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alzheimer's disease AND imaging

Jian Yang, Jing Yang, Steven H Liang, Yungen Xu, Anna Moore, Chongzhao Ran
In brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are significantly higher than that of healthy brains. Evidence suggests that, during AD onset and progression, a vicious cycle revolves around amyloid beta (Aβ) production, aggregation, plaque formation, microglia/immunological responses, inflammation, and ROS production. In this cycle, ROS species play a central role, and H2O2 is one of the most important ROS species. In this report, we have designed a fluorescent imaging probe CRANAD-88, which is capable of cascade amplifying near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) signals at three levels upon interacting with H2O2 in AD brains...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chih-Hsiang Hsu, Sheue-Er Wang, Ching-Lung Lin, Chun-Jen Hsiao, Shuenn-Jyi Sheu, Chung-Hsin Wu
In this study, we have reported the herbal formula B401 that has neuroprotective effects via multifunction, multitarget characteristics. It is possible that the herbal formula B401 may also provide new insights for AD. Here, we studied protective effects in the Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y cell model and the APP/PS1/Tau triple transgenic mouse model by the herbal formula B401. In in vitro experiments, we showed that the herbal formula B401 treatment effectively reduces glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and acetylcholinesterase activity in Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y cells...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
J D Huntley, A Hampshire, D Bor, A Owen, R J Howard
BACKGROUND: Interventions that improve cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease are urgently required. AIMS: To assess whether a novel cognitive training paradigm based on 'chunking' improves working memory and general cognitive function, and is associated with reorganisation of functional activity in prefrontal and parietal cortices (trial registration: ISRCTN43007027). METHOD: Thirty patients with mild Alzheimer's disease were randomly allocated to receive 18 sessions of 30 min of either adaptive chunking training or an active control intervention over approximately 8 weeks...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Na Kyung Lee, Hyeong Seop Kim, Dongkyeom Yoo, Jung Won Hwang, Soo Jin Choi, Wonil Oh, Jong Wook Chang, Duk L Na
The success of stem cell therapy is highly dependent on accurate delivery of stem cells to the target site of interest. Possible ways to track the distribution of MSCs in vivo include the use of reporter genes or nanoparticles. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ferumoxytol (Feraheme® [USA], Rienso® [UK]) as a treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Ferumoxytol is an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO) that has recently been used to track the fate of transplanted cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 18, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Horrolein Arab, Soleiman Mahjoub, Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki, Mehdi Moghadasi
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent degenerative disorder of the brain among elderly individuals. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor which involves oxidizing macromolecules such as DNA, lipids, and proteins in AD. Green tea is a rich source of antioxidant compounds that can remove radical oxygen species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of green tea consumption on markers of oxidative stress in AD...
2016: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Liangyan Gui, Xiaoying Tang, José M F Moura
We propose a geodesic distance on a Grassmannian manifold that can be used to quantify the shape progression patterns of the bilateral hippocampi, amygdalas, and lateral ventricles in healthy control (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 754 subjects (3092 scans in total) were used in this study. Longitudinally, the geodesic distance was found to be proportional to the elapsed time separating the two scans in question. Cross-sectionally, utilizing a linear mixed-effects statistical model, we found that each structure's annualized rate of change in the geodesic distance followed the order of AD > MCI > HC, with statistical significance being reached in every case...
