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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735600/evidence-for-increasing-digestive-and-metabolic-efficiency-of-energy-utilization-with-age-of-dairy-cattle-as-determined-in-two-feeding-regimes
#1
F Grandl, J O Zeitz, M Clauss, M Furger, M Kreuzer, A Schwarm
The changes taking place with age in energy turnover of dairy cattle are largely unknown. It is unclear whether the efficiency of energy utilization in digestion (characterized by faecal and methane energy losses) and in metabolism (characterized by urine and heat energy losses) is altered with age. In the present study, energy balance data were obtained from 30 lactating Brown Swiss dairy cows aged between 2 and 10 years, and 12 heifers from 0.5 to 2 years of age. In order to evaluate a possible dependence of age effects on diet type, half of the cattle each originated from two herds kept at the same farm, which were fed either on a forage-only diet or on the same forage diet but complemented with 5 kg/day of concentrate since their first calving...
July 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727087/effects-of-zilpaterol-hydrochloride-on-methane-production-total-body-oxygen-consumption-and-blood-metabolites-in-finishing-beef-steers
#2
K E Hales, A P Foote, D W Brake, T M Brown-Brandl, V M Artegoitia, H C Freetly
An indirect calorimetry experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 20 d on total body oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, methane production, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers. Sixteen Angus steers (initial BW = 555 ± 12.7 kg) were individually fed at ad libitum intake and used in a completely randomized design. The model included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, day, and treatment × day. Dry matter intake did not differ between the treatments ( = 0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727073/technical-note-valuation-of-an-enteric-methane-emissions-measurement-system-for-cattle
#3
E M Andreini, M S Calvo-Lorenzo, C J Richards, J E White, S E Place
Through the process of enteric fermentation, cattle produce methane (CH), a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Growing public concern about climate change has increased the need for accurate methods of measuring CH emissions from cattle directly to improve emission inventories and evaluate emissions mitigation techniques. The present study evaluated a ventilated head box system capable of measuring CH and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions, and oxygen (O) consumption from cattle. Six Holstein heifers were used to measure CH and CO emissions and O consumption from 2 ad libitum intake measurement periods (ADAPT and ADLIB) and 1 measurement period (RESTRICT) with intake restricted to 2% of BW on a DM basis...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727067/compositional-mixed-modeling-of-methane-emissions-and-ruminal-volatile-fatty-acids-from-individual-cattle-and-multiple-experiments
#4
J Palarea-Albaladejo, J A Rooke, I M Nevison, R J Dewhurst
The aim of the study was to investigate the association of methane (CH) yields (g/kg DMI) with rumen VFA molar proportions and animal and diet-related covariates from individual animals and multiple experiments. The dataset available consisted of 284 measurements of CH yields for beef cattle from 6 experiments measured in indirect respiration chambers. A compositional modeling approach was employed where VFA measurements were considered as a whole, instead of in isolation, emphasizing their multivariate relative scale...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727009/effects-of-energy-supplementation-on-energy-losses-and-nitrogen-balance-of-steers-fed-green-chopped-wheat-pasture-i-calorimetry
#5
A L Shreck, P J Ebert, E A Bailey, J S Jennings, K D Casey, B E Meyer, N A Cole
Cattle grazing wheat pasture in the southern Great Plains are sometimes fed an energy supplement; however, the benefits of supplementation on nutrient balance, energy metabolism, and greenhouse gas emissions have not been elucidated. Therefore, we used 10 British crossbred steers (206 ± 10.7 kg initial BW) in a respiration calorimetry study to evaluate the effects of energy supplementation on energy losses, N balance, and nutrient digestibility of steers fed green-chopped wheat forage. The study design was an incomplete replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727002/hourly-methane-production-in-finishing-steers-fed-at-different-levels-of-dry-matter-intake
#6
K E Hales, N A Cole
Methane (CH) loss from finishing cattle is important as it represents an energy loss that could be used for maintenance and growth, and CH is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 21 to 25 times that of CO. Our objectives were to determine hourly CH production from growing cattle fed diets differing in corn processing method (dry rolling or steam flaking) and wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) inclusion rate. Eight steers (195 kg ± 2.3 in Exp. 1 and 322 kg ± 3.7 in Exp. 2) were fed the following diets: 1) steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diet with 0% WDGS (SFC-0); 2) SFC-based diet with 15% WDGS (SFC-15); 3) SFC-based diet with 30% WDGS (SFC-30); 4) SFC-based diet with 45% WDGS (SFC-45); 5) Dry-rolled corn DRC)-based diet with 0% WDGS (DRC-0); and 6) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS (DRC-30)...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726996/direct-multitrait-selection-realizes-the-highest-genetic-response-for-ratio-traits
