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Yang Liu, Qian Li, Bin Zhang, De-Xiang Ban, Shi-Qing Feng
The incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) has been gradually increasing, and the treatment has troubled the medical field all the time. Primary and secondary injuries ultimately lead to nerve impulse conduction block. Microglia and astrocytes excessively accumulate and proliferate to form the glial scar. At present, to reduce the effect of glial scar on nerve regeneration is a hot spot in the research on the treatment of SCI. According to the preliminary experiments, we would like to provide a new bionic spinal cord to reduce the negative effect of glial scar on nerve regeneration...
August 20, 2017: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Johannes Völker, Fabian Kohm, Lukas Jürgens, Agmal Scherzad, Philipp Schendzielorz, Sebastian Schraven, Robert Mlynski, Andreas Radeloff, Rudolf Hagen, Kristen Rak
Auditory implants stimulate the neurons by broad electrical fields, which leads to a low number of spectral channels. A reduction in the distance between the electrode and the neuronal structures might lead to better electrical transduction. The use of microstructured semiconductors offers a large number of contacts, which could attract neurons and stimulate them individually. To investigate the interaction between neurons and semiconductors, differentiated neuronal precursor cells were cultured on silicon wafers...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Michele Xiloyannis, Constantinos Gavriel, Andreas A C Thomik, A Aldo Faisal
Matching the dexterity, versatility and robustness of the human hand is still an unachieved goal in bionics, robotics and neural engineering. A major limitation for hand prosthetics lies in the challenges of reliably decoding user intention from muscle signals when controlling complex robotic hands. Most of the commercially available prosthetic hands use musclerelated signals to decode a finite number of predefined motions and some offer proportional control of open/close movements of the whole hand. Here, in contrast, we aim to offer users flexible control of individual joints of their artificial hand...
August 31, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Aleksandra Wojciechowska, Robert Klewicki, Michał Sójka, Elżbieta Klewicka
Bionic acids are bioactive compounds demonstrating numerous interesting properties. They are widely produced by chemical or enzymatic oxidation of disaccharides. This paper focuses on the galactosyl derivative of gluconic acid as a result of a new method of bionic acid synthesis which utilises the transglycosylation properties of β-galactosidase and introduces lactose as a substrate. Products obtained in such a process are characterised by different structures (and, potentially, properties) than those resulting from traditional oxidation of disaccharides...
June 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Yuan-Yuan Tang, Peng-Fei Li, Wan-Ying Zhang, Heng-Yun Ye, Yu-Meng You, Ren-Gen Xiong
The classical organic ferroelectric, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), has attracted much attention as a promising candidate for data storage applications compatible with all-organic electronics. However, it is the low crystallinity, the large coercive field, and the limited thermal stability of remanent polarization that severely hinder large-scale integration. In light of that, we show a molecular ferroelectric thin film of [Hdabco][ReO4] (dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) (1), belonging to another class of typical organic ferroelectrics...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Paul F Smith
The vestibular system is a sensory system that is critically important in humans for gaze and image stability as well as postural control. Patients with complete bilateral vestibular loss are severely disabled and experience a poor quality of life. There are very few effective treatment options for patients with no vestibular function. Over the last 10 years, rapid progress has been made in developing artificial 'vestibular implants' or 'prostheses', based on cochlear implant technology. As of 2017, 13 patients worldwide have received vestibular implants and the results are encouraging...
September 1, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
Weixing Liu, Ningyu Li, Jinxin Zhao, Yumin Su
Numerical simulations are used to investigate the wake structure and hydrodynamic performance of bionic flapping foils. The study is motivated by the quest to understand the fluid dynamics of fish fins and use it in the underwater propulsion. The simulations employ an immersed boundary method that makes it possible to simulate flows with complex moving boundaries on fixed Cartesian grids. A detailed analysis of the vortex topology shows that the wake of flapping foils is dominated by two sets of complex shaped vortex rings that convect at oblique angles to the wake centerline...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Xiaojing Gong, Xuefeng Gao, Lei Jiang
Bionic condensate microdrop self-propelling (CMDSP) surfaces are attracting increased attention as novel, low-adhesivity superhydrophobic surfaces due to their value in fundamental research and technological innovation, e.g., for enhancing heat transfer, energy-effective antifreezing, and electrostatic energy harvesting. Here, the focus is on recent progress in bionic CMDSP surfaces. Metal-based CMDSP surfaces, which are the most promising in their respective fields, are highlighted for use in future applications...
