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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053871/cellular-and-morphological-characterization-of-blastoderms-from-freshly-laid-broiler-eggs
#1
N Pokhrel, E Ben-Tal Cohen, O Genin, D Sela-Donenfeld, Y Cinnamon
The pioneering study of Eyal-Giladi and Kochav (EG&K; Eyal-Giladi and Kochav, 1976) on the early developmental stages-from fertilization, through oviposition, to the gastrulation process-set the standard for characterizing chicken embryos, and has been used in numerous studies over the years. During uterine development, the chicken embryo undergoes dramatic changes, extremely rapid cell cycles, massive cell death, and axial determination processes. However, once the egg is laid, the temperature drops and the embryo enters into a diapause-like state...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046167/non-smc-condensin-i-complex-subunit-g-ncapg-is-a-novel-mitotic-gene-required-for-hepatocellular-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-migration
#2
Qun Zhang, Ruixia Su, Chun Shan, Chao Gao, Pei Wu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Currently, only chemoembolization and sorafenib have shown survival benefits for advanced HCC. There are major unmet needs in HCC management and the discovery of new therapeutic targets. Here, we identified that NCAPG(non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G) as a novel mitotic gene required for HCC cell proliferation and migration through siRNA knockdown of a panel of novel overexpressed genes in HCC based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset...
October 18, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040814/inhibiting-polo-like-kinase-1-plk1-enhances-radiosensitization-via-modulating-dna-repair-proteins-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
Da Yao, Peigui Gu, Youyu Wang, Weibin Luo, Huiliang Chi, Jianjun Ge, Youhui Qian
To assure the faithful chromosome segregation, cells make use of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which can be activated in aneuploidy cancer cells. In this study, the efficacies of inhibiting Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) on the radiosensitization of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were studied. Clonogenic survival assay was performed to identify the effects of the PLK1 inhibitor on radiosensitivity within NSCLC cells. Mitotic catastrophe assessment was used to measure the cell death and γH2AX foci were utilized to assess the DNA double-strand breaks (DSB)...
October 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040706/inhibition-of-survivin-expression-after-using-oxaliplatin-and-vinflunine-to-induce-cytogenetic-damage-in-vitro-in-lymphocytes-from-colon-cancer-patients-and-healthy-individuals
#4
Amal A A Alotaibi, Mojgan Najafzadeh, Justin D Davies, Adolf Baumgartner, Diana Anderson
Chemotherapy drugs usually inflict a lethal dose to tumour cells with the consequence that these cells are being killed by cell death. However, each round of chemotherapy also causes damage to normal somatic cells. The DNA cross-linking agent oxaliplatin (OXP), which causes DNA double-strand breaks, and vinflunine (VFN), which disrupts the mitotic spindle, are two of these chemotherapy drugs which were evaluated in vitro using peripheral lymphocytes from colorectal cancer patients and healthy individuals to determine any differential response...
October 4, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033786/wnt5a-promotes-cortical-neuron-survival-by-inhibiting-cell-cycle-activation
#5
Li Zhou, Di Chen, Xu-Ming Huang, Fei Long, Hua Cai, Wen-Xia Yao, Zhong-Cheng Chen, Zhi-Jian Liao, Zhe-Zhi Deng, Sha Tan, Yi-Long Shan, Wei Cai, Yu-Ge Wang, Ri-Hong Yang, Nan Jiang, Tao Peng, Ming-Fan Hong, Zheng-Qi Lu
β-Amyloid protein (Aβ) is thought to cause neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ treatment promotes the re-activation of a mitotic cycle and induces rapid apoptotic death of neurons. However, the signaling pathways mediating cell-cycle activation during neuron apoptosis have not been determined. We find that Wnt5a acts as a mediator of cortical neuron survival, and Aβ42 promotes cortical neuron apoptosis by downregulating the expression of Wnt5a. Cell-cycle activation is mediated by the reduced inhibitory effect of Wnt5a in Aβ42 treated cortical neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016926/activation-of-wee1-confers-resistance-to-pi3k-inhibition-in-glioblastoma
#6
Shaofang Wu, Shuzhen Wang, Feng Gao, Luyuan Li, Siyuan Zheng, W K Alfred Yung, Dimpy Koul
Background: Oncogenic activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling plays a pivotal role in the development of glioblastoma (GBM). However, pharmacological inhibition of PI3K has so far not been therapeutically successful due to adaptive resistance through a rapid rewiring of cancer cell signaling. Here we identified that WEE1 is activated after transient exposure to PI3K inhibition and confers resistance to PI3K inhibition in GBM. Methods: Patient-derived glioma-initiating cells and established GBM cells were treated with PI3K inhibitor or WEE1 inhibitor alone or in combination, and cell proliferation was evaluated by CellTiter-Blue assay...
