically designed delicately. The biological characteristics consisted of fish-like blades in all four wheels, dolphin-like structure in the first turbine and the stator, and nonsmooth surfaces in the pump. The prediction performance of bionic YJSW335, obtained by computational fluid dynamics simulation, was improved compared with that of the original model, and then it could be proved that drag reduction had been achieved...
2016: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746711/mechatronic-wearable-exoskeletons-for-bionic-bipedal-standing-and-walking-a-new-synthetic-approach
#14
Gelu Onose, Vladimir Cârdei, Ştefan T Crăciunoiu, Valeriu Avramescu, Ioan Opriş, Mikhail A Lebedev, Marian Vladimir Constantinescu
During the last few years, interest has been growing to mechatronic and robotic technologies utilized in wearable powered exoskeletons that assist standing and walking. The available literature includes single-case reports, clinical studies conducted in small groups of subjects, and several recent systematic reviews. These publications have fulfilled promotional and marketing objectives but have not yet resulted in a fully optimized, practical wearable exoskeleton. Here we evaluate the progress and future directions in this field from a joint perspective of health professionals, manufacturers, and consumers...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740656/shape-memory-polymer-nanocomposites-with-a-3d-conductive-network-for-bidirectional-actuation-and-locomotion-application
#15
Qingyu Peng, Hongqiu Wei, Yuyang Qin, Zaishan Lin, Xu Zhao, Fan Xu, Jinsong Leng, Xiaodong He, Anyuan Cao, Yibin Li
Electrical stimulation of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) has many advantages over thermal methods; creating an efficient conductive path through the bulk polymers is essential for developing high performance electroactive systems. Here, we show that a three-dimensional (3D) porous carbon nanotube sponge can serve as a built-in integral conductive network to provide internal, homogeneous, in situ Joule heating for shape-memory polymers, thus significantly improving the mechanical and thermal behavior of SMPs. As a result, the 3D nanocomposites show a fast response and produce large exerting forces (with a maximum flexural stress of 14...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739575/mammalian-fibroblast-cells-show-strong-preference-for-laser-generated-hybrid-amorphous-silicon-sio2-textures
#16
Candace Colpitts, Amin M Ektesabi, Rachael A Wyatt, Bryan D Crawford, Amirkianoosh Kiani
BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated a method to produce bioactive hybrid amorphous silicon and silicon oxide patterns using nanosecond laser pulses. METHODS: Microscale line patterns were made by laser pulses on silicon wafers at different frequencies (25, 70 and 100 kHz), resulting in ablation patterns with frequency-dependent physical and chemical properties. RESULTS: Incubating the laser-treated silicon substrates with simulated body fluid demonstrated that the physicochemical properties of the laser-treated samples were stable under these conditions, and favored the deposition of bone-like apatite...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731326/a-novel-bio-mimicking-planar-nano-edge-microelectrode-enables-enhanced-long-term-neural-recording
#17
Pierre Wijdenes, Hasan Ali, Ryden Armstrong, Wali Zaidi, Colin Dalton, Naweed I Syed
Our inability to accurately monitor individual neurons and their synaptic activity precludes fundamental understanding of brain function under normal and various pathological conditions. However, recent breakthroughs in micro- and nano-scale fabrication processes have advanced the development of neuro-electronic hybrid technology. Among such devices are three-dimensional and planar electrodes, offering the advantages of either high fidelity or longer-term recordings respectively. Here, we present the next generation of planar microelectrode arrays with "nano-edges" that enable long-term (≥1 month) and high fidelity recordings at a resolution 15 times higher than traditional planar electrodes...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722242/periosteum-tissue-engineering-a-review
#18
Nanying Li, Juqing Song, Guanglin Zhu, Xiaoyu Li, Lei Liu, Xuetao Shi, Yingjun Wang
As always, the clinical therapy of critical size bone defects caused by trauma, tumor removal surgery or congenital malformation is facing great challenges. Currently, various approaches including autograft, allograft and cell-biomaterial composite based tissue-engineering strategies have been implemented to reconstruct injured bone. However, due to damage during the transplantation processes or design negligence of the bionic scaffolds, these methods expose vulnerabilities without the assistance of periosteum, a bilayer membrane on the outer surface of the bone...
October 18, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721419/elective-amputation-and-bionic-substitution-restore-functional-hand-use-after-critical-soft-tissue-injuries
#19
Oskar C Aszmann, Ivan Vujaklija, Aidan D Roche, Stefan Salminger, Malvina Herceg, Agnes Sturma, Laura A Hruby, Anna Pittermann, Christian Hofer, Sebastian Amsuess, Dario Farina
Critical soft tissue injuries may lead to a non-functional and insensate limb. In these cases standard reconstructive techniques will not suffice to provide a useful outcome, and solutions outside the biological arena must be considered and offered to these patients. We propose a concept which, after all reconstructive options have been exhausted, involves an elective amputation along with a bionic substitution, implementing an actuated prosthetic hand via a structured tech-neuro-rehabilitation program. Here, three patients are presented in whom this concept has been successfully applied after mutilating hand injuries...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710435/nanoindentation-investigation-of-the-stress-exponent-for-the-creep-of-dung-beetle-copris-ochus-motschulsky-cuticle
#20
Zhijun Zhang, Honglei Jia, Jiyu Sun, Jin Tong
ABSTACT With the rapid development of bionic science, especially the progress that has been made in the fields of biomaterials and biomimetics, there is now great interest in the surface and internal mechanical properties of biological materials at the micro- and nanoscale. The study of micro- and nanoscale biomaterial mechanical properties could enable interdisciplinary applications in materials science, biological science and bionic science. Dung beetle (Copris ochus Motschulsky) cuticle is a viscoelastic material that is both viscous and flexible via elastic deformation under external forces; where stress σ, strain ϵ and elastic modulus E are related in the following way: σ = Eϵ...
September 2, 2016: Bioengineered
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