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methane cattle

John T Crawford, Emily H Stanley
Streams and rivers are active processors of carbon, leading to significant emissions of CO2 and possibly CH4 to the atmosphere. Patterns and controls of CH4 in fluvial ecosystems remain relatively poorly understood. Furthermore, little is known regarding how major human impacts to fluvial ecosystems may be transforming their role as CH4 producers and emitters. Here, we examine the consequences of two distinct ecosystem changes as a result of human land use: increased nutrient loading (primarily as nitrate), and increased sediment loading and deposition of fine particles in the benthic zone...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Xiaohu Dai, Yang Chen, Dong Zhang, Jing Yi
High-solid anaerobic digestion is an attractive solution to the problem of sewage sludge disposal. One method that can be used to enhance the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the generation of methane from anaerobic digestion involves combining an alkaline pretreatment step with the synergistic effects of sewage sludge and cattle manure co-digestion, which improves the activity of key enzymes and microorganisms in the anaerobic co-digestion system to promote the digestion of organic waste. In this study, we describe an efficient strategy that involves adjusting the volatile solid (VS) ratio (sewage sludge/cattle manure: 3/7) and initial pH (9...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Preseela Satpathy, Piotr Biernacki, Heribert Cypionka, Sven Steinigeweg
A modified Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1xp) including lactate was applied to a full-scale biogas plant. This model considers monosaccharides to degrade through lactic acid, which further degrades majorly into acetate followed by propionate and butyrate. Experimental data were derived from the previous works in the same laboratory, and the proposed parameters were validated against batch experiments. After successful validation, the biogas plant bearing a fermenter size of 7 dam(3) and operated with food waste and cattle manure was simulated...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
D E Pelster, B Gisore, J Goopy, D Korir, J K Koske, M C Rufino, K Butterbach-Bahl
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements from livestock excreta in Africa are limited. We measured CH and NO emissions from excreta of six Boran () and six Friesian () steers near Nairobi, Kenya. The steers were fed one of three diets (T1 [chaffed wheat straw], T2 [T1 + Meissner - 0.2% live weight per day], and T3 [T1 + calliandra - 0.4% live weight every 2 d]). The T1 diet is similar in quality to typical diets in the region. Calliandra is a leguminous fodder tree promoted as a feed supplement. Fresh feces and urine were applied to grasslands and emissions measured using static chambers...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Tom Misselbrook, John Hunt, Francesca Perazzolo, Giorgio Provolo
Storage of livestock slurries is a significant source of methane (CH) and ammonia (NH) emissions to the atmosphere, for which accurate quantification and potential mitigation methods are required. Methane and NH emissions were measured from pilot-scale cattle slurry (CS) and pig slurry (PS) stores under cool, temperate, and warm conditions (approximately 8, 11, and 17°C, respectively) and including two potential mitigation practices: (i) a clay granule floating cover (PS) and (ii) slurry acidification (CS)...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Scott J Eilerman, Jeff Peischl, J Andrew Neuman, Thomas B Ryerson, Kenneth C Aikin, Maxwell W Holloway, Mark A Zondlo, Levi M Golston, Da Pan, Cody Floerchinger, Scott Herndon
Atmospheric emissions from animal husbandry are important to both air quality and climate, but are hard to characterize and quantify as they differ significantly due to management practices and livestock type, and they can vary substantially throughout diurnal and seasonal cycles. Using a new mobile laboratory, ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and other trace gas emissions were measured from four concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in northeastern Colorado. Two dairies, a beef cattle feedlot, and a sheep feedlot were chosen for repeated diurnal and seasonal measurements...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Matt Bell, Richard Eckard, Peter J Moate, Tianhai Yan
Enteric methane (CH ₄ ) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288), beef cattle ( n = 71) and dairy cows ( n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH ₄ emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature...
2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Aránzazu Louro, Laura M Cárdenas, María Isabel García, Dolores Báez
The number of studies that investigate how agricultural practices on dairy farms in the North West (NW) of Spain affect greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from soils is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify the effects of the application of mineral fertilizers and cattle slurry injections on GHG fluxes from a grassland soil with grazing dairy cattle, in Galicia (NW Spain). We also aimed to identify the type of fertilizer associated with high grass production and low GHG fluxes. To achieve this, fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), grass yields and soil mineral nitrogen (N) contents were monitored after three applications (in spring, summer and autumn) of surface broadcasted mineral fertilizer (MN) and injected cattle slurry (CS) and compared with no fertilization (zero N)...
August 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Søren O Petersen, Anne B Olsen, Lars Elsgaard, Jin Mi Triolo, Sven G Sommer
Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection...
2016: PloS One
K J Hammond, A K Jones, D J Humphries, L A Crompton, C K Reynolds
Strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from dairy cattle are unlikely to be adopted if production or profitability is reduced. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of high maize silage (MS) versus high grass silage (GS) diets, without or with added neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on milk production and methane emission of dairy cattle, using GreenFeed (GF) or respiration chamber (RC) techniques for methane emission measurements. Experiment 1 was 12wk in duration with a randomized block continuous design and 40 Holstein cows (74d in milk) in free-stall housing, assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n=10 per treatment), according to calving date, parity, and milk yield...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Namchul Jo, Jongnam Kim, Seongwon Seo
The methodology provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines is widely used for estimating enteric methane (CH4) production by cattle. No attempt other than the default values in the IPCC Tier 1 has been made for estimating CH4 emission from Hanwoo, a dominant beef species in Korea raised in a unique feeding system. The objective of this study was to compare models for estimating the CH4 emission factor (MEF; kg CH4/head/year) for enteric fermentation in Hanwoo steers. The MEF was estimated based on Korea- and Hanwoo-specific data obtained from the literature using several models...
