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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151400/review-optimizing-ruminant-conversion-of-feed-protein-to-human-food-protein
#1
G A Broderick
Ruminant livestock have the ability to produce high-quality human food from feedstuffs of little or no value for humans. Balanced essential amino acid composition of meat and milk from ruminants makes those protein sources valuable adjuncts to human diets. It is anticipated that there will be increasing demand for ruminant proteins in the future. Increasing productivity per animal dilutes out the nutritional and environmental costs of maintenance and rearing dairy animals up to production. A number of nutritional strategies improve production per animal such as ration balancing in smallholder operations and small grain supplements to ruminants fed high-forage diets...
November 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146964/effects-of-waste-sources-on-performance-of-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-complex-organic-wastes-taking-food-waste-as-an-example
#2
Xingang Lu, Wengang Jin, Shengrong Xue, Xiaojiao Wang
Few studies have addressed how to blend wastes for anaerobic co-digestion. This study investigated the effects of waste sources on anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) performance, by varying the quality of food wastes (FWs) from six sources in Xi'an region, China that were individually co-digested with pre-treated corn straw and cattle manure. These effects were analysed in terms of their volatile solid (VS) ratios, C/N ratios, and the chemical composition of the FWs. The results indicated that the VS ratios were not suitable as a common mixture method because the VS ratios at which the best methane potentials occurred differed significantly among the six FW groups...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144285/bioenergy-recovery-from-cattle-wastewater-in-an-uasb-af-hybrid-reactor
#3
Henrique Vieira de Mendonça, Jean Pierre Henry Balbaud Ometto, Marcelo Henrique Otenio, Alberto José Delgado Dos Reis, Isabel Paula Ramos Marques
New data on biogas production and treatment of cattle wastewater were registered using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-anaerobic filter (UASB-AF) hybrid reactor under mesophilic temperature conditions (37 °C). The reactor was operated in semi-continuous mode with hydraulic retention times of 6, 5, 3 and 2 days and organic loading rates of 3.8, 4.6, 7.0 and 10.8 kg CODt m(-3) d(-1). Biogas volumes of 0.6-0.8 m(3) m(-3) d(-1) (3.8-4.6 kg CODt m(-3) d(-1)) and 1.2-1.4 m(3) m(-3) d(-1) (7.0-10.8 kg CODt m(-3) d(-1)), with methane concentrations between 69 and 75%, were attained...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108072/rapid-communication-large-exploitable-genetic-variability-exists-to-shorten-age-at-slaughter-in-cattle
#4
D P Berry, A R Cromie, M M Judge
Apprehension among consumers is mounting on the efficiency by which cattle convert feedstuffs into human edible protein and energy as well as the consequential effects on the environment. Most (genetic) studies that attempt to address these issues have generally focused on efficiency metrics defined over a certain time period of an animal's life cycle, predominantly the period representing the linear phase of growth. The age at which an animal reaches the carcass specifications for slaughter, however, is also known to vary between breeds; less is known on the extent of the within-breed variability in age at slaughter...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108054/phenotypic-relationships-among-methane-production-traits-assessed-under-ad-libitum-feeding-of-beef-cattle
#5
T Bird-Gardiner, P F Arthur, I M Barchia, K A Donoghue, R M Herd
Angus cattle from 2 beef cattle projects in which daily methane production (MPR) was measured were used in this study to examine the nature of the relationships among BW, DMI, and methane traits of beef cattle fed ad libitum on a roughage diet or a grain-based feedlot diet. In both projects methane was measured using the GreenFeed Emission Monitoring system, which provides multiple short-term breath measures of methane production. The data used for this study were from 119 Angus heifers over 15 d on a roughage diet and 326 Angus steers over 70 d on a feedlot diet...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108041/effects-of-silage-type-and-inclusion-level-on-ruminal-characteristics-and-feeding-behavior-of-steers-fed-finishing-diets
#6
P R B Campanili, J O Sarturi, M A Ballou, S J Trojan, J D Sugg, L A Ovinge, A U Alrumaih, L A Pellarin, A A Hoffman
Crossbred beef steers fitted with a ruminal cannula were used to study the effects of silage type (BH 8895 corn or AF7401 sorghum) and level of inclusion (10 or 20%) in beef cattle finishing diets on digestibility of nutrients, ruminal kinetics, in vitro methane production, and feeding behavior. A 4 × 6 unbalanced Latin square design was used (6 steers; 363 ± 23 kg; 4 diets: corn silage [CS] or sorghum silage [SS], both at 10 or 20% inclusion, DM basis). Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of collection...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103289/effect-of-condensed-tannins-from-leucaena-leucocephala-on-rumen-fermentation-methane-production-and-population-of-rumen-protozoa-in-heifers-fed-low-quality-forage
#7
Angel Trinidad Piñeiro-Vázquez, Jorge Rodolfo Canul-Solis, Guillermo Jiménez-Ferrer, José Armando Alayón-Gamboa, Alfonso Juventino Chay-Canul, Armin Javier Ayala-Burgos, Carlos Fernando Aguilar-Pérez, Juan Carlos Ku-Vera
Objective: The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of increasing amounts of Leucaena leucocephala forage on dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI), enteric methane production, rumen fermentation pattern and protozoa population in cattle fed Pennisetum purpureum and housed in respiration chambers. Methods: Five crossbred heifers (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) (BW: 295±6 kg) were fed chopped P. purpureum grass and increasing levels of L. leucocephala (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of DM) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design...
