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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906983/tithonia-diversifolia-as-a-supplementary-feed-for-dairy-cows
#1
Rafael Sandin Ribeiro, Stephanie Amelia Terry, João Paulo Sacramento, Sylvia Rocha E Silveira, Cláudia Braga Pereira Bento, Elsa Fernandes da Silva, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Marco Antônio Sundfeld da Gama, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira, Thierry Ribeiro Tomich, Rogério Martins Maurício, Alexandre Vieira Chaves
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Tithonia diversifolia as a supplementary forage on dairy cow performance and methane production. Nine lactating Holstein × Zebu dairy cows (519 ± 53.3 kg of body weight and 66 ± 13.3 d in milk) were paired by milk yield (21.3 ± 2.34 kg/d) and body weight and randomly assigned to three dietary treatments in a Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods (14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for measurements and sample collection). The dietary treatments included the control diet consisting of fresh sugar cane plus concentrate (44:56, % of diet DM), and two treatment diets containing different levels of fresh T...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899919/fermentation-of-ammonia-fiber-expansion-treated-and-untreated-barley-straw-in-a-rumen-simulation-technique-using-rumen-inoculum-from-cattle-with-slow-versus-fast-rate-of-fiber-disappearance
#2
Candace L Griffith, Gabriel O Ribeiro, Masahito Oba, Tim A McAllister, Karen A Beauchemin
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rumen inoculum from heifers with fast vs. slow rate of in situ fiber digestion on the fermentation of complex versus easily digested fiber sources in the forms of untreated and Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) treated barley straw, respectively, using an artificial rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). In situ fiber digestion was measured in a previous study by incubating untreated barley straw in the rumen of 16 heifers fed a diet consisting of 700 g/kg barley straw and 300 g/kg concentrate...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898960/associations-among-methane-emission-traits-measured-in-the-feedlot-and-in-respiration-chambers-in-angus-cattle-bred-to-vary-in-feed-efficiency
#3
R M Herd, J I Velazco, P F Arthur, R F Hegarty
The objective of the study was to evaluate associations among animal performance and methane emission traits under feedlot conditions and in respiration chambers in Angus cattle bred to vary in residual feed intake (RFI), which is a measure of feed efficiency. Fifty-nine cattle were tested for feedlot RFI, of which 41 had methane production recorded on an ad libitum grain-based ration in the feedlot, 59 on a restricted grain-based ration in respiration chambers, and 57 on a restricted roughage ration in respiration chambers...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898932/performance-and-methane-emissions-of-grazing-nellore-bulls-supplemented-with-crude-glycerin
#4
E San Vito, J F Lage, J D Messana, E E Dallantonia, R T S Frighetto, R A Reis, A J Neto, T T Berchielli
Supplementation of grass-fed cattle with low-cost feeding alternatives may be an attractive way to improve efficiency of cattle production. We hypothesized that inclusion of crude glycerin (CG) in supplements provided to grass-fed cattle could improve feed conversion without negative effects on growth performance while reducing methane emissions. Our hypothesis was tested using Nellore bulls grazing tropical pasture ( = 50; initial BW of 427 ± 19.41 kg; age of 17 ± 2 mo) supplemented with increasing concentrations (0, 70, 140, 210, and 280 g/kg DM basis of supplement) of CG and corn gluten replacing corn grain...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898913/benefits-of-including-methane-measurements-in-selection-strategies
#5
D L Robinson, V H Oddy
Estimates of genetic/phenotypic covariances and economic values for slaughter weight, growth, feed intake and efficiency, and three potential methane traits were compiled to explore the effect of incorporating methane measurements in breeding objectives for cattle and meat sheep. The cost of methane emissions was assumed to be zero (scenario A), A$476/t (based on A$14/t CO equivalent and methane's 100-yr global warming potential [GWP] of 34; scenario B), or A$2,580/t (A$30/t CO equivalent combined with methane's 20-yr GWP of 86; scenario C)...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898855/genomewide-association-study-of-methane-emissions-in-angus-beef-cattle-with-validation-in-dairy-cattle
#6
C I V Manzanilla-Pech, Y De Haas, B J Hayes, R F Veerkamp, M Khansefid, K A Donoghue, P F Arthur, J E Pryce
Methane (CH) is a product of enteric fermentation in ruminants, and it represents around 17% of global CH emissions. There has been substantial effort from the livestock scientific community toward tools that can help reduce this percentage. One approach is to select for lower emitting animals. To achieve this, accurate genetic parameters and identification of the genomic basis of CH traits are required. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to perform a genomewide association study to identify SNP associated with several CH traits in Angus beef cattle (1,020 animals) and validate them in a lactating Holstein population (population 1 [POP1]; 205 animals); 2) to validate significant SNP for DMI and weight at test (WT) from a second Holstein population, from a previous study (population 2 [POP2]; 903 animals), in an Angus population; and 3) to evaluate 2 different residual CH traits and determine if the genes associated with CH also control residual CH traits...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898854/enteric-methane-and-carbon-dioxide-emissions-measured-using-respiration-chambers-the-sulfur-hexafluoride-tracer-technique-and-a-greenfeed-head-chamber-system-from-beef-heifers-fed-alfalfa-silage-at-three-allowances-and-four-feeding-frequencies