2016: SpringerPlus
Gonzalo Martinez-Fernandez, Stuart E Denman, Chunlei Yang, Jane Cheung, Makoto Mitsumori, Christopher S McSweeney
Management of metabolic hydrogen ([H]) in the rumen has been identified as an important consideration when reducing ruminant CH4 emissions. However, little is known about hydrogen flux and microbial rumen population responses to CH4 inhibition when animals are fed with slowly degradable diets. The effects of the anti-methanogenic compound, chloroform, on rumen fermentation, microbial ecology, and H2/CH4 production were investigated in vivo. Eight rumen fistulated Brahman steers were fed a roughage hay diet (Rhode grass hay) or roughage hay:concentrate diet (60:40) with increasing levels (low, mid, and high) of chloroform in a cyclodextrin matrix...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yuxi Wang, Tim A McAllister, Jairo H Lora
Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of purified lignin from wheat straw (sodium hydroxide dehydrated lignin; SHDL) on in vitro ruminal fermentation and on the growth performance of feedlot cattle. In vitro experiments were conducted by incubating a timothy-alfalfa (50:50) forage mixture (48 h) and barley grain (24 h) with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/mL of incubation (equivalent to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 g SHDL/kg diet), with three independent runs of incubations for each substrate. Productions of methane and total gas, volatile fatty acids (VFA), ammonia, dry matter (DM) disappearance (DMD) and digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) or starch were measured...
July 14, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Marie T Dittmann, Kirsty J Hammond, Paul Kirton, David J Humphries, Les A Crompton, Sylvia Ortmann, Tom H Misselbrook, Karl-Heinz Südekum, Angela Schwarm, Michael Kreuzer, Christopher K Reynolds, Marcus Clauss
Enteric methane (CH4) production is a side-effect of herbivore digestion, but it is unknown whether CH4 itself influences digestive physiology. We investigated the effect of adding CH4 to, or reducing it in, the reticulorumen (RR) in a 4×4 Latin square experiment with rumen-fistulated, non-lactating cows, with four treatments: (i) control, (ii) insufflation of CH4 (iCH4), (iii) N via rumen fistula, (iv) reduction of CH4 via administration of bromochloromethane (BCM). DM intake (DMI), apparent total tract digestibility, digesta mean retention times (MRT), rumen motility and chewing activity, spot breath CH4 emission (CH4exhal, litre/kg DMI) as well as CH4 dissolved in rumen fluid (CH4RRf, µg/ml) were measured...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
C S Cunha, N L Lopes, C M Veloso, L A G Jacovine, T R Tomich, L G R Pereira, M I Marcondes
The adoption of carbon inventories for dairy farms in tropical countries based on models developed from animals and diets of temperate climates is questionable. Thus, the objectives of this study were to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions through the SF6 tracer gas technique and through equations proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 and to calculate the inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from two dairy systems. In addition, the carbon balance of these properties was estimated using enteric CH4 emissions obtained using both methodologies...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
P Llonch, M J Haskell, R J Dewhurst, S P Turner
Livestock production is a major contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so will play a significant role in the mitigation effort. Recent literature highlights different strategies to mitigate GHG emissions in the livestock sector. Animal welfare is a criterion of sustainability and any strategy designed to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock production should consider animal welfare amongst other sustainability metrics. We discuss and tabulate the likely relationships and trade-offs between the GHG mitigation potential of mitigation strategies and their welfare consequences, focusing on ruminant species and on cattle in particular...
July 13, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Pol Llonch, Miguel Somarriba, Carol-Anne Duthie, Marie J Haskell, John A Rooke, Shane Troy, Rainer Roehe, Simon P Turner
The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Pedro Ormaechea, Leonor Castrillón-Pelaez, Elena Marañón, Yolanda Fernández-Nava, Luis Negral, Laura Megido
To increase the production of methane, when cattle manure is digested, pretreatments can be applied and/or the manure can be co-digested with other wastes. In this research work, a mixture of cattle manure (CM), food waste (FW) and raw glycerine (Gly) in a proportion in weight of 87% CM, 10% FW and 3% Gly was digested, a) without pretreatment and b) with pretreatment by ultrasound, applying a sonication energy of 1,040 kJ/kgTS. Specific methane production was 290 L CH4/kg VS without pretreatment and 520 L CH4/kg VS with pretreatment...
July 3, 2016: Environmental Technology
J L Ellis, I K Hindrichsen, G Klop, R D Kinley, N Milora, A Bannink, J Dijkstra
Inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used to improve silage quality and prevent spoilage via increased production of lactic acid and other organic acids and a rapid decline in silage pH. The addition of LAB inoculants to silage has been associated with increases in silage digestibility, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield. Given the potential change in silage and rumen fermentation conditions accompanying these silage additives, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LAB silage inoculants on DMI, digestibility, milk yield, milk composition, and methane (CH4) production from dairy cows in vivo...
September 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
P Escobar-Bahamondes, M Oba, K A Beauchemin
The study determined the performance of equations to predict enteric methane (CH4) from beef cattle fed forage- and grain-based diets. Many equations are available to predict CH4 from beef cattle and the predictions vary substantially among equations. The aims were to (1) construct a database of CH4 emissions for beef cattle from published literature, and (2) identify the most precise and accurate extant CH4 prediction models for beef cattle fed diets varying in forage content. The database was comprised of treatment means of CH4 production from in vivo beef studies published from 2000 to 2015...
July 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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