July 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016403/the-influence-of-tumor-stage-on-the-prognostic-value-of-ki-67-index-and-mitotic-count-in-small-intestinal-neuroendocrine-tumors
#7
Yu Sun, Christine Lohse, Thomas Smyrk, Timothy Hobday, Trynda Kroneman, Lizhi Zhang
Tumor cell proliferation rate determined by either Ki-67 index or mitotic count (MC) has shown to be a prognostic factor for gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors in general, and after its incorporation in the 2010 World Health Organization tumor grading system, it has become essentially mandatory in pathology reports for all gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors, regardless of tumor location. Nevertheless, clinical significance for the Ki-67 index or MC has not been well demonstrated in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumor (SINET), especially those without distant metastasis, the majority of which have very low proliferation rates...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993779/natural-killer-cell-response-to-chemotherapy-stressed-cancer-cells-role-in-tumor-immunosurveillance
#8
REVIEW
Alessandra Zingoni, Cinzia Fionda, Cristiana Borrelli, Marco Cippitelli, Angela Santoni, Alessandra Soriani
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate cytotoxic lymphoid cells that actively prevent neoplastic development, growth, and metastatic dissemination in a process called cancer immunosurveillance. An equilibrium between immune control and tumor growth is maintained as long as cancer cells evade immunosurveillance. Therapies designed to kill cancer cells and to simultaneously sustain host antitumor immunity are an appealing strategy to control tumor growth. Several chemotherapeutic agents, depending on which drugs and doses are used, give rise to DNA damage and cancer cell death by means of apoptosis, immunogenic cell death, or other forms of non-apoptotic death (i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969015/depdc1-is-required-for-cell-cycle-progression-and-motility-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#9
Xuefei Feng, Chundong Zhang, Ling Zhu, Lian Zhang, Hongxia Li, Longxia He, Yan Mi, Yitao Wang, Jiang Zhu, Youquan Bu
DEP domain containing 1 (DEPDC1) is a newly identified cancer-related and cell cycle related gene and has been demonstrated as a novel therapeutic target for bladder cancer. However, the functional involvement and therapeutic potential of DEPDC1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear. Our results showed that DEPDC1 was overexpressed at both mRNA and protein levels in NPC tissues compared with normal or non-tumor tissues. The siRNA-mediated DEPDC1 depletion resulted in significant inhibition of proliferation and delay in cell cycle progression in both NPC cell lines, CNE-1 and HNE-1...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963527/identification-of-7-4-cyanophenyl-indoline-1-benzenesulfonamide-as-a-mitotic-inhibitor-to-induce-apoptotic-cell-death-and-inhibit-autophagy-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#10
Tung-Yun Wu, Ting-Yu Cho, Chung-Kuang Lu, Jing-Ping Liou, Mei-Chuan Chen
Targeting cellular mitosis in tumor cells is an attractive cancer treatment strategy. Here, we report that B220, a synthetic benzenesulfonamide compound, could represent a new mitotic inhibitor for the treatment of colorectal cancer. We examined the action mechanism of B220 in the colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cell line, and found that treatment of cells with B220 caused cells to accumulate in G2/M phase, with a concomitant induction of the mitotic phase markers, MPM2 and cyclin B1. After 48 h of B220 treatment, cells underwent apoptotic cell death via caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950662/the-antineoplastic-busulphan-impairs-peritubular-and-leydig-cells-and-vitamin-b12-stimulates-spermatogonia-proliferation-and-prevents-busulphan-induced-germ-cell-death
#11
Estela Sasso-Cerri, Bárbara Oliveira, Fabiane de Santi, Flávia L Beltrame, Breno H Caneguim, Paulo S Cerri
Busulphan (Bu), an alkylating agent used for bone marrow and spermatogonial stem cell transplantation (SSCT), impairs Sertoli (SC) cells, which are necessary for the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) homing during transplantation. As Leydig (LC) and peritubular myoid (PMC) cells are essential for SC support and maintenance of spermatogonial niche, we evaluated the impact of Bu on the LC and PMC structural integrity. Vitamin B12 (B12) has demonstrated beneficial effects against drug-induced testicular changes; thus, we also examined whether this vitamin is able to stimulate spermatogonia mitotic activity and prevent Bu-induced germ cell death...
