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Rachelle T Hassarati, L John R Foster, Rylie A Green
The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH) coated electrodes...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Maja Svrakic, J Thomas Roland, Sean O McMenomey, Mario A Svirsky
OBJECTIVE: To describe our initial operative experience and hearing preservation results with the Advanced Bionics (AB) Mid Scala Electrode (MSE). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Sixty-three MSE implants in pediatric and adult patients were compared with age- and sex-matched 1j electrode implants from the same manufacturer. All patients were severe to profoundly deaf. INTERVENTION: Cochlear implantation with either the AB 1j electrode or the AB MSE...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Long Chen, Changan Di, Xuguang Chen, Zhengzhi Li, Jia Luo
Touch is produced by sensations that include approaching, sliding, pressing, and temperature. This concept has become a target of research in biotechnology, especially in the field of bionic biology. This study measured sliding and pressing with traditional tactile sensors in order to improve a machine operator's judgment of surface roughness. Based on the theory of acoustic emission, this study combined polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with a sonic transducer to produce tactile sensors that can detect surface roughness...
October 18, 2016: Bioengineered
Ashraf Raslan, Gerd Fabian Volk, Martin Möller, Vincent Stark, Nikolas Eckhardt, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To examine by intraoperative electric stimulation which peripheral facial nerve (FN) branches are functionally connected to which facial muscle functions. STUDY DESIGN: Single-center prospective clinical study. METHODS: Seven patients whose peripheral FN branching was exposed during parotidectomy under FN monitoring received a systematic electrostimulation of each branch starting with 0.1 mA and stepwise increase to 2 mA with a frequency of 3 Hz...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
Liu Chunbao, Li Li, Lei Yulong, Liu Changsuo, Zhang Yubo
Fish-like, dolphin-like, and bionic nonsmooth surfaces were employed in a hydraulic torque converter to achieve drag reduction and performance improvement, which were aimed at reducing profile loss, impacting loss and friction loss, respectively. YJSW335, a twin turbine torque converter, was bionically designed delicately. The biological characteristics consisted of fish-like blades in all four wheels, dolphin-like structure in the first turbine and the stator, and nonsmooth surfaces in the pump. The prediction performance of bionic YJSW335, obtained by computational fluid dynamics simulation, was improved compared with that of the original model, and then it could be proved that drag reduction had been achieved...
2016: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Gelu Onose, Vladimir Cârdei, Ştefan T Crăciunoiu, Valeriu Avramescu, Ioan Opriş, Mikhail A Lebedev, Marian Vladimir Constantinescu
During the last few years, interest has been growing to mechatronic and robotic technologies utilized in wearable powered exoskeletons that assist standing and walking. The available literature includes single-case reports, clinical studies conducted in small groups of subjects, and several recent systematic reviews. These publications have fulfilled promotional and marketing objectives but have not yet resulted in a fully optimized, practical wearable exoskeleton. Here we evaluate the progress and future directions in this field from a joint perspective of health professionals, manufacturers, and consumers...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Qingyu Peng, Hongqiu Wei, Yuyang Qin, Zaishan Lin, Xu Zhao, Fan Xu, Jinsong Leng, Xiaodong He, Anyuan Cao, Yibin Li
Electrical stimulation of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) has many advantages over thermal methods; creating an efficient conductive path through the bulk polymers is essential for developing high performance electroactive systems. Here, we show that a three-dimensional (3D) porous carbon nanotube sponge can serve as a built-in integral conductive network to provide internal, homogeneous, in situ Joule heating for shape-memory polymers, thus significantly improving the mechanical and thermal behavior of SMPs. As a result, the 3D nanocomposites show a fast response and produce large exerting forces (with a maximum flexural stress of 14...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Candace Colpitts, Amin M Ektesabi, Rachael A Wyatt, Bryan D Crawford, Amirkianoosh Kiani
BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated a method to produce bioactive hybrid amorphous silicon and silicon oxide patterns using nanosecond laser pulses. METHODS: Microscale line patterns were made by laser pulses on silicon wafers at different frequencies (25, 70 and 100 kHz), resulting in ablation patterns with frequency-dependent physical and chemical properties. RESULTS: Incubating the laser-treated silicon substrates with simulated body fluid demonstrated that the physicochemical properties of the laser-treated samples were stable under these conditions, and favored the deposition of bone-like apatite...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Pierre Wijdenes, Hasan Ali, Ryden Armstrong, Wali Zaidi, Colin Dalton, Naweed I Syed
Our inability to accurately monitor individual neurons and their synaptic activity precludes fundamental understanding of brain function under normal and various pathological conditions. However, recent breakthroughs in micro- and nano-scale fabrication processes have advanced the development of neuro-electronic hybrid technology. Among such devices are three-dimensional and planar electrodes, offering the advantages of either high fidelity or longer-term recordings respectively. Here, we present the next generation of planar microelectrode arrays with "nano-edges" that enable long-term (≥1 month) and high fidelity recordings at a resolution 15 times higher than traditional planar electrodes...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nanying Li, Juqing Song, Guanglin Zhu, Xiaoyu Li, Lei Liu, Xuetao Shi, Yingjun Wang
As always, the clinical therapy of critical size bone defects caused by trauma, tumor removal surgery or congenital malformation is facing great challenges. Currently, various approaches including autograft, allograft and cell-biomaterial composite based tissue-engineering strategies have been implemented to reconstruct injured bone. However, due to damage during the transplantation processes or design negligence of the bionic scaffolds, these methods expose vulnerabilities without the assistance of periosteum, a bilayer membrane on the outer surface of the bone...
