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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898359/motherhood-and-infant-contact-regulate-neuroplasticity-in-the-serotonergic-midbrain-dorsal-raphe
#1
M Allie Holschbach, Joseph S Lonstein
The adult brain shows remarkable neuroplasticity in response to hormones and the socioemotional modifications that they influence. In females with reproductive and maternal experience, this neuroplasticity includes the birth and death of cells in several forebrain regions involved in maternal caregiving and postpartum affective state. Such plasticity in midbrain sites critical for these behavioral and emotional processes has never been examined, though. By visualizing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotic cells, NeuroD for neuronal precursors, and TUNEL to identify dying cells, we found that the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DR, the source of most ascending serotoninergic projections) exhibited significant neuroplasticity in response to motherhood...
November 19, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895742/comparative-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-of-gastric-cardia-adenocarcinoma-and-gastric-non-cardia-adenocarcinoma
#2
Bin Song, Juan Du, Neng Deng, Ji-Chen Ren, Zhen-Bo Shu
In the present study, gene expression profiles were analyzed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). A gene expression dataset (accession number GSE29272) was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, and consisted of 62 GCA samples and 62 normal controls, as well as 72 GNCA samples and 72 normal controls. The two groups of differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were compared to obtain common and unique DEGs. A differential analysis was performed using the Linear Models for Microarray Data package in R...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888217/quantitative-fastfucci-assay-defines-cell-cycle-dynamics-at-single-cell-level
#3
Siang-Boon Koh, Patrice Mascalchi, Esther Rodriguez, Yao Lin, Duncan I Jodrell, Frances M Richards, Scott K Lyons
The fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) is a powerful tool for use in live cells but current FUCCI-based assays have limited throughput and quantitative robustness. Here, we developed a lentiviral system that rapidly introduced FUCCI transgenes into cells, using an all-in-one expression cassette FastFUCCI. The approach obviated the need for sequential transduction and characterisation, improving labelling efficiency. We coupled the system to an automated imaging workflow capable of handling large datasets...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879648/the-role-of-deoxycytidine-kinase-dck-in-radiation-induced-cell-death
#4
Rui Zhong, Rui Xin, Zongyan Chen, Nan Liang, Yang Liu, Shumei Ma, Xiaodong Liu
Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is a key enzyme in deoxyribonucleoside salvage and the anti-tumor activity for many nucleoside analogs. dCK is activated in response to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage and it is phosphorylated on Serine 74 by the Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase in order to activate the cell cycle G2/M checkpoint. However, whether dCK plays a role in radiation-induced cell death is less clear. In this study, we genetically modified dCK expression by knocking down or expressing a WT (wild-type), S74A (abrogates phosphorylation) and S74E (mimics phosphorylation) of dCK...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875993/a-transcriptome-based-model-of-central-memory-cd4-t-cell-death-in-hiv-infection
#5
Gustavo Olvera-García, Tania Aguilar-García, Fany Gutiérrez-Jasso, Iván Imaz-Rosshandler, Claudia Rangel-Escareño, Lorena Orozco, Irma Aguilar-Delfín, Joel A Vázquez-Pérez, Joaquín Zúñiga, Santiago Pérez-Patrigeon, Enrique Espinosa
BACKGROUND: Human central memory CD4 T cells are characterized by their capacity of proliferation and differentiation into effector memory CD4 T cells. Homeostasis of central memory CD4 T cells is considered a key factor sustaining the asymptomatic stage of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, while progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is imputed to central memory CD4 T cells homeostatic failure. We investigated if central memory CD4 T cells from patients with HIV-1 infection have a gene expression profile impeding proliferation and survival, despite their activated state...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863409/integrating-mechanisms-of-response-and-resistance-against-the-tubulin-binding-agent-eribulin-in-preclinical-models-of-osteosarcoma
#6
Valerie B Sampson, Nancy S Vetter, Wendong Zhang, Pratima U Patil, Robert W Mason, Erika George, Richard Gorlick, E A Kolb
Osteosarcoma is the most frequently occurring bone cancer in children and adolescents. Unfortunately, treatment failures are common. Eribulin is a synthetic microtubule inhibitor that has demonstrated activity in preclinical osteosarcoma models. The effects of eribulin were evaluated in two human osteosarcoma cell lines as well as in eribulin-sensitive and -resistant osteosarcoma xenograft tumors of the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program (PPTP) by characterizing cell viability, microtubule destabilization, mitotic arrest and mechanism of cell death...