November 3, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094590/discrepancies-and-uncertainties-in-bottom-up-gridded-inventories-of-livestock-methane-emissions-for-the-contiguous-united-states
#8
Alexander Hristov, Michael Harper, Robert Meinen, Rick Day, Juliana Lopes, Troy L Ott, Aranya Venkatesh, Cynthia A Randles
In this analysis we used a spatially-explicit, simplified bottom-up approach, based on animal inventories, feed dry matter intake, and feed intake-based emission factors to estimate county-level enteric methane emissions for cattle and manure methane emissions for cattle, swine, and poultry for the contiguous United States. Overall, this analysis yielded total livestock methane emissions (8,916 Gg/yr; lower and upper 95% confidence bounds of ±19.3%) for 2012 (last census of agriculture) that are comparable to the current USEPA estimates for 2012 and to estimates from the global gridded Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) inventory...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070445/dung-beetles-as-drivers-of-ecosystem-multifunctionality-are-response-and-effect-traits-interwoven
#9
Irene Piccini, Beatrice Nervo, Mattias Forshage, Luisella Celi, Claudia Palestrini, Antonio Rolando, Tomas Roslin
Rapid biodiversity loss has emphasized the need to understand how biodiversity affects the provisioning of ecological functions. Of particular interest are species and communities with versatile impacts on multiple parts of the environment, linking processes in the biosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere to human interests in the anthroposphere (in this case, cattle farming). In this study, we examine the role of a specific group of insects - beetles feeding on cattle dung - on multiple ecological functions spanning these spheres (dung removal, soil nutrient content and greenhouse gas emissions)...
October 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051749/phloroglucinol-degradation-in-the-rumen-promotes-the-capture-of-excess-hydrogen-generated-from-methanogenesis-inhibition
#10
Gonzalo Martinez-Fernandez, Stuart E Denman, Jane Cheung, Christopher S McSweeney
Strategies to manage metabolic hydrogen ([H]) in the rumen should be considered when reducing ruminant methane (CH4) emissions. However, little is known about the use of dietary treatments to stimulate rumen microorganisms capable of capturing the [H] available when CH4 is inhibited in vivo. The effects of the phenolic compound phloroglucinol on CH4 production, [H] flows and subsequent responses in rumen fermentation and microbial community composition when methanogenesis is inhibited were investigated in cattle...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033919/adaptation-of-methanogenic-inocula-to-anaerobic-digestion-of-maize-silage
#11
Martyna Wojcieszak, Adam Pyzik, Krzysztof Poszytek, Pawel S Krawczyk, Adam Sobczak, Leszek Lipinski, Otton Roubinek, Jacek Palige, Aleksandra Sklodowska, Lukasz Drewniak
A well-balanced microbial consortium is crucial for efficient biogas production. In turn, one of a major factor that influence on the structure of anaerobic digestion (AD) consortium is a source of microorganisms which are used as an inoculum. This study evaluated the influence of inoculum sources (with various origin) on adaptation of a biogas community and the efficiency of the biomethanization of maize silage. As initial inocula for AD of maize silage the samples from: (i) an agricultural biogas plant (ABP) which utilizes maize silage as a main substrate, (ii) cattle slurry (CS), which contain elevated levels of lignocelluloses materials, and (iii) raw sewage sludge (RSS) with low content of plant origin materials were used...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026096/plane-of-nutrition-affects-the-phylogenetic-diversity-and-relative-abundance-of-transcriptionally-active-methanogens-in-the-bovine-rumen
#12
Emily McGovern, Matthew S McCabe, Paul Cormican, Milka Popova, Kate Keogh, Alan K Kelly, David A Kenny, Sinead M Waters
Methane generated during enteric fermentation in ruminant livestock species is a major contributor to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. A period of moderate feed restriction followed by ad libitum access to feed is widely applied in cattle management to exploit the animal's compensatory growth potential and reduce feed costs. In the present study, we utilised microbial RNA from rumen digesta samples to assess the phylogenetic diversity of transcriptionally active methanogens from feed-restricted and non-restricted animals...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017872/anaerobic-digestion-of-cheese-whey-energetic-and-nutritional-potential-for-the-dairy-sector-in-developing-countries
#13
H Escalante, L Castro, M P Amaya, L Jaimes, J Jaimes-Estévez
Cheese whey (CW) is the main waste generated in the cheesemaking process and has high organic matter content and acidity. Therefore, CW disposal is a challenge for small to medium enterprises (SMEs) in the dairy industry that do not have any type of treatment plant. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive process for solving this problem. The aim of this research was to determine the biomethane and struvite precipitation potentials of CW from four dairy SMEs. First, changes in CW properties (organic matter and pH) were evaluated...
