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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931476/greenhouse-gas-and-ammonia-emissions-from-production-of-compost-bedding-on-a-dairy-farm
#1
M A Fillingham, A C VanderZaag, S Burtt, H Baldé, N M Ngwabie, W Smith, A Hakami, C Wagner-Riddle, S Bittman, D MacDonald
Recent developments in composting technology enable dairy farms to produce their own bedding from composted manure. This management practice alters the fate of carbon and nitrogen; however, there is little data available documenting how gaseous emissions are impacted. This study measured in-situ emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ammonia (NH3) from an on-farm solid-liquid separation system followed by continuously-turned plug-flow composting over three seasons. Emissions were measured separately from the continuously-turned compost phase, and the compost-storage phase prior to the compost being used for cattle bedding...
September 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905183/effects-of-quebracho-tannin-extract-on-intake-digestibility-rumen-fermentation-and-methane-production-in-crossbred-heifers-fed-low-quality-tropical-grass
#2
A T Piñeiro-Vázquez, G Jiménez-Ferrer, J A Alayon-Gamboa, A J Chay-Canul, A J Ayala-Burgos, C F Aguilar-Pérez, J C Ku-Vera
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of quebracho tannins extract (QTE) on feed intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, and methane (CH4) emissions in cattle fed low-quality Pennisetum purpureum grass. Five heifers (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) with an average live weight (LW) of 295 ± 19 kg were allotted to five treatments (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% QTE/kg DM) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Intake, digestibility, and total methane emissions (L/day) were recorded for periods of 23 h when cattle were housed in open-circuit respiration chambers...
September 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891118/the-effect-of-regular-or-reduced-fat-distillers-grains-with-solubles-on-rumen-methanogenesis-and-the-rumen-bacterial-community
#3
Ezequias Castillo-Lopez, Chad J R Jenkins, Nirosh D Aluthge, Wesley Tom, Paul J Kononoff, Samodha C Fernando
AIMS: The effect of feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or reduced-fat DDGS (RFDG) on ruminal methanogenesis and the rumen bacterial community of dairy cattle was evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Treatments were CONT, a diet with no distillers grains; DG, inclusion of 20% DDGS; rfDG, inclusion of 20% RFDG; and MIX, inclusion of 10% DDGS and 10% RFDG. Methane emission was measured; rumen bacterial community was evaluated by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871284/hops-humulus-lupulus-l-bitter-acids-modulation-of-rumen-fermentation-and-potential-as-an-alternative-growth-promoter
#4
REVIEW
Michael D Flythe, Isabelle A Kagan, Yuxi Wang, Nelmy Narvaez
Antibiotics can improve ruminant growth and efficiency by altering rumen fermentation via selective inhibition of microorganisms. However, antibiotic use is increasingly restricted due to concerns about the spread of antibiotic-resistance. Plant-based antimicrobials are alternatives to antibiotics in animal production. The hops plant (Humulus lupulus L.) produces a range of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antimicrobial prenylated phloroglucinols, which are commonly called alpha- and beta-acids. These latter compounds can be considered phyto-ionophores, phytochemicals with a similar antimicrobial mechanism of action to ionophore antibiotics (e...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863993/impact-of-shear-stress-and-impeller-design-on-the-production-of-biogas-in-anaerobic-digesters
#5
Aline Lebranchu, Stéphane Delaunay, Philippe Marchal, Fabrice Blanchard, Stéphane Pacaud, Michel Fick, Eric Olmos
Today, intensification of anaerobic digestion is still a scientific and technical challenge. The present study proposed combined experimental and computational fluid dynamics simulations to characterize the impact of shear stress and impeller design on the biogas production after sequential additions of substrate. Liquid phase (cattle manure digestate) rheological law was experimentally determined and input in numerical simulations. The results showed that the original use of a double helical ribbon in digester allowed a significantly faster dispersion of fresh substrate than the use of a classical Rushton turbine, leading to a 50% higher methane production rate...
