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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147457/oxidative-stress-delays-prometaphase-metaphase-of-the-first-cleavage-in-mouse-zygotes-via-the-mad2l1-mediated-spindle-assembly-checkpoint
#1
Que Wu, Zhiling Li, Yue Huang, Diting Qian, Man Chen, Wanfen Xiao, Bin Wang
In zygotes, DNA damage delays the first cleavage to enable repair. Our previous study found that 0.03 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was the minimum concentration required for induction of oxidative DNA damage in mouse zygotes and that this represented the most similar situation to the clinical phenomenon. In this study, we quantified the cleavage rates of cells in blastocysts at different developmental stages, followed by immunofluorescence to detect activation of γ-H2A histone family member X (a marker of DNA damage) in zygotes to confirm that oxidative DNA damage was induced in H2O2-treated zygotes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143380/polo-like-kinase-1-inhibition-results-in-misaligned-chromosomes-and-aberrant-spindles-in-porcine-oocytes-during-the-first-meiotic-division
#2
Y Liao, D Lin, P Cui, B Abbasi, C Chen, Z Zhang, Y Zhang, Y Dong, R Rui, S Ju
Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a type of serine/threonine protein kinase, has been implicated in various functions in the regulation of mitotic processes. However, these kinase's roles in meiotic division are not fully understood, particularly in the meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes. In this study, the expression and spatiotemporal localization of Plk1 were initially assessed in the meiotic process of pig oocytes by utilizing Western blotting with immunofluorescent staining combined with confocal microscopy imaging technique...
November 16, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142404/chalepin-a-compound-from-ruta-angustifolia-l-pers-exhibits-cell-cycle-arrest-at-s-phase-suppresses-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-signal-transducer-and-activation-of-transcription-3-stat3-phosphorylation-and-extrinsic-apoptotic-pathway-in-non-small-cell
#3
Jaime Stella Moses Richardson, Norhaniza Aminudin, Sri Nurestri Abd Malek
Background: Plants have been a major source of inspiration in developing novel drug compounds in the treatment of various diseases that afflict human beings worldwide. Ruta angustifolia L. Pers known locally as Garuda has been conventionally used for various medicinal purposes such as in the treatment of cancer. Objective: A dihydrofuranocoumarin named chalepin, which was isolated from the chloroform extract of the plant, was tested on its ability to inhibit molecular pathways of human lung carcinoma (A549) cells...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133942/canine-parvovirus-ns1-gene-and-chicken-anemia-vp3-gene-induce-partial-oncolysis-of-canine-transmissible-venereal-tumor
#4
Aubid Hussain Bhat, Bhaskar Ganguly, Ashok Kumar Tiwari, Arup Kumar Das
The oncolytic effect of Canine Parvovirus ns1 gene and Chicken Anemia vp3 gene in naturally occurring cases of Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor (CTVT) is being reported. Dogs suffering from CTVT (N = 18) were systematically randomized into three groups viz. A, B, and C (n = 6). Animals of the groups A, B, and C received 100 µg of the ns1 gene, vp3 gene, and ns1  +  vp3 gene combination, respectively, for three weeks intratumorally at weekly intervals; results were normalized against base values before commencement of therapy and after complete remission that were taken as negative and positive controls, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132246/phage-derived-protein-mediated-targeted-chemotherapy-of-pancreatic-cancer
#5
Tao Wang, Radhika Narayanaswamy, Huilan Ren, James W Gillespie, Valery A Petrenko, Vladimir P Torchilin
Pancreatic cancer has been a life-threatening illness associated with high incidence and mortality rates. Paclitaxel that causes mitotic arrest in cancer cells disrupting microtubule function is used for pancreatic cancer treatment[1]. Nausea, anorexia and abdominal pain are some of the typical dose-limiting toxicity associated gastrointestinal side effects of the drug[2]. Here we present the use of polymeric mixed micelles to enable a targeted delivery of Paclitaxel and to provide additional advantages such as enhanced drug solubility, bioavailability and minimal dose-limiting toxicity...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126291/the-dynamic-development-of-germ-cells-during-chicken-embryogenesis
#6
Seo Yeong Yang, Hong Jo Lee, Hyung Chul Lee, Young Sun Hwang, Young Hyun Park, Tamao Ono, Jae Yong Han
Appropriate regulation of cell proliferation during embryogenesis is crucial for the maintenance of germness. An in-depth understanding of germ cell developmental processes may yield valuable information on germ cell biology and applied sciences. However, direct evidences about germ cell proliferation and cell cycling during avian embryonic development has not been well-studied. Thus, we explored chicken germ cell dynamics during embryonic development via flow cytometry employing a germ cell-specific anti-cVASA antibody (the chicken VASA homolog is termed CVH) and propidium iodide staining...