August 28, 2017: Advanced Materials
Hongwei Xu, Biao Dong, Qiaoqin Xiao, Xueke Sun, Xinran Zhang, Jiekai Lyu, Yudan Yang, Lin Xu, Xue Bai, Shuang Zhang, Hongwei Song
Artificial fractal structures have attracted considerable scientific interest in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detection and capture, which plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. Herein, we designed a bionic TiO2 inverse opal photonic crystal (IOPC) structure for highly efficient immunocapture of CTCs by combination of a magnetic Fe3O4@C6@silane nanoparticles with anti-EpCAM (antiepithelial cell adhesion molecule) and microchannel structure. Porous structure and dimension of IOPC TiO2 can be precisely controlled for mimicking cellular components, and anti-EpCAM antibody was further modified on IOPC interface by conjugating with polydopamine (PDA)...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Elliott G Magee, S Ourselin, Daniil Nikitichev, T Vercauteren, Anne Vanhoestenberghe
In this manuscript, we present two 'Bionic Clicker' systems, the first designed to demonstrate electromyography (EMG) based control systems for educational purposes and the second for research purposes. EMG based control systems pick up electrical signals generated by muscle activation and use these as inputs for controllers. EMG controllers are widely used in prosthetics to control limbs. The Mark I (MK I) clicker allows the wearer to change the slide of a presentation by raising their index finger. It is built around a microcontroller and a bio-signals shield...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Minsang Seo, Hogyun Kim, Youngjin Choi
The paper presents a mechanical forearm mechanism to extend the pronation and supination (P/S) movement of the trans-radial amputee when he/she is able to conduct the P/S motion partially with his/her remaining forearm. The P/S motions of the existing prostheses and robotic arms developed till now are completely different from those of the human. When we are to develop the robotic prostheses for the amputees, two important issues should be considered such as cosmetic issue to look like normal arm and motion harmony issue between robotic prosthesis and the amputated living arm...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
David E Kandzari, Pieter C Smits, Michael P Love, Ori Ben-Yehuda, Shmuel Banai, Simon D Robinson, Michael Jonas, Ran Kornowski, Rodrigo Bagur, Andres Iniguez, Haim D Danenberg, Robert L Feldman, Rajiv Jauhar, Harish Chandna, Manish A Parikh, Gidon Y Perlman, Mercedes Balcells, Peter M Markham, Melek Ozgu Ozan, Philippe Genereux, Elazer Edelman, Martin B Leon, Gregg W Stone
Background -The safety and efficacy of a novel cobalt alloy-based coronary stent with a durable elastomeric polymer eluting the antiproliferative agent ridaforolimus for treatment of patients with coronary artery disease is undetermined. Methods -A prospective, international 1:1 randomized trial was conducted to evaluate in a noninferiority design the relative safety and efficacy of ridaforolimus-eluting stents (RES) and slow-release zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) among 1,919 patients at 76 centers undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention...
August 9, 2017: Circulation
Mohit N Shivdasani, Nicholas C Sinclair, Lisa N Gillespie, Matthew A Petoe, Samuel A Titchener, James B Fallon, Thushara Perera, Darien Pardinas-Diaz, Nick M Barnes, Peter J Blamey
Purpose: Retinal prostheses provide vision to blind patients by eliciting phosphenes through electrical stimulation. This study explored whether character identification and image localization could be achieved through direct multiple-electrode stimulation with a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. Methods: Two of three retinitis pigmentosa patients implanted with a suprachoroidal electrode array were tested on three psychophysical tasks. Electrode patterns were stimulated to elicit perception of simple characters, following which percept localization was tested using either static or dynamic images...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Heng Xie, Han-Xiong Huang, Yu-Jiang Peng
The fine nanostructure on the cicada wing of Cryptotympana atrata fabricius, which exhibits hydrophobicity and antireflectivity, is carefully examined. A promising strategy is proposed for facilely and successively replicating the natural functional nanostructure of the cicada wing onto polystyrene (PS) surfaces. First, a nickel replica with tapered nanopores is fabricated by combining electroless plating and subsequent electroplating with the natural cicada wing as an original template. Then, using microinjection compression molding, with the nickel replica as a template, the tapered nanopores are transcribed onto the PS surface, resulting in orderly and densely arranged nanopillars with a mean diameter of about 156 nm and a mean pitch of about 180 nm...