November 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863178/fine-needle-aspiration-biopsy-of-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-correlation-between-ki-67-index-in-cytological-samples-and-clinical-behavior
#7
Cristina Díaz Del Arco, J Miguel Esteban López-Jamar, Luis Ortega Medina, J Ángel Díaz Pérez, Ma Jesús Fernández Aceñero
BACKGROUND: Mitotic count in hematoxylin-eosin stained slides and Ki-67 index allow stratification of patients for prognosis and therapeutic decision making in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). However, the utility of Ki-67 determination in cytological material and its association to PNET prognosis are under discussion. METHODS: We have retrospectively reviewed all cases of EUS-FNA cytology of pancreatic lesions performed in the Hospital Clínico San Carlos (Madrid) between 2006 and 2016...
November 14, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861885/sensitivity-of-tp53-mutated-cancer-cells-to-the-phytoestrogen-genistein-is-associated-with-direct-inhibition-of-plk1-activity
#8
Sol-Bi Shin, Sang-Uk Woo, Young Won Chin, Young-Joo Jang, Hyungshin Yim
Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a conserved Ser/Thr mitotic kinase, has been identified as a promising target for anticancer drug development because its overexpression is correlated with malignancy. Here, we found that genistein, an isoflavone, inhibits Plk1 kinase activity directly. Previously the mitotic disturbance phenomenon induced by treatment with genistein was not fully explained by its inhibitory effect on EGFR. In kinase profiling assays, it showed selectivity relative to a panel of kinases, including EGFR...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849061/mitigation-of-radiation-induced-hematopoietic-injury-by-the-polyphenolic-acetate-7-8-diacetoxy-4-methylthiocoumarin-in-mice
#9
Kavya Venkateswaran, Anju Shrivastava, Paban K Agrawala, Ashok Prasad, Namita Kalra, Parvat R Pandey, Kailash Manda, Hanumantharao G Raj, Virinder S Parmar, Bilikere S Dwarakanath
Protection of the hematopoietic system from radiation damage, and/or mitigation of hematopoietic injury are the two major strategies for developing medical countermeasure agents (MCM) to combat radiation-induced lethality. In the present study, we investigated the potential of 7, 8-diacetoxy-4-methylthiocoumarin (DAMTC) to ameliorate radiation-induced hematopoietic damage and the associated mortality following total body irradiation (TBI) in C57BL/6 mice. Administration of DAMTC 24 hours post TBI alleviated TBI-induced myelo-suppression and pancytopenia, by augmenting lymphocytes and WBCs in the peripheral blood of mice, while bone marrow (BM) cellularity was restored through enhanced proliferation of the stem cells...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846374/ubiquitin-coated-nanodiamonds-bind-to-autophagy-receptors-for-entry-into-the-selective-autophagy-pathway
#10
Kuang-Kai Liu, Wei-Ru Qiu, Emmanuel Naveen Raj, Huei-Fang Liu, Hou-Syun Huang, Yu-Wei Lin, Chien-Jen Chang, Ting-Hua Chen, Chinpiao Chen, Huan-Cheng Chang, Jenn-Kang Hwang, Jui-I Chao
Selective macroautophagy/autophagy plays a pivotal role in the processing of foreign pathogens and cellular components to maintain homeostasis in human cells. To date, numerous studies have demonstrated the uptake of nanoparticles by cells, but their intracellular processing through selective autophagy remains unclear. Here we show that carbon-based nanodiamonds (NDs) coated with ubiquitin (Ub) bind to autophagy receptors (SQSTM1 [sequestosome 1], OPTN [optineurin], and CALCOCO2/NDP52 [calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2]) and are then linked to MAP1LC3/LC3 (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3) for entry into the selective autophagy pathway...