#7
A Jonker, G Molano, C Antwi, G C Waghorn
The objective of this study was to determine methane (CH) and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions from 8 beef heifers (approximately 20 mo of age and 382 ± 24.3 kg BW) measured by respiration chambers and the sulfur hexafluoride (SF) tracer technique and a mobile head-chamber, spot-sampling system (GreenFeed; C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) when fed alfalfa silage at 3 feeding levels and 4 feeding frequencies. Feeding frequency may affect CH yield (g/kg DMI), and measurement systems (such as GreenFeed or SF) are needed to obtain accurate estimates of CH emissions from individual cattle under grazing where new pasture is provided once or twice daily...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898774/effects-of-feeding-encapsulated-nitrate-to-beef-cattle-on-ammonia-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-their-manure-in-a-short-term-manure-storage-system
#8
Chanhee Lee, Rafael C Araujo, Karen M Koenig, Michael L Hile, Eileen E Fabian-Wheeler, Karen A Beauchemin
A study was conducted to investigate effects of feeding encapsulated nitrate (EN) to beef cattle on ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas emissions from their manure. Eight beef heifers were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3% EN (55% forage dry matter; EN replaced encapsulated urea in the control diet and therefore all diets were iso-nitrogenous) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Urine and feces collected from individual animals were reconstituted into manure and incubated over 156 h using a steady-state flux chamber system to monitor NH, methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898317/ammonia-tolerant-inocula-provide-a-good-base-for-anaerobic-digestion-of-microalgae-in-third-generation-biogas-process
#9
Ahmed Mahdy, Ioannis A Fotidis, Enrico Mancini, Mercedes Ballesteros, Cristina González-Fernández, Irini Angelidaki
This study investigated the ability of an ammonia-acclimatized inoculum to digest efficiently protein-rich microalgae for continuous 3rd generation biogas production. Moreover, we investigated whether increased C/N ratio could alleviate ammonia toxicity. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of five different algae (Chlorella vulgaris)/manure (cattle) mixtures showed that the mixture of 80/20 (on VS basis) resulted in the highest BMP value (431mLCH4 gVS(-1)), while the BMP of microalgae alone (100/0) was 415mLCH4 gVS(-1)...
November 23, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868257/the-effect-of-maize-silage-type-on-the-performances-and-methane-emission-of-dairy-cattle
#10
J L De Boever, K Goossens, N Peiren, J Swanckaert, B Ampe, D Reheul, D L De Brabander, S De Campeneere, L Vandaele
To examine whether type of maize silage is important for milk production performances, maize silage LG30224 (LG) was compared with Falkone (FA), the latter having a 4.0% points lower rumen NDF digestibility and 19 g/kg dry matter (DM) more starch. To bridge the lower energy content of FA, a third treatment was involved by adding maize meal (MM) in a ratio of 92/8 on DM (FA+MM). Maize and grass silage were fed ad libitum in a ratio of 65/35 on DM basis. Concentrates were supplemented individually to meet energy and protein requirements...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783931/carbon-footprint-of-conventional-and-organic-beef-production-systems-an-italian-case-study
#11
C Buratti, F Fantozzi, M Barbanera, E Lascaro, M Chiorri, L Cecchini
Beef cattle production is a widespread activity in Italy in the agricultural field and determines an important impact on environment and resources consumption. Carbon footprint evaluation is thus necessary to evaluate the contributions of the different stages and the possible improvements of the production chain. In this study, two typical Italian beef production systems, a conventional and an organic one are investigated in order to evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions from "cradle to gate farm" by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach; the carbon footprint (CF) per 1kg of live weight meat is calculated...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755752/controls-on-methane-concentrations-and-fluxes-in-streams-draining-human-dominated-landscapes
#12
John T Crawford, Emily H Stanley
Streams and rivers are active processors of carbon, leading to significant emissions of CO2 and possibly CH4 to the atmosphere. Patterns and controls of CH4 in fluvial ecosystems remain relatively poorly understood. Furthermore, little is known regarding how major human impacts to fluvial ecosystems may be transforming their role as CH4 producers and emitters. Here, we examine the consequences of two distinct ecosystem changes as a result of human land use: increased nutrient loading (primarily as nitrate), and increased sediment loading and deposition of fine particles in the benthic zone...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725704/high-solid-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-sewage-sludge-and-cattle-manure-the-effects-of-volatile-solid-ratio-and-ph
#13
Xiaohu Dai, Yang Chen, Dong Zhang, Jing Yi