September 22, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947974/selective-cytotoxicity-of-vanadium-complexes-on-human-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-cell-line-by-inducing-necroptosis-apoptosis-and-mitotic-catastrophe-process
#12
Szymon Kowalski, Stanisław Hać, Dariusz Wyrzykowski, Agata Zauszkiewicz-Pawlak, Iwona Inkielewicz-Stępniak
The pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death and characterized by one of the lowest five-year survival rate. The current therapeutic options are demonstrating minimal effectiveness, therefore studies on new potential anticancer compounds, with non-significant side effects are highly desirable. Recently, it was demonstrated that vanadium compounds, in particular organic derivatives, exhibit anticancer properties against different type of tumor as well as favorable biodistribution from a pancreatic cancer treatment perspective...
September 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947503/the-dna-repair-inhibitor-dbait-is-specific-for-malignant-hematologic-cells-in-blood
#13
Sylvain Thierry, Wael Jdey, Solana Alculumbre, Vassili Soumelis, Patricia Noguiez-Hellin, Marie Dutreix
Hematologic malignancies are rare cancers that develop refractory disease upon patient relapse, resulting in decreased life expectancy and quality of life. DNA repair inhibitors are promising strategy to treat cancer but are limited by their hematologic toxicity in combination with conventional chemotherapies. Dbait are large molecules targeting the signaling of DNA damage and inhibiting all the double-strand DNA break pathways. Dbait have been shown to sensitize resistant solid tumors to radiotherapy and Platinium salts...
September 25, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947136/bcl-xl-selective-bh3-mimetic-sensitizes-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells-to-chemotherapeutics-by-activation-of-the-mitochondrial-pathway-of-apoptosis
#14
Sara Fatima Faqar-Uz-Zaman, Ulrike Heinicke, Michael Meister, Meike Vogler, Simone Fulda
BH3 mimetics are a promising new class of anticancer agents that inhibit antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins. Here, we report that BH3 mimetics selectively targeting BCL-xL, BCL-2 or MCL-1 (i.e. A-1331852, ABT-199, A-1210477) act in concert with multiple chemotherapeutic agents (i.e. vincristine (VCR), etoposide (ETO), doxorubicin, actinomycin D and cyclophosphamide) to induce apoptosis in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells. Similarly, genetic knockdown of BCL-xL primes RMS cells to VCR- or ETO-induced cell death, highlighting the importance of BCL-xL in mediating chemotherapy resistance in RMS...
September 23, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943451/tubulin-binding-anticancer-polysulfides-induce-cell-death-via-mitotic-arrest-and-autophagic-interference-in-colorectal-cancer
#15
Esma Yagdi Efe, Aloran Mazumder, Jin-Young Lee, Anthoula Gaigneaux, Flavia Radogna, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Christo Christov, Claus Jacob, Kyu-Won Kim, Mario Dicato, Patrick Chaimbault, Claudia Cerella, Marc Diederich
Polysulfanes show chemopreventive effects against gastrointestinal tumors. We identified diallyl tetrasulfide and its derivative, dibenzyl tetrasulfide (DBTTS), to be mitotic inhibitors and apoptosis inducers. Here, we translate their application in colorectal cancer (CRC). MALDI-TOF-MS analysis identified both compounds as reversible tubulin binders, validated by in cellulo α-tubulin degradation. BRAF(V600E)-mutated HT-29 cells were resistant to DBTTS, as evidenced by mitotic arrest for 48 h prior to apoptosis induction compared to KRAS(G12V)-mutated SW480/620 cells, which committed to death earlier...