November 4, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126206/the-incidence-and-origin-of-segmental-aneuploidy-in-human-oocytes-and-preimplantation-embryos
#7
D Babariya, E Fragouli, S Alfarawati, K Spath, D Wells
STUDY QUESTION: What is the incidence, origin and clinical significance of segmental aneuploidy in human oocytes and preimplantation embryos? SUMMARY ANSWER: Segmental aneuploidy occurs at a considerable frequency in preimplantation embryos with a majority being mitotic in origin. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In recent years, accurate techniques for the detection of aneuploidy in single cells have been developed. Research using such methods has confirmed that aneuploidy is a common feature of human oocytes and preimplantation embryos...
November 8, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104053/polyoma-small-t-upregulates-the-expression-of-cytoskeletal-proteins-in-mammalian-cells-during-mitosis
#8
Irfana Reshi, Zarka Sarwar, Sameer Ahmed Bhat, Syed Qaaifah Gillani, Misbah Shah, Khalid Majid Fazili, Shaida Andrabi
Mammalian cells expressing murine polyoma small T antigen are known to undergo prolonged mitotic arrest followed by extensive cell death. However, the detailed mechanism of this process is not fully understood. While studying the mechanism related to small T induced mitotic arrest in mammalian cells, we observed the expression of various cytoskeletal proteins was unusually altered in polyoma small T expressing cell line. Since most of the cytoskeletal proteins are reoriented during mitosis and are involved in spindle formation, so it was pertinent to investigate the expression of these genes in PyST expressing cell line...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097284/mechanism-of-radioprotection-by-dihydroxy-1-selenolane-dhs-effect-of-fatty-acid-conjugation-and-role-of-glutathione-peroxidase-gpx
#9
Prachi Verma, Amit Kunwar, Kenta Arai, Michio Iwaoka, K Indira Priyadarsini
Dihydroxy-1-selenolane (DHS) previously reported to exhibit radioprotective activity was investigated to understand its mechanism of action in CHO cells of epithelial origin. DHS pre-treatment at 25 μM for 16 h significantly protected CHO cells from radiation (4-11 Gy)-induced delayed mitotic cell death. Further to examine, how increased cellular uptake can influence this mechanism, studies have been performed with DHS-C6, a lipophilic conjugate of DHS. Accordingly CHO cells pre-treated with DHS-C6, showed increased survival against radiation exposure...
October 30, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093088/polyploidy-and-mitotic-cell-death-are-two-distinct-hiv-1-vpr-driven-outcomes-in-renal-tubule-epithelial-cells
#10
Emily H Payne, Dhivya Ramalingam, Donald T Fox, Mary E Klotman
Prior studies found that HIV, through the Vpr protein, promotes genome reduplication (polyploidy) in infection-surviving epithelial cells within renal tissue. However, the temporal progression and molecular regulation through which Vpr promotes polyploidy remained unclear. Here, we define a sequential progression to Vpr-mediated polyploidy in human renal tubule epithelial cells (RTECs). As in many cell types, we find that Vpr first initiates a G2 cell cycle arrest in RTECs. We then identified a previously unreported cascade of Vpr-dependent events that lead to renal cell survival and polyploidy...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074359/xanthatin-triggers-chk1-mediated-dna-damage-response-and-destabilizes-cdc25c-via-lysosomal-degradation-in-lung-cancer-cells
#11
Li Tao, Yuzhu Cao, Zhonghong Wei, Qi Jia, Suyun Yu, Jinqiu Zhong, Ainyun Wang, James R Woodgett, Yin Lu
Previous studies had shown that xanthatin, a natural xanthanolide sesquiterpene lactone, could induce mitotic arrest and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Here, we examined whether the DNA damage response (DDR) could be a primary cytotoxic event underlying xanthatin-mediated anti-tumor activity. Using EdU incorporation assay in combination with novel imaging flow cytometry, our data indicated that xanthatin suppressed DNA replication, prevented cells from G2/M entry and increased the spot count of γH2AX nuclear foci...