High-solid anaerobic digestion is an attractive solution to the problem of sewage sludge disposal. One method that can be used to enhance the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the generation of methane from anaerobic digestion involves combining an alkaline pretreatment step with the synergistic effects of sewage sludge and cattle manure co-digestion, which improves the activity of key enzymes and microorganisms in the anaerobic co-digestion system to promote the digestion of organic waste. In this study, we describe an efficient strategy that involves adjusting the volatile solid (VS) ratio (sewage sludge/cattle manure: 3/7) and initial pH (9...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715459/modelling-anaerobic-digestion-in-an-industrial-biogas-digester-application-of-lactate-including-adm1-model-part-ii
#14
Preseela Satpathy, Piotr Biernacki, Heribert Cypionka, Sven Steinigeweg
A modified Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1xp) including lactate was applied to a full-scale biogas plant. This model considers monosaccharides to degrade through lactic acid, which further degrades majorly into acetate followed by propionate and butyrate. Experimental data were derived from the previous works in the same laboratory, and the proposed parameters were validated against batch experiments. After successful validation, the biogas plant bearing a fermenter size of 7 dam(3) and operated with food waste and cattle manure was simulated...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695760/methane-and-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-cattle-excreta-on-an-east-african-grassland
#15
D E Pelster, B Gisore, J Goopy, D Korir, J K Koske, M C Rufino, K Butterbach-Bahl
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements from livestock excreta in Africa are limited. We measured CH and NO emissions from excreta of six Boran () and six Friesian () steers near Nairobi, Kenya. The steers were fed one of three diets (T1 [chaffed wheat straw], T2 [T1 + Meissner - 0.2% live weight per day], and T3 [T1 + calliandra - 0.4% live weight every 2 d]). The T1 diet is similar in quality to typical diets in the region. Calliandra is a leguminous fodder tree promoted as a feed supplement. Fresh feces and urine were applied to grasslands and emissions measured using static chambers...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695736/greenhouse-gas-and-ammonia-emissions-from-slurry-storage-impacts-of-temperature-and-potential-mitigation-through-covering-pig-slurry-or-acidification-cattle-slurry
#16
Tom Misselbrook, John Hunt, Francesca Perazzolo, Giorgio Provolo
Storage of livestock slurries is a significant source of methane (CH) and ammonia (NH) emissions to the atmosphere, for which accurate quantification and potential mitigation methods are required. Methane and NH emissions were measured from pilot-scale cattle slurry (CS) and pig slurry (PS) stores under cool, temperate, and warm conditions (approximately 8, 11, and 17°C, respectively) and including two potential mitigation practices: (i) a clay granule floating cover (PS) and (ii) slurry acidification (CS)...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662008/characterization-of-ammonia-methane-and-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-concentrated-animal-feeding-operations-in-northeastern-colorado
#17
Scott J Eilerman, Jeff Peischl, J Andrew Neuman, Thomas B Ryerson, Kenneth C Aikin, Maxwell W Holloway, Mark A Zondlo, Levi M Golston, Da Pan, Cody Floerchinger, Scott Herndon
Atmospheric emissions from animal husbandry are important to both air quality and climate, but are hard to characterize and quantify as they differ significantly due to management practices and livestock type, and they can vary substantially throughout diurnal and seasonal cycles. Using a new mobile laboratory, ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and other trace gas emissions were measured from four concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in northeastern Colorado. Two dairies, a beef cattle feedlot, and a sheep feedlot were chosen for repeated diurnal and seasonal measurements...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618107/modelling-the-effect-of-diet-composition-on-enteric-methane-emissions-across-sheep-beef-cattle-and-dairy-cows
#18
Matt Bell, Richard Eckard, Peter J Moate, Tianhai Yan
Enteric methane (CH ₄ ) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288), beef cattle ( n = 71) and dairy cows ( n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH ₄ emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature...
2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567389/greenhouse-gas-fluxes-from-a-grazed-grassland-soil-after-slurry-injections-and-mineral-fertilizer-applications-under-the-atlantic-climatic-conditions-of-nw-spain
#19
Aránzazu Louro, Laura M Cárdenas, María Isabel García, Dolores Báez
The number of studies that investigate how agricultural practices on dairy farms in the North West (NW) of Spain affect greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from soils is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify the effects of the application of mineral fertilizers and cattle slurry injections on GHG fluxes from a grassland soil with grazing dairy cattle, in Galicia (NW Spain). We also aimed to identify the type of fertilizer associated with high grass production and low GHG fluxes. To achieve this, fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), grass yields and soil mineral nitrogen (N) contents were monitored after three applications (in spring, summer and autumn) of surface broadcasted mineral fertilizer (MN) and injected cattle slurry (CS) and compared with no fertilization (zero N)...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529692/estimation-of-methane-emissions-from-slurry-pits-below-pig-and-cattle-confinements
#20
Søren O Petersen, Anne B Olsen, Lars Elsgaard, Jin Mi Triolo, Sven G Sommer
Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection...
2016: PloS One
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