November 15, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835911/prognostic-and-predictive-values-of-cdk1-and-mad2l1-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#11
Yuan-Xiang Shi, Tao Zhu, Ting Zou, Wei Zhuo, Yi-Xin Chen, Ma-Sha Huang, Wei Zheng, Chen-Jing Wang, Xi Li, Xiao-Yuan Mao, Wei Zhang, Hong-Hao Zhou, Ji-Ye Yin, Zhao-Qian Liu
Lung cancer remains as the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common histological subtype. This study aims to investigate biomarkers associated with cancer progression and prognosis of LUAD. We integrated expression profiles of 668 lung cancer patients in five datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and identified a panel of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Function enrichment analysis highlighted that these genes were closely associated with the carcinogenesis of LUAD, such as cell cycle, ECM-receptor interaction and p53 signaling pathway...
November 9, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832139/a-subpopulation-of-the-k562-cells-are-killed-by-curcumin-treatment-after-g2-m-arrest-and-mitotic-catastrophe
#12
Macario Martinez-Castillo, Raul Bonilla-Moreno, Leticia Aleman-Lazarini, Marco Antonio Meraz-Rios, Lorena Orozco, Leticia Cedillo-Barron, Emilio J Cordova, Nicolas Villegas-Sepulveda
Curcumin is extensively investigated as a good chemo-preventive agent in the development of many cancers and particularly in leukemia, including treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia and it has been proposed as an adjuvant for leukemia therapies. Human chronic myeloid leukemia cells (K562), were treated with 20 μM of curcumin, and we found that a subpopulation of these cells were arrested and accumulate in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Characterization of this cell subpopulation showed that the arrested cells presented nuclear morphology changes resembling those described for mitotic catastrophe...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829224/inhibition-of-chk1-with-the-small-molecule-inhibitor-v158411-induces-dna-damage-and-cell-death-in-an-unperturbed-s-phase
#13
Joanne Wayne, Teresa Brooks, Andrew J Massey
Chk1 kinase is a critical component of the DNA damage response checkpoint and Chk1 inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation. Chk1 suppresses oncogene-induced replication stress with Chk1 inhibitors demonstrating activity as a monotherapy in numerous cancer types. Understanding the mechanism by which Chk1 inhibitors induce DNA damage and cancer cell death is essential for their future clinical development. Here we characterize the mechanism by which the novel Chk1 inhibitor (V158411) increased DNA damage and cell death in models of human cancer...
November 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826870/hippo-signaling-in-mitosis-an-updated-view-in-light-of-the-men-pathway
#14
Alexander Hergovich
The Hippo pathway is an essential tumor suppressor signaling network that coordinates cell proliferation, death, and differentiation in higher eukaryotes. Intriguingly, the core components of the Hippo pathway are conserved from yeast to man, with the yeast analogs of mammalian MST1/2 (fly Hippo), MOB1 (fly Mats), LATS1/2 (fly Warts), and NDR1/2 (fly Tricornered) functioning as essential components of the mitotic exit network (MEN). Here, we update our previous summary of mitotic functions of Hippo core components in Drosophila melanogaster and mammals, with particular emphasis on similarities between the yeast MEN pathway and mitotic Hippo signaling...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818790/bub1-and-survivin-proteins-are-not-degraded-after-a-prolonged-mitosis-and-accumulate-in-the-nuclei-of-hct116-cells
#15
Marco A Andonegui-Elguera, Rodrigo E Cáceres-Gutiérrez, Fernando Luna-Maldonado, Alejandro López-Saavedra, José Díaz-Chávez, Fernanda Cisneros-Soberanis, Diddier Prada, Julia Mendoza-Pérez, Luis A Herrera
Spindle poisons activate the spindle assembly checkpoint and prevent mitotic exit until cells die or override the arrest. Several studies have focused on spindle poison-mediated cell death, but less is known about consequences in cells that survive a mitotic arrest. During mitosis, proteins such as CYCLIN B, SECURIN, BUB1 and SURVIVIN are degraded in order to allow mitotic exit, and these proteins are maintained at low levels in the next interphase. In contrast, exit from a prolonged mitosis depends only on degradation of CYCLIN B; it is not known whether the levels of other proteins decrease or remain high...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817864/cytoskeletal-reorganization-and-cell-death-in-mitoxantrone-treated-lung-cancer-cells
#16
Andrzej Pawlik, Mariusz Andrzej Szczepanski, Anna Klimaszewska-Wisniewska, Lidia Gackowska, Agnieszka Zuryn, Alina Grzanka
The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effect of mitoxantrone on two human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, A549 (p53+) and H1299 (p53-). To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the impact of MXT on the organization of cytoskeletal proteins. Analyses were performed using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy, spectrophotometric techniques, flow cytometry and Western blotting. It was shown that H1299 cells are significantly more sensitive to mitoxantrone than the A549 cell line, and that the growth-inhibitory effect of the drug is dose-dependent only after longer incubation...