October 23, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065308/the-spindle-assembly-checkpoint-in-arabidopsis-is-rapidly-shut-off-during-severe-stress
#12
Shinichiro Komaki, Arp Schnittger
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) in animals and yeast assures equal segregation of chromosomes during cell division. The prevalent occurrence of polyploidy in flowering plants together with the observation that many plants can be readily forced to double their genomes by application of microtubule drugs raises the question of whether plants have a proper SAC. Here, we provide a functional framework of the core SAC proteins in Arabidopsis. We reveal that Arabidopsis will delay mitosis in a SAC-dependent manner if the spindle is perturbed...
October 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064327/the-expression-of-ape1-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-and-its-effect-on-drug-sensitivity-of-olaparib
#13
Tianran Chen, Chuan Liu, Heng Lu, Mingzhen Yin, Changjuan Shao, Xiaoding Hu, Jiaxue Wu, Yajie Wang
Triple-negative breast cancer is a kind of breast cancer with poor prognosis and special biological behavior, which lacked endocrine therapy and targeted therapy. We investigate the effect of human APE1 (apurinic/apyrimidyl endonuclease 1), a rate-limiting enzyme of base excision repair, on the prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer and drug sensitivity of olaparib. The expression of APE1 was detected by immunohistochemistry in the triple-negative breast cancer tissues and its effect on survival of triple-negative breast cancer patients was followed...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056333/the-spindle-assembly-checkpoint-is-required-for-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-engraftment
#14
Andreas Brown, Johannes Pospiech, Karina Eiwen, Darren J Baker, Bettina Moehrle, Vadim Sakk, Kalpana Nattamai, Mona Vogel, Ani Grigoryan, Hartmut Geiger
The spindle assembly checkpoint plays a pivotal role in preventing aneuploidy and transformation. Many studies demonstrate impairment of this checkpoint in cancer cells. While leukemia is frequently driven by transformed hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), the biology of the spindle assembly checkpoint in such primary cells is not very well understood. Here, we reveal that the checkpoint is fully functional in murine progenitor cells and, to a lesser extent, in hematopoietic stem cells. We show that HSPCs arrest at prometaphase and induce p53-dependent apoptosis upon prolonged treatment with anti-mitotic drugs...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052525/epigenetic-mediated-zinc-finger-protein-671-downregulation-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-tumorigenicity-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-by-inhibiting-cell-cycle-arrest
#15
Jian Zhang, Xin Wen, Na Liu, Ying-Qin Li, Xin-Ran Tang, Ya-Qin Wang, Qing-Mei He, Xiao-Jing Yang, Pan-Pan Zhang, Jun Ma, Ying Sun
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic abnormalities play important roles in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), however, the epigenetic changes associated with abnormal cell proliferation remain unclear. METHODS: We detected epigenetic change of ZNF671 in NPC tissues and cell lines by bisulfite pyrosequencing. We evaluated zinc finger protein 671 (ZNF671) expression in NPC cell lines and clinical tissues using real-time PCR and western blotting. Then, we established NPC cell lines that stably overexpressed ZNF671 and knocked down ZNF671 expression to explore its function in NPC in vitro and in vivo...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044428/expression-of-stra8-is-conserved-in-therian-mammals-but-expression-of-cyp26b1-differs-between-marsupials-and-mice
#16
Danielle E Hickford, Siew Fen Lisa Wong, Stephen R Frankenberg, Geoff Shaw, Hongshi Yu, Keng Yih Chew, Marilyn B Renfree
The first sign of mammalian germ cell sexual differentiation is the initiation of meiosis in females and of mitotic arrest in males. In the mouse, retinoic acid induces ovarian Stra8 expression and entry of germ cells into meiosis. In developing mouse testes, cytochrome P450 family 26, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 (CYP26B1) produced by the Sertoli cells degrades retinoic acid, preventing Stimulated by Retinoic Acid Gene 8 (Stra8), expression and inhibiting meiosis. However, in developing humans, there is no evidence that CYP26B1 acts a meiosis-inhibiting factor...