October 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Tengfei Guo, Matthias Brendel, Timo Grimmer, Axel Rominger, Igor Yakushev
: Knowledge about spatial and temporal patterns of beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is essential for understanding Alzheimer's disease (AD) and for design of anti-amyloid drug trials. Here, we tested if the regional pattern of longitudinal Aβ accumulation can be predicted by baseline amyloid PET. METHODS: Analyzed were baseline and 2 years follow-up (18)F-florbetapir PET data from 58 patients with incipient and manifest dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). By determining how fast amyloid deposits in a given region relative to the whole brain grey matter, a pseudo-temporal accumulation rate for each region was calculated...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Xiaohui Yao, Jingwen Yan, Sungeun Kim, Kwangsik Nho, Shannon L Risacher, Mark Inlow, Jason H Moore, Andrew J Saykin, Li Shen
Enrichment analysis has been widely applied in the genome-wide association studies, where gene sets corresponding to biological pathways are examined for significant associations with a phenotype to help increase statistical power and improve biological interpretation. In this work, we expand the scope of enrichment analysis into brain imaging genetics, an emerging field that studies how genetic variation influences brain structure and function measured by neuroimaging quantitative traits (QT). Given the high dimensionality of both imaging and genetic data, we propose to study Imaging Genetic Enrichment Analysis (IGEA), a new enrichment analysis paradigm that jointly considers meaningful gene sets (GS) and brain circuits (BC) and examines whether any given GS-BC pair is enriched in a list of gene-QT findings...
May 13, 2016: Brain Informatics
Qian Zhao, Xueqi Chen, Yun Zhou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, causing changes in memory, thinking, and other dysfunction of brain functions. More and more people are suffering from the disease. Early neuroimaging techniques of AD are needed to develop. This review provides a preliminary summary of the various neuroimaging techniques that have been explored for in vivo imaging of AD. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, such as functional MR imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, give opportunities to display not only anatomy and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, but also at microstructural alterations or perfusion disturbance within the AD lesions...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Chuanchuan Zheng, Yong Xia, Yongsheng Pan, Jinhu Chen
In this review paper, we summarized the automated dementia identification algorithms in the literature from a pattern classification perspective. Since most of those algorithms consist of both feature extraction and classification, we provide a survey on three categories of feature extraction methods, including the voxel-, vertex- and ROI-based ones, and four categories of classifiers, including the linear discriminant analysis, Bayes classifiers, support vector machines, and artificial neural networks. We also compare the reported performance of many recently published dementia identification algorithms...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Nan Zhang, Shengchang Yang, Chang Wang, Jianghua Zhang, Lifang Huo, Yiru Cheng, Chuan Wang, Zhanfeng Jia, Leiming Ren, Lin Kang, Wei Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type II diabetes mellitus (DM2) are the most common aging-related diseases and are characterized by β-amyloid and amylin accumulation, respectively. Multiple studies have indicated a strong correlation between these two diseases. Amylin oligomerization in the brain appears to be a novel risk factor for developing AD. Although amylin aggregation has been demonstrated to induce cytotoxicity in neurons through altering Ca(2+) homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully explored...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Xiaotian T Fang, Jonas Eriksson, Gunnar Antoni, Ulrika Yngve, Linda Cato, Lars Lannfelt, Dag Sehlin, Stina Syvänen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) into insoluble plaques. Intermediates, Aβ oligomers (Aβo), appear to be the mechanistic cause of disease. The de facto PET AD ligand, [(11)C]PIB, binds and visualizes Aβ plaque load, which does not correlate well with disease severity. Therefore, finding a dynamic target that changes with pathology progression in AD is of great interest. Aβo alter synaptic plasticity, inhibit long-term potentiation, and facilitate long-term depression; key mechanisms involved in memory and learning...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Benjamin Lam, Aun Khan, Julia Keith, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Juan Bilbao, Peter St George-Hyslop, Mahdi Ghani, Morris Freedman, Donald T Stuss, Tiffany Chow, Sandra E Black, Mario Masellis
INTRODUCTION: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) resulting from genetic Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been described only once. Whether familial CBS-AD is a distinct clinical entity with its own imaging signature remains unknown. METHODS: Four individuals with CBS from two families underwent detailed assessment. For two individuals, regional atrophy and hypoperfusion were compared to autopsy-confirmed typical late-onset AD and corticobasal degeneration, as well as genetically proven PSEN1 cases with an amnestic presentation...