#7
L Zetouni, M Henryon, M Kargo, J Lassen
For a number of traits the phenotype considered to be the goal trait is a combination of 2 or more traits, like methane (CH) emission (CH/kg of milk). Direct selection on CH4 emission defined as a ratio is problematic, because it is uncertain whether the improvement comes from an improvement in milk yield, a decrease in CH emission or both. The goal was to test different strategies on selecting for 2 antagonistic traits- improving milk yield while decreasing methane emissions. The hypothesis was that to maximize genetic gain for a ratio trait, the best approach is to select directly for the component traits rather than using a ratio trait or a trait where 1 trait is corrected for the other as the selection criteria...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725409/development-of-methane-conversion-factor-models-for-zebu-beef-cattle-fed-low-quality-crop-residues-and-by-products-in-tropical-regions
#8
Chatchai Kaewpila, Kritapon Sommart
The enteric methane conversion factor (Ym) is an important country-specific value for the provision of precise enteric methane emissions inventory reports. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to develop and evaluate the empirical Ym models for the national level and the farm level for tropical developing countries according to the IPCC's categorization. We used datasets derived from 18 in vivo feeding experiments from 1999 to 2015 of Zebu beef cattle breeds fed low-quality crop residues and by-products...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724090/transformation-of-organic-matter-and-the-emissions-of-methane-and-ammonia-during-storage-of-liquid-manure-as-affected-by-acidification
#9
Sven G Sommer, Timothy J Clough, Nimlesh Balaine, Sasha D Hafner, Keith C Cameron
Acidification of livestock manure can reduce emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH) and nitrous oxide (NO), as well as ammonia (NH). We examined the relation between emission of these gases and transformation of organic matter as affected by acidification. Liquid cattle manure was acidified with sulfuric acid to pH 5.5 at a pilot scale (100 L), and we measured effects on CH, NO, CO and NH emissions and on transformation of pH buffer components and organic matter. Acidification reduced NH emissions by 62% (47 d) and emission of CH by 68% (57 d)...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722751/graded-replacement-of-maize-grain-with-molassed-sugar-beet-pulp-modulated-ruminal-microbial-community-and-fermentation-profile-in-vitro
#10
Matthias Münnich, Annabella Khol-Parisini, Fenja Klevenhusen, Barbara Metzler-Zebeli, Qendrim Zebeli
BACKGROUND: Molassed sugar beet pulp (Bp) is a viable alternative to grains in cattle nutrition for reducing human edible energy input. Yet, little is known about the effects of high inclusion rates of Bp on rumen microbiota. This study used an in vitro approach and the qPCR technique to establish the effects of a graded replacement of maize grain (MG) by Bp on the ruminal microbial community, fermentation profile, and nutrient degradation. RESULTS: Six different amounts of Bp (0 to 400 g kg(-1) ) which replaced MG in the diet were tested, using the in vitro semi continuous rumen simulation technique...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701999/incubation-temperature-but-not-pequi-oil-supplementation-affects-methane-production-and-the-ruminal-microbiota-in-a-rumen-simulation-technique-rusitec-system
#11
Andrea C Duarte, Devin B Holman, Trevor W Alexander, Kerstin Kiri, Gerhard Breves, Alexandre V Chaves
Lipid supplementation is a promising strategy for methane mitigation in cattle and has been evaluated using several different lipid sources. However, limited studies have assessed the effect of temperature on methane emissions from cattle and changes in incubation temperature have also not been extensively evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of pequi oil (high in unsaturated fatty acids) and incubation temperature on fermentation characteristics and microbial communities using the rumen simulation technique...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701247/the-effect-of-dietary-addition-of-nitrate-or-increase-in-lipid-concentrations-alone-or-in-combination-on-performance-and-methane-emissions-of-beef-cattle
#12
C-A Duthie, S M Troy, J J Hyslop, D W Ross, R Roehe, J A Rooke
Adding nitrate to or increasing the concentration of lipid in the diet are established strategies for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions, but their effectiveness when used in combination has been largely unexplored. This study investigated the effect of dietary nitrate and increased lipid included alone or together on CH4 emissions and performance traits of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a 2×4 factorial design comprising two breeds (cross-bred Aberdeen Angus (AAx) and cross-bred Limousin (LIMx) steers) and four dietary treatments (each based on 550 g forage : 450 g concentrate/kg dry matter (DM))...