October 7, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988566/prediction-of-effects-of-beef-selection-indexes-on-greenhouse-gas-emissions
#14
C D Quinton, F S Hely, P R Amer, T J Byrne, A R Cromie
Genetic improvement in production efficiency traits can also drive reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This study used international 'best-practice' methodology to quantify the improvements in system-wide CO2 equivalent emissions per unit of genetic progress in the Irish Maternal Replacement (MR) and Terminal (T) beef cattle indexes. Effects of each index trait on system gross emissions (GE) and system emissions intensity (EI) were modelled by estimating effects of trait changes on per-animal feed consumption and associated methane production, per-animal meat production and numbers of animals in the system...
October 9, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987574/invited-review-sustainable-forage-and-grain-crop-production-for-the-us-dairy-industry
#15
N P Martin, M P Russelle, J M Powell, C J Sniffen, S I Smith, J M Tricarico, R J Grant
A resilient US dairy industry will be underpinned by forage and crop production systems that are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. Land use for production of perennial and annual forages and grains for dairy cattle must evolve in response to multiple food security and environmental sustainability issues. These include increasing global populations; higher incomes and demand for dairy and other animal products; climate change with associated temperature and moisture changes; necessary reductions in carbon and water footprints; maintenance of soil quality and soil nutrient concerns; and competition for land...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985610/acclimation-to-extremely-high-ammonia-levels-in-continuous-biomethanation-process-and-the-associated-microbial-community-dynamics
#16
Hailin Tian, Ioannis A Fotidis, Enrico Mancini, Laura Treu, Ahmed Mahdy, Mercedes Ballesteros, Cristina González-Fernández, Irini Angelidaki
Acclimatized anaerobic communities to high ammonia levels can offer a solution to the ammonia toxicity problem in biogas reactors. In the current study, a stepwise acclimation strategy up to 10g NH4(+)-N L(-1), was performed in mesophilic (37±1°C) continuously stirred tank reactors. The reactors were co-digesting (20/80 based on volatile solid) cattle slurry and microalgae, a protein-rich, 3rd generation biomass. Throughout the acclimation period, methane production was stable with more than 95% of the uninhibited yield...
September 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980222/anaerobic-digestion-of-cattle-manure-influenced-by-swirling-jet-induced-hydrodynamic-cavitation
#17
Michela Langone, Mariangela Soldano, Claudio Fabbri, Francesco Pirozzi, Gianni Andreottola
In this work, a modified swirling jet-induced cavitation has been employed for increasing anaerobic digestion efficiency of cattle manure. The hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) treatment improved the organic matter solubilization and the anaerobic biodegradability of cattle manure. The degree of disintegration increased by 5.8, 8.9, and 15.8% after the HC treatment at 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 bars, respectively. However, the HC treatment at 7.0 bars had better results in terms of methane production. This result may be attributed to the possible formation of toxic and refractory compounds at higher inlet pressures, which could inhibit the methanization process...
October 4, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960611/effects-of-illite-supplementation-on-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-rumen-fermentation-microbial-population-and-methane-emission-of-hanwoo-steers-fed-high-concentrate-diets
#18
Ashraf A Biswas, Sung-Sill Lee, Lovelia L Mamuad, Seon-Ho Kim, Yeon-Jae Choi, Chanhee Lee, Kichoon Lee, Gui-Seck Bae, Sang-Suk Lee
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding supplemental illite to Hanwoo steers on methane (CH4 ) emission and rumen fermentation parameters. An in vitro ruminal fermentation technique was conducted using a commercial concentrate as substrate and illite was added at different concentrations as treatments: 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% illite. Total volatile fatty acids (VFA) were different (P < 0.05) at 24 h of incubation where the highest total VFA was observed at 1.0% of illite. Conversely, lowest CH4 production (P < 0...
September 27, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959823/revised-methane-emissions-factors-and-spatially-distributed-annual-carbon-fluxes-for-global-livestock
#19
Julie Wolf, Ghassem R Asrar, Tristram O West
BACKGROUND: Livestock play an important role in carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Recent research suggests that existing bottom-up inventories of livestock methane emissions in the US, such as those made using 2006 IPCC Tier 1 livestock emissions factors, are too low. This may be due to outdated information used to develop these emissions factors. In this study, we update information for cattle and swine by region, based on reported recent changes in animal body mass, feed quality and quantity, milk productivity, and management of animals and manure...
September 29, 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931476/greenhouse-gas-and-ammonia-emissions-from-production-of-compost-bedding-on-a-dairy-farm
#20
M A Fillingham, A C VanderZaag, S Burtt, H Baldé, N M Ngwabie, W Smith, A Hakami, C Wagner-Riddle, S Bittman, D MacDonald
Recent developments in composting technology enable dairy farms to produce their own bedding from composted manure. This management practice alters the fate of carbon and nitrogen; however, there is little data available documenting how gaseous emissions are impacted. This study measured in-situ emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ammonia (NH3) from an on-farm solid-liquid separation system followed by continuously-turned plug-flow composting over three seasons. Emissions were measured separately from the continuously-turned compost phase, and the compost-storage phase prior to the compost being used for cattle bedding...
September 18, 2017: Waste Management
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