October 18, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Oskar C Aszmann, Ivan Vujaklija, Aidan D Roche, Stefan Salminger, Malvina Herceg, Agnes Sturma, Laura A Hruby, Anna Pittermann, Christian Hofer, Sebastian Amsuess, Dario Farina
Critical soft tissue injuries may lead to a non-functional and insensate limb. In these cases standard reconstructive techniques will not suffice to provide a useful outcome, and solutions outside the biological arena must be considered and offered to these patients. We propose a concept which, after all reconstructive options have been exhausted, involves an elective amputation along with a bionic substitution, implementing an actuated prosthetic hand via a structured tech-neuro-rehabilitation program. Here, three patients are presented in whom this concept has been successfully applied after mutilating hand injuries...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhijun Zhang, Honglei Jia, Jiyu Sun, Jin Tong
ABSTACT With the rapid development of bionic science, especially the progress that has been made in the fields of biomaterials and biomimetics, there is now great interest in the surface and internal mechanical properties of biological materials at the micro- and nanoscale. The study of micro- and nanoscale biomaterial mechanical properties could enable interdisciplinary applications in materials science, biological science and bionic science. Dung beetle (Copris ochus Motschulsky) cuticle is a viscoelastic material that is both viscous and flexible via elastic deformation under external forces; where stress σ, strain ϵ and elastic modulus E are related in the following way: σ = Eϵ...
September 2, 2016: Bioengineered
Shan Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2016: Dong Wu Xue Yan Jiu, Zoological Research
Lu Li, Zheng-Zhong Lin, Ai-Hong Peng, Hui-Ping Zhong, Xiao-Mei Chen, Zhi-Yong Huang
A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for the detection of malachite green (MG) with a high sensitivity and selectivity using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) as a bionic antibody. MMIPs were prepared through emulsion polymerization using Fe3O4 nanoparticles as magnetic nuclei, MG as a template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a crosslinking agent and span-80/tween-80 as mixed emulsifiers. The MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron micrographs (SEM), thermal-gravimetric analyzer (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Mark S Humayun, Eugene de Juan, Gislin Dagnelie
This article describes the history of visual prostheses, with emphasis on the development of the Argus II retinal prosthesis system (Second Sight Medical Products, Inc., Sylmar, CA). A brief overview of cortical electrical stimulation in the blind is provided, followed by an account of the design and development of retinal stimulation equipment at the Duke Eye Center in the late 1980s; the first human intraoperative tests there and the subsequent 8 years of tests at the Wilmer Eye Institute; the transfer of the project to the Doheny Eye Institute at the University of Southern California and the founding of Second Sight Medical Products; and the development and clinical trials of the Argus I and Argus II systems...
October 2016: Ophthalmology
Ingo Todt, Marlene Mittmann, Arneborg Ernst, Philipp Mittmann
CONCLUSION: Based on this model experiment, a small tip and low volume electrode show lowest intra-cochlear pressure values. Insertional support by a tool minimizes fast pressure changes. Higher electrodes volumes affect slow and fast pressure changes as well. OBJECTIVE: Insertion causing low intra-cochlear pressure is assumed to be important for atraumatic cochlear implant surgery to preserve residual hearing. Cochlear implant electrodes differ in terms of parameters like tip size, length, volume, and technique of insertion...
September 23, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Yong Lin Kong, Maneesh K Gupta, Blake N Johnson, Michael C McAlpine
The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive...
June 2016: Nano Today
Xiaoming Zhang, Chang Liu, Jinxiang Chen, Jiandong Zhang, Yueyan Gu, Yong Zhao
The influence mechanism of processing holes on the flexural properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates (FIHPs) was analyzed using the finite element method (FEM), and the results were compared with experimental data, yielding the following findings: 1) Processing holes under tensile stress have a significant impact on the mechanical properties of FIHPs, which is particularly obvious when initial imperfections are formed during sample preparation. 2) A proposed design technique based on changing the shape of the processing holes from circular to elliptical effectively reduces the stress concentration when such holes must exist in skin or components under tension, and this method motivates a design concept for experimental tests of FIHPs bearing dynamic or fatigue loads...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Ying Hu, Zhe Li, Tian Lan, Wei Chen
Photoactuators with integrated optical-to-mechanical energy conversion capacity have attracted growing research interest in the last few decades due to their unique features of remote control and their wide applications ranging from bionic robots, biomedical devices, and switches to motors. For the photoactuator design, the energy conversion route and structure assembly are two important parts, which directly affect the performance of the photoactuators. In particular, the architectural designs at the molecular, nano-, micro-, and macro- level, are found to play a significant role in accumulating molecular-scale strain/stress to macroscale strain/stress...
September 8, 2016: Advanced Materials
Jeroen J Briaire, Andreas Büchner, Gennaro Auletta, Helena Arroyo, Carmen Zoilo, Patrizia Mancini, Roberta Buhagiar, Neelam Vaid, Nathalie Mathias
A multi-center self-assessment survey was conducted to evaluate patient satisfaction with the Advanced Bionics Neptune™ waterproof sound processor used with the AquaMic™ totally submersible microphone. Subjective satisfaction with the different Neptune™ wearing options, comfort, ease of use, sound quality and use of the processor in a range of active and water related situations were assessed for 23 adults and 73 children, using an online and paper based questionnaire. Upgraded subjects compared their previous processor to the Neptune™...
April 20, 2016: Audiology Research
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