July 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700590/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-dung-pats-vary-with-dung-beetle-species-and-with-assemblage-composition
#13
Irene Piccini, Fabrizio Arnieri, Enrico Caprio, Beatrice Nervo, Simone Pelissetti, Claudia Palestrini, Tomas Roslin, Antonio Rolando
Cattle farming is a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Recent research suggests that GHG fluxes from dung pats could be affected by biotic interactions involving dung beetles. Whether and how these effects vary among beetle species and with assemblage composition is yet to be established. To examine the link between GHGs and different dung beetle species assemblages, we used a closed chamber system to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from cattle dung pats. Targeting a total of four dung beetle species (a pat-dwelling species, a roller of dung balls, a large and a small tunnelling species), we ran six experimental treatments (four monospecific and two mixed) and two controls (one with dung but without beetles, and one with neither dung nor beetles)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652023/ammonia-and-greenhouse-gases-losses-from-mechanically-turned-cattle-manure-windrows-a-regional-composting-network
#14
Haritz Arriaga, Maialen Viguria, Diana M López, Pilar Merino
An on-farm composting network operates in the Basque Country (northern Spain), in which solid manure produced in livestock farms (mostly dairy and beef cattle) is composted through windrow turning. This network aims to produce a valuable resource (compost) for the farmers whereas the volume of the solid manure was reduced at farm level The objective of the study was to assess the gaseous losses (NH3 and GHG) from 6 on-farm composting windrows (either deep litter systems or solid fraction after slurry separation) after turning operations...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611501/influence-of-diet-composition-on-cattle-rumen-methanogenesis-a-comparative-metagenomic-analysis-in-indian-and-exotic-cattle
#15
Nidhi R Parmar, Prabhakar D Pandit, Hemant J Purohit, J I Nirmal Kumar, Chaitanya G Joshi
Comparative metagenomics approach has been used in this study to discriminate colonization of methanogenic population in different breeds of cattle. We compared two Indian cattle breeds (Gir and Kankrej) and two exotic cattle (Holstein and Jersey) breeds. Using a defined dietary plan for selected Indian varieties, the diet dependent shifts in microbial community and abundance of the enzymes associated with methanogenesis were studied. This data has been compared with the available rumen metagenome data from Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602995/integrated-metagenomic-analyses-of-the-rumen-microbiome-of-cattles-reveals-key-biological-mechanisms-associated-with-methane-traits
#16
Haiying Wang, Huiru Zheng, Fiona Browne, Rainer Roehe, Richard J Dewhurst, Felix Engel, Matthias Hemmje, Xiangwu Lu, Paul Walsh
Methane is one of major contributors to global warming. The rumen microbiota is directly involved in methane production in cattle. The link between variations in rumen microbial communities and host genetics has important applications and implications in bioscience. Having the potential to reveal the full extent of microbial gene diversity and complex microbial interactions, integrated metagenomics and network analysis holds great promises in this endeavour. This study investigates the rumen microbial community in cattle through the integration of metagenomic and network-based approaches...
June 8, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596764/the-structural-and-functional-capacity-of-ruminal-and-cecal-microbiota-in-growing-cattle-was-unaffected-by-dietary-supplementation-of-linseed-oil-and-nitrate
#17
Milka Popova, Emily McGovern, Matthew S McCabe, Cécile Martin, Michel Doreau, Marie Arbre, Sarah J Meale, Diego P Morgavi, Sinéad M Waters
Microorganisms in the digestive tract of ruminants differ in their functionality and ability to use feed constituents. While cecal microbiota play an important role in post-rumen fermentation of residual substrates undigested in the rumen, limited knowledge exists regarding its structure and function. In this trial we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions and on the structure of ruminal and cecal microbiota of growing bulls. Animals were allocated to either a CTL (control) or LINNIT (CTL supplemented with 1...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531856/low-cost-digester-monitoring-under-realistic-conditions-rural-use-of-biogas-and-digestate-quality
#18
L Castro, H Escalante, J Jaimes-Estévez, L J Díaz, K Vecino, G Rojas, L Mantilla
The purpose of this work was to assess the behaviour of anaerobic digestion of cattle manure in a rural digester under realistic conditions, and estimate the quality and properties of the digestate. The data obtained during monitoring indicated that the digester operation was stable without risk of inhibition. It produced an average of 0.85Nm(3)biogas/d at 65.6% methane, providing an energy savings of 76%. In addition, the digestate contained high nutrient concentrations, which is an important feature of fertilizers...
September 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527796/genetic-parameters-of-mid-infrared-methane-predictions-and-their-relationships-with-milk-production-traits-in-holstein-cattle
#19
P B Kandel, M-L Vanrobays, A Vanlierde, F Dehareng, E Froidmont, N Gengler, H Soyeurt
Many countries have pledged to reduce greenhouse gases. In this context, the dairy sector is one of the identified sectors to adapt production circumstances to address socio-environmental constraints due to its large carbon footprint related to CH4 emission. This study aimed mainly to estimate (1) the genetic parameters of 2 milk mid-infrared-based CH4 proxies [predicted daily CH4 emission (PME, g/d), and log-transformed predicted CH4 intensity (LMI)] and (2) their genetic correlations with milk production traits [milk (MY), fat (FY), and protein (PY) yields] from first- and second-parity Holstein cows...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465551/forbs-enhance-productivity-of-unfertilised-grass-clover-leys-and-support-low-carbon-bioenergy
#20
Wen-Feng Cong, Jingying Jing, Jim Rasmussen, Karen Søegaard, Jørgen Eriksen
Intensively managed grasslands are dominated by highly productive grass-clover mixtures. Increasing crop diversity by inclusion of competitive forbs may enhance biomass production and sustainable biofuel production. Here we examined if one or all of three forbs (chicory, Cichorium intybus L.; caraway, Carum carvi L.; plantain, Plantago lanceolata L.) included in ryegrass-red clover mixtures enhanced above- and below-ground productivity, and assessed their biofuel potentials, based on a three-year experiment with and without fertilisation as cattle slurry...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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