August 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043883/structural-maintenance-of-chromosomes-4-is-required-for-leukemia-stem-cell-maintenance-in-mll-af9-induced-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#17
Luyun Peng, Yuanting Tang, Yingchi Zhang, Siqi Guo, Leiwen Peng, Lei Ye, Yuefang Wang, Yongmei Jiang
The gene, structural maintenance of chromosomes 4 (SMC4) plays important role in chromosomes condensing and mitotic sister chromatid segregation, which has been revealed in regulating multiple cancer development and carcinogenesis. However, the role of SMC4 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) propagation and its function in regulation of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) is not yet clear. Using an MLL-AF9 induced AML mouse model, we demonstrated that down modulating of SMC4 expression could prolong the survival time of AML mice...
October 18, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032341/ethyl-acetate-fraction-of-eclipta-alba-a-potential-phytopharmaceutical-targeting-adipocyte-differentiation
#18
Abhishek Gupta, Ashok Kumar, Durgesh Kumar, Shiv Nandan, Kripa Shankar, Salil Varshney, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Sanchita Gupta, Sanjeev Kanojiya, T Narender, Anil Nilkanth Gaikwad
Natural products have always fascinated mankind for their miraculous properties. Eclipta alba (E. alba), a medicinal herb has long been used in traditional medicine for curing several pathologies. It has been shown to have anti-diabetic effect as well as hepato-protective activity. Here, in order to address metabolic derangements, the study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of E. alba and its fractions in adipogenesis inhibition and dyslipidemia. Of the crude extract and fractions screened, ethyl acetate fraction of E...
October 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030824/distinguishing-states-of-arrest-genome-wide-descriptions-of-cellular-quiescence-using-chip-seq-and-rna-seq-analysis
#19
Surabhi Srivastava, Hardik P Gala, Rakesh K Mishra, Jyotsna Dhawan
Regenerative potential in adult stem cells is closely associated with the establishment of-and exit from-a temporary state of quiescence. Emerging evidence not only provides a rationale for the link between lineage determination programs and cell cycle regulation but also highlights the understanding of quiescence as an actively maintained cellular program, encompassing networks and mechanisms beyond mitotic inactivity or metabolic restriction. Interrogating the quiescent genome and transcriptome using deep-sequencing technologies offers an unprecedented view of the global mechanisms governing this reversibly arrested cellular state and its importance for cell identity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028845/analysis-of-cell-cycle-parameters-during-the-transition-from-unhindered-growth-to-ribosomal-and-translational-stress-conditions
#20
Md Shamsuzzaman, Ananth Bommakanti, Aviva Zapinsky, Nusrat Rahman, Clarence Pascual, Lasse Lindahl
Abrogation of ribosome synthesis (ribosomal stress) leads to cell cycle arrest. However, the immediate cell response to cessation of ribosome formation and the transition from normal cell proliferation to cell cycle arrest have not been characterized. Furthermore, there are conflicting conclusions about whether cells are arrested in G2/M or G1, and whether the cause is dismantling ribosomal assembly per se, or the ensuing decreased number of translating ribosomes. To address these questions, we have compared the time kinetics of key cell cycle parameters after inhibiting ribosome formation or function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
2017: PloS One
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