November 3, 2016: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811996/a-simplified-bcl-2-network-model-reveals-quantitative-determinants-of-cell-to-cell-variation-in-sensitivity-to-anti-mitotic-chemotherapeutics
#17
Hao Yuan Kueh, Yanting Zhu, Jue Shi
Anti-mitotic drugs constitute a major class of cytotoxic chemotherapeutics used in the clinic, killing cancer cells by inducing prolonged mitotic arrest that activates intrinsic apoptosis. Anti-mitotics-induced apoptosis is known to involve degradation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins during mitotic arrest; however, it remains unclear how this mechanism accounts for significant heterogeneity observed in the cell death responses both within and between cancer cell types. To unravel quantitative determinants underlying variability in anti-mitotic drug response, we constructed a single-cell dynamical Bcl-2 network model describing cell death control during mitotic arrest, and constrained the model using experimental data from four representative cancer cell lines...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800299/cellular-and-molecular-etiology-of-hepatocyte-injury-in-a-murine-model-of-environmentally-induced-liver-abnormality
#18
M A Al-Griw, R O Alghazeer, S A Al-Azreg, E M Bennour
Exposures to a wide variety of environmental substances are negatively associated with many biological cell systems both in humans and rodents. Trichloroethane (TCE), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, is used in large quantities as a dissolvent, metal degreaser, chemical intermediate, and component of consumer products. This increases the likelihood of human exposure to these compounds through dermal, inhalation and oral routes. The present in vivo study was aimed to investigate the possible cellular and molecular etiology of liver abnormality induced by early exposure to TCE using a murine model...
2016: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796151/cell-cycle-m-phase-genes-are-highly-upregulated-in-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma
#19
Paul Weinberger, Sithara Raju Ponny, Hongyan Xu, Shan Bai, Robert C Smallridge, John A Copland, Ashok Sharma
<b>Background:</b> Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) accounts for only 3% of thyroid cancers, yet strikingly it accounts for almost 40% of thyroid cancer deaths. Currently, no effective therapies exist. In an effort to identify ATC-specific therapeutic targets, we analyzed global gene expression data from multiple studies to identify ATC specific dysregulated genes. <b>Methods:</b> The NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database was searched for high-throughput gene expression microarray studies from human ATC tissue along with normal thyroid and/or papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) tissue...
October 31, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790090/the-drosophila-transcription-factor-dimmed-affects-neuronal-growth-and-differentiation-in-multiple-ways-depending-on-neuron-type-and-developmental-stage
#20
Yiting Liu, Jiangnan Luo, Dick R Nässel
Growth of postmitotic neurons occurs during different stages of development, including metamorphosis, and may also be part of neuronal plasticity and regeneration. Recently we showed that growth of post-mitotic neuroendocrine cells expressing the basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor Dimmed (Dimm) in Drosophila could be regulated by insulin/IGF signaling and the insulin receptor (dInR). Dimm is also known to confer a secretory phenotype to neuroendocrine cells and can be part of a combinatorial code specifying terminal differentiation in peptidergic neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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