July 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855896/role-of-age-related-shifts-in-rumen-bacteria-and-methanogens-in-methane-production-in-cattle
#6
Chong Liu, Qinghui Meng, Yongxing Chen, Mengsi Xu, Min Shen, Rui Gao, Shangquan Gan
Rumen microbiota are essential for maintaining digestive and metabolic functions, producing methane as a byproduct. Dairy heifers produce large amounts of methane based on fermentation of digested organic matter, with adverse consequences for feed efficiency and the environment. It is therefore important to understand the influence of host age on the relationship between microbiota and methane production. This study explored the age effect on the relationship between microbial communities and enteric methane production in dairy cows and heifers using high-throughput sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810214/evaluation-of-chemical-thermobaric-and-thermochemical-pre-treatment-on-anaerobic-digestion-of-high-fat-cattle-slaughterhouse-waste
#7
Peter W Harris, Thomas Schmidt, Bernadette K McCabe
This work aimed to enhance the anaerobic digestion of fat-rich dissolved air flotation (DAF) sludge through chemical, thermobaric, and thermochemical pre-treatment methods. Soluble chemical oxygen demand was enhanced from 16.3% in the control to 20.84% (thermobaric), 40.82% (chemical), and 50.7% (thermochemical). Pre-treatment altered volatile fatty acid concentration by -64% (thermobaric), 127% (chemical) and 228% (thermochemical). Early inhibition was reduced by 20% in the thermochemical group, and 100% in the thermobaric group...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807084/linseed-plus-nitrate-in-the-diet-for-fattening-bulls-effects-on-methane-emission-animal-health-and-residues-in-offal
#8
M Doreau, M Arbre, M Popova, Y Rochette, C Martin
The combination of linseed and nitrate is known to decrease enteric methane emission in dairy cows but few studies have been carried out in fattening cattle for animal liveweight gain, enteric methane emission, animal health and presence of residues in beef products. To address this gap, 16 young bulls received a control (C) diet between weaning at 9 months and 14 months, then were split into two groups of eight balanced on feed intake, BW gain and methane emission to receive either the C diet or a diet moderately supplemented with extruded linseed and calcium nitrate (LN) for 2 months before being slaughtered...
August 15, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805918/effects-of-encapsulated-nitrate-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-nitrate-residues-in-tissues-and-enteric-methane-emissions-in-beef-steers-finishing-phase
#9
C Lee, R C Araujo, K M Koenig, K A Beauchemin
A finishing feedlot study was conducted with beef steers to determine effects of encapsulated nitrate (EN) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, methane production, and nitrate (NO) residues in tissues. The 132 crossbred steers were backgrounded in a feedlot for 91 d and transitioned for 28 days to the high-concentrate diets evaluated in the present study, maintaining the treatment and pen assignments designated at the start of the backgrounding period. The steers were initially assigned to 22 pens (6 animals per pen) in a randomized complete block design with BW (18 pens) and animals designated for methane measurement (4 pens) as blocking factors...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805908/effects-of-encapsulated-nitrate-on-growth-performance-nitrate-toxicity-and-enteric-methane-emissions-in-beef-steers-backgrounding-phase
#10
C Lee, R C Araujo, K M Koenig, K A Beauchemin
A long-term experiment was conducted to examine the effects of feeding encapsulated nitrate (EN) on growth, enteric methane production, and nitrate (NO) toxicity in beef cattle fed a backgrounding diet. A total of 108 crossbred steers (292 ± 18 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 18 pens. The pens (experimental unit; 6 animals per pen) received 3 dietary treatments: Control, a backgrounding diet supplemented with urea; 1.25% EN, control diet supplemented with 1.25% encapsulated calcium ammonium NO (i...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805902/enteric-methane-emissions-from-low-and-high-residual-feed-intake-beef-heifers-measured-using-greenfeed-and-respiration-chamber-techniques
#11
A W Alemu, D Vyas, G Manafiazar, J A Basarab, K A Beauchemin
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between residual feed intake (RFI; g/d) and enteric methane (CH) production (g/kg DM) and to compare CH and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions measured using respiration chambers (RC) and the GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) system (C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD). A total of 98 crossbred replacement heifers were group housed in 2 pens and fed barley silage ad libitum and their individual feed intakes were recorded by 16 automated feeding bunks (GrowSafe, Airdrie, AB, Canada) for a period of 72 d to determine their phenotypic RFI...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783784/nitrous-oxide-and-methane-fluxes-from-urine-and-dung-deposited-on-kenyan-pastures
#12
Katherine L Tully, Sheila Abwanda, Margaret Thiong'o, Paul M Mutuo, Todd S Rosenstock
Livestock keeping is ubiquitous in tropical Africa. Urine and dung from livestock release greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (NO) and methane (CH), to the atmosphere. However, the extent of GHG's impact is uncertain due to the lack of in situ measurements in the region. Here we measured NO and CH emissions from cow urine and dung depositions in two Kenyan pastures that received different amounts of rainfall using static chambers across wet and dry seasons. Cumulative NO emissions were greater under dung+urine and urine-only patches ( 0...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735600/evidence-for-increasing-digestive-and-metabolic-efficiency-of-energy-utilization-with-age-of-dairy-cattle-as-determined-in-two-feeding-regimes
#13
F Grandl, J O Zeitz, M Clauss, M Furger, M Kreuzer, A Schwarm
The changes taking place with age in energy turnover of dairy cattle are largely unknown. It is unclear whether the efficiency of energy utilization in digestion (characterized by faecal and methane energy losses) and in metabolism (characterized by urine and heat energy losses) is altered with age. In the present study, energy balance data were obtained from 30 lactating Brown Swiss dairy cows aged between 2 and 10 years, and 12 heifers from 0.5 to 2 years of age. In order to evaluate a possible dependence of age effects on diet type, half of the cattle each originated from two herds kept at the same farm, which were fed either on a forage-only diet or on the same forage diet but complemented with 5 kg/day of concentrate since their first calving...