October 12, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Antti J Luikku, Anette Hall, Ossi Nerg, Anne M Koivisto, Mikko Hiltunen, Seppo Helisalmi, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Anna Sutela, Maria Kojoukhova, Jussi Mattila, Jyrki Lötjönen, Jaana Rummukainen, Irina Alafuzoff, Juha E Jääskeläinen, Anne M Remes, Hilkka Soininen, Ville Leinonen
OBJECTIVES: Optimal selection of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients for shunt surgery is challenging. Disease State Index (DSI) is a statistical method that merges multimodal data to assist clinical decision-making. It has previously been shown to be useful in predicting progression in mild cognitive impairment and differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia. In this study, we use the DSI method to predict shunt surgery response for patients with iNPH...
October 14, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Scott E Counts, Milos D Ikonomovic, Natosha Mercado, Irving E Vega, Elliott J Mufson
The recent failures of potential disease-modifying drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD) may reflect the fact that the enrolled participants in clinical trials are already too advanced to derive a clinical benefit. Thus, well-validated biomarkers for the early detection and accurate diagnosis of the preclinical stages of AD will be crucial for therapeutic advancement. The combinatorial use of biomarkers derived from biological fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with advanced molecular imaging and neuropsychological testing may eventually achieve the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity necessary to identify people in the earliest stages of the disease when drug modification is most likely possible...
October 13, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Annika van Hummel, Mian Bi, Stefania Ippati, Julia van der Hoven, Alexander Volkerling, Wei S Lee, Daniel C S Tan, Andre Bongers, Arne Ittner, Yazi D Ke, Lars M Ittner
Several mouse lines with knockout of the tau-encoding MAPT gene have been reported in the past; they received recent attention due to reports that tau reduction prevented Aβ-induced deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of long-term depletion of tau in vivo remained controversial. Here, we used the tau-deficient GFP knockin line Mapttm1(EGFP)kit on a pure C57Bl/6 background and subjected a large cohort of males and females to a range of motor, memory and behavior tests and imaging analysis, at the advanced age of over 16 months...
2016: PloS One
Sarah L Aghjayan, Rachel F Buckley, Patrizia Vannini, Dorene M Rentz, Jonathan D Jackson, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson, Rebecca E Amariglio
BACKGROUND: Converging evidence suggests that subjective cognitive concerns (SCC) are associated with biomarker evidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) prior to objective clinical impairment. However, the sensitivity of SCC reports in early AD may be biased by demographic factors. Here, we sought to investigate whether age, education, and sex influence the relationship between SCC and amyloid (Aβ) burden. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we examined 252 clinically normal (CN) individuals (57...
October 11, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Mary M Machulda, Clint E Hagen, Heather J Wiste, Michelle M Mielke, David S Knopman, Rosebud O Roberts, Prashanthi Vemuri, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in 190 clinically normal elderly classified according to a two-feature biomarker model for Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: All participants completed neuropsychological testing, MRI, FDG-PET, and PiB-PET at their baseline evaluation. We divided participants into four groups based on neuroimaging measures of amyloid (A+ or A-) and neurodegeneration (N+ or N-) and reexamined cognition at 15- and 30-month intervals...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Annalena Venneri, Micaela Mitolo, Matteo De Marco
Confabulatory phenomena are rare in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), are often provoked and are triggered by questions or in response to neuropsychological testing. In this retrospective study functional connectivity alterations were investigated for the first time in a group of patients with early AD who had shown evidence of verbal and non-verbal confabulatory tendencies. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of 18 confabulating patients were compared with those of 18 non confabulators...
September 13, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Gennady V Roshchupkin, Hieab H Adams, Sven J van der Lee, Meike W Vernooij, Cornelia M van Duijn, Andre G Uitterlinden, Aad van der Lugt, Albert Hofman, Wiro J Niessen, Mohammad A Ikram
The neural substrate of genetic risk variants for Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unknown. We studied their effect on healthy brain morphology to provide insight into disease etiology in the preclinical phase. We included 4071 nondemented, elderly participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping. We performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on all gray-matter voxels for 19 previously identified, common AD risk variants. Whole-brain expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas was used to examine spatial overlap between VBM association results and expression of genes in AD risk loci regions...
September 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
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