September 21, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928282/dnmt1-dependent-chk1-pathway-suppression-is-protective-against-neuron-division
#16
Mio Oshikawa, Kei Okada, Hidenori Tabata, Koh-Ichi Nagata, Itsuki Ajioka
Neuronal differentiation and cell-cycle exit are tightly coordinated, even in pathological situations. When pathological neurons re-enter the cell cycle and progress through the S phase, they undergo cell death instead of division. However, the mechanisms underlying mitotic resistance are mostly unknown. Here, we have found that acute inactivation of retinoblastoma (Rb) family proteins (Rb, p107 and p130) in mouse postmitotic neurons leads to cell death after S-phase progression. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) pathway activation during the S phase prevented the cell death, and allowed the division of cortical neurons that had undergone acute Rb family inactivation, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) or in vivo hypoxia-ischemia...
September 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927115/wee1-inhibition-by-mk1775-as-a-single-agent-therapy-inhibits-ovarian-cancer-viability
#17
Minghui Zhang, Donye Dominguez, Siqi Chen, Jie Fan, Lei Qin, Alan Long, Xia Li, Yi Zhang, Huirong Shi, Bin Zhang
Wee1-like protein kinase (WEE1) physiologically serves a key function in maintaining the integrity of the cell genome through mediating the activation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1 and CDK2. Increased expression of WEE1 has been associated with the poor prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer. The present study aimed at examining the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of MK1775, a potent pharmacological inhibitor of WEE1, as a single agent against ovarian cancer cells. The cytotoxicity of MK1775 was examined in a panel of tumor cells using MTT in vitro...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925395/small-molecules-targeted-to-the-microtubule-hec1-interaction-inhibit-cancer-cell-growth-through-microtubule-stabilization
#18
M Ferrara, G Sessa, M Fiore, F Bernard, I A Asteriti, E Cundari, G Colotti, S Ferla, M Desideri, S Buglioni, D Trisciuoglio, D Del Bufalo, A Brancale, F Degrassi
Highly expressed in cancer protein 1 (Hec1) is a subunit of the kinetochore (KT)-associated Ndc80 complex, which ensures proper segregation of sister chromatids at mitosis by mediating the interaction between KTs and microtubules (MTs). HEC1 mRNA and protein are highly expressed in many malignancies as part of a signature of chromosome instability. These properties render Hec1 a promising molecular target for developing therapeutic drugs that exert their anticancer activities by producing massive chromosome aneuploidy...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923065/the-heat-shock-response-in-neurons-and-astroglia-and-its-role-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Rebecca San Gil, Lezanne Ooi, Justin J Yerbury, Heath Ecroyd
Protein inclusions are a predominant molecular pathology found in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease. Protein inclusions form in discrete areas of the brain characteristic to the type of neurodegenerative disease, and coincide with the death of neurons in that region (e.g. spinal cord motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). This suggests that the process of protein misfolding leading to inclusion formation is neurotoxic, and that cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms that maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis) can, at times, be insufficient to prevent protein inclusion formation in the central nervous system...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916678/gucy2c-signaling-opposes-the-acute-radiation-induced-gi-syndrome
#20
Peng Li, Evan Wuthrick, Jeff A Rappaport, Crystal Kraft, Jieru E Lin, Glen Marszalowicz, Adam E Snook, Tingting Zhan, Terry M Hyslop, Scott A Waldman
High doses of ionizing radiation induce acute damage to epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, mediating toxicities restricting the therapeutic efficacy of radiation in cancer and morbidity and mortality in nuclear disasters. No approved prophylaxis or therapy exists for these toxicities, in part reflecting an incomplete understanding of mechanisms contributing to the acute radiation-induced GI syndrome (RIGS). Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) and its hormones guanylin and uroguanylin have recently emerged as one paracrine axis defending intestinal mucosal integrity against mutational, chemical, and inflammatory injury...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
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