August 24, 2017: Nanoscale
Haytam Kasem, Yossi Cohen
Hairy adhesive systems involved in gecko locomotion have drawn the interest of many researchers regarding the development of bionic solutions for fast and reversible adhesive technologies. To date, despite extensive efforts to design gecko-inspired adhesive surfaces, adhesion and friction capacities are often evaluated using smooth and rigid counterfaces, in general glass, whereas most natural and artificial surfaces inevitably have a certain level of roughness. For that reason, in this study experiments tested the effects of the substrate roughness on the friction of bionic wale-shaped microstructures for gecko-like attachments...
August 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Liang Hu, Bin Yuan, Jing Liu
The unique motion of amoeba with a deformable body has long been an intriguing issue in scientific fields ranging from physics, bionics to mechanics. So far, most of the currently available artificial machines are still hard to achieve the complicated amoeba-like behaviors including stretching pseudopodia. Here through introducing a multi-materials system, we discovered a group of very unusual biomimetic amoeba-like behaviors of self-fueled liquid gallium alloy on the graphite surface immersed in alkaline solution...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Qi Lu, Qiuhan Tang, Yuting Xiong, Guangyan Qing, Taolei Sun
Recently, studies of protein/peptide aggregation, particularly the amyloidosis, have attracted considerable attention in discussions of the pathological mechanisms of most neurodegenerative diseases. The protein/peptide aggregation processes often occur at the membrane-cytochylema interface in vivo and behave differently from those occurring in bulk solution, which raises great interest to investigate how the interfacial properties of artificial biomaterials impact on protein aggregation. From the perspective of bionics, current progress in this field has been obtained mainly from four aspects: (1) hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces; (2) charged surface; (3) chiral surface; and (4) biomolecule-related interfaces...
August 30, 2016: Materials
Qian Zhao, Yunhong Liang, Zhihui Zhang, Xiujuan Li, Luquan Ren
Mechanical property and impact resistance mechanism of bionic layered composite was investigated. Due to light weight and high strength property, white clam shell was chosen as bionic model for design of bionic layered composite. The intercoupling model between hard layer and soft layer was identical to the layered microstructure and hardness tendency of the white clam shell, which connected the bionic design and fabrication. TiC-TiB₂ reinforced Al matrix composites fabricated from Al-Ti-B₄C system with 40 wt...
August 20, 2016: Materials
Jianqiao Li, Yunpeng Yan, Benard Chirende, Xuejiao Wu, Zhaoliang Wang, Meng Zou
The main feature of the boar's head used to root around for food is the front part, which is similar to the ridger in terms of function, load, and environment. In this paper, the boar's head was selected as the biological prototype for developing a new ridger. The point cloud of the head was captured by a 3D scanner, and then, the head surface was reconstructed using 3D coordinates. The characteristic curves of the front part of the boar's head were extracted, and then, five cross-sectional curves and one vertical section curve were fitted...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Wenzhi Yang, Yibei Zhang, Wanying Wu, Luqi Huang, Dean Guo, Changxiao Liu
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a pivotal role in maintaining the health of Chinese people and is now gaining increasing acceptance around the global scope. However, TCM is confronting more and more concerns with respect to its quality. The intrinsic "multicomponent and multitarget" feature of TCM necessitates the establishment of a unique quality and bioactivity evaluation system, which is different from that of the Western medicine. However, TCM is investigated essentially as "herbal medicine" or "natural product", and the pharmacopoeia quality monographs are actually chemical-markers-based, which can ensure the consistency only in the assigned chemical markers, but, to some extent, have deviated from the basic TCM theory...
July 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
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