July 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727087/effects-of-zilpaterol-hydrochloride-on-methane-production-total-body-oxygen-consumption-and-blood-metabolites-in-finishing-beef-steers
#14
K E Hales, A P Foote, D W Brake, T M Brown-Brandl, V M Artegoitia, H C Freetly
An indirect calorimetry experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 20 d on total body oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, methane production, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers. Sixteen Angus steers (initial BW = 555 ± 12.7 kg) were individually fed at ad libitum intake and used in a completely randomized design. The model included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, day, and treatment × day. Dry matter intake did not differ between the treatments ( = 0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727073/technical-note-valuation-of-an-enteric-methane-emissions-measurement-system-for-cattle
#15
E M Andreini, M S Calvo-Lorenzo, C J Richards, J E White, S E Place
Through the process of enteric fermentation, cattle produce methane (CH), a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Growing public concern about climate change has increased the need for accurate methods of measuring CH emissions from cattle directly to improve emission inventories and evaluate emissions mitigation techniques. The present study evaluated a ventilated head box system capable of measuring CH and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions, and oxygen (O) consumption from cattle. Six Holstein heifers were used to measure CH and CO emissions and O consumption from 2 ad libitum intake measurement periods (ADAPT and ADLIB) and 1 measurement period (RESTRICT) with intake restricted to 2% of BW on a DM basis...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727067/compositional-mixed-modeling-of-methane-emissions-and-ruminal-volatile-fatty-acids-from-individual-cattle-and-multiple-experiments
#16
J Palarea-Albaladejo, J A Rooke, I M Nevison, R J Dewhurst
The aim of the study was to investigate the association of methane (CH) yields (g/kg DMI) with rumen VFA molar proportions and animal and diet-related covariates from individual animals and multiple experiments. The dataset available consisted of 284 measurements of CH yields for beef cattle from 6 experiments measured in indirect respiration chambers. A compositional modeling approach was employed where VFA measurements were considered as a whole, instead of in isolation, emphasizing their multivariate relative scale...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727009/effects-of-energy-supplementation-on-energy-losses-and-nitrogen-balance-of-steers-fed-green-chopped-wheat-pasture-i-calorimetry
#17
A L Shreck, P J Ebert, E A Bailey, J S Jennings, K D Casey, B E Meyer, N A Cole
Cattle grazing wheat pasture in the southern Great Plains are sometimes fed an energy supplement; however, the benefits of supplementation on nutrient balance, energy metabolism, and greenhouse gas emissions have not been elucidated. Therefore, we used 10 British crossbred steers (206 ± 10.7 kg initial BW) in a respiration calorimetry study to evaluate the effects of energy supplementation on energy losses, N balance, and nutrient digestibility of steers fed green-chopped wheat forage. The study design was an incomplete replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727002/hourly-methane-production-in-finishing-steers-fed-at-different-levels-of-dry-matter-intake
#18
K E Hales, N A Cole
Methane (CH) loss from finishing cattle is important as it represents an energy loss that could be used for maintenance and growth, and CH is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 21 to 25 times that of CO. Our objectives were to determine hourly CH production from growing cattle fed diets differing in corn processing method (dry rolling or steam flaking) and wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) inclusion rate. Eight steers (195 kg ± 2.3 in Exp. 1 and 322 kg ± 3.7 in Exp. 2) were fed the following diets: 1) steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diet with 0% WDGS (SFC-0); 2) SFC-based diet with 15% WDGS (SFC-15); 3) SFC-based diet with 30% WDGS (SFC-30); 4) SFC-based diet with 45% WDGS (SFC-45); 5) Dry-rolled corn DRC)-based diet with 0% WDGS (DRC-0); and 6) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS (DRC-30)...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726996/direct-multitrait-selection-realizes-the-highest-genetic-response-for-ratio-traits
#19
L Zetouni, M Henryon, M Kargo, J Lassen
For a number of traits the phenotype considered to be the goal trait is a combination of 2 or more traits, like methane (CH) emission (CH/kg of milk). Direct selection on CH4 emission defined as a ratio is problematic, because it is uncertain whether the improvement comes from an improvement in milk yield, a decrease in CH emission or both. The goal was to test different strategies on selecting for 2 antagonistic traits- improving milk yield while decreasing methane emissions. The hypothesis was that to maximize genetic gain for a ratio trait, the best approach is to select directly for the component traits rather than using a ratio trait or a trait where 1 trait is corrected for the other as the selection criteria...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725409/development-of-methane-conversion-factor-models-for-zebu-beef-cattle-fed-low-quality-crop-residues-and-by-products-in-tropical-regions
#20
Chatchai Kaewpila, Kritapon Sommart
The enteric methane conversion factor (Ym) is an important country-specific value for the provision of precise enteric methane emissions inventory reports. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to develop and evaluate the empirical Ym models for the national level and the farm level for tropical developing countries according to the IPCC's categorization. We used datasets derived from 18 in vivo feeding experiments from 1999 to 2015 of Zebu beef cattle breeds fed low-quality crop residues and by-products...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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