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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205235/differences-in-the-nutrient-concentrations-in-vitro-methanogenic-potential-and-other-fermentative-traits-of-tropical-grasses-and-legumes-for-beef-production-systems-in-northern-australia
#1
Zoey Durmic, Carlos A Ramírez-Restrepo, Chris Gardiner, Christopher J O'Neill, Eman Hussein, Phillip E Vercoe
BACKGROUND: In northern Australia, beef cattle grazed extensively on tropical rangelands are responsible for 5 % of the nation's total greenhouse gas emissions. Methane (CH4 ) is a potent greenhouse gas and in grazing ruminants might be mitigated by selecting forages that, when consumed, produce less CH4 when fermented by rumen microbes. This study examined variability in the in vitro fermentation patterns including CH4 production of selected tropical grasses and legumes to identify candidates for CH4 mitigation in grazing livestock in northern Australia...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199171/climate-adaptation-of-tropical-cattle
#2
W Barendse
There is sustained growth in the number of tropical cattle, which represent more than half of all cattle worldwide. By and large, most research in tropical areas is still focused on breeds of cattle, their particular advantages or disadvantages in tropical areas, and the tropical forages or feeds that could be usefully fed to them. A consistent issue for adaptation to climate is the heat of tropical environments. Changing the external characteristics of the animal, such as color and coat characteristics, is one way to adapt, and there are several major genes for these traits...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177350/effects-of-mass-airflow-rate-through-an-open-circuit-gas-quantification-system-when-measuring-carbon-emissions
#3
Stacey A Gunter, James A Bradford, Corey A Moffet
Methane (CH) and carbon dioxide (CO) represent 11 and 81%, respectively, of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural CH emissions account for approximately 43% of all anthropogenic CH emissions. Most agricultural CH emissions are attributed to enteric fermentation within ruminant livestock; hence, the heightened interest in quantifying and mitigating this source. The automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS; GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD) evaluated here can be placed in a pasture with grazing cattle and can measure their CH and CO emissions with spot sampling...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161178/invited-review-large-scale-indirect-measurements-for-enteric-methane-emissions-in-dairy-cattle-a-review-of-proxies-and-their-potential-for-use-in-management-and-breeding-decisions
#4
E Negussie, Y de Haas, F Dehareng, R J Dewhurst, J Dijkstra, N Gengler, D P Morgavi, H Soyeurt, S van Gastelen, T Yan, F Biscarini
Efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of milk production through selection and management of low-emitting cows require accurate and large-scale measurements of methane (CH4) emissions from individual cows. Several techniques have been developed to measure CH4 in a research setting but most are not suitable for large-scale recording on farm. Several groups have explored proxies (i.e., indicators or indirect traits) for CH4; ideally these should be accurate, inexpensive, and amenable to being recorded individually on a large scale...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143676/pretreatment-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-by-cattle-rumen-fluid-for-methane-production-bacterial-flora-and-enzyme-activity-analysis
#5
Yasunori Baba, Yu Matsuki, Yumi Mori, Yoshihisa Suyama, Chika Tada, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Masanori Saito, Yutaka Nakai
We attempted to develop a pretreatment method for methane fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass using cattle rumen fluid, treated as slaughterhouse waste. When rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) was added to the methane fermentation after being solubilized with rumen fluid, 1.5 times more methane was produced compared with untreated rapeseed. Analysis of the bacterial flora during rumen fluid treatment using the MiSeq next-generation sequencer showed that the predominant phylum shifted from Bacteroidetes, composed of amylolytic Prevotella spp...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100018/conversion-of-amazon-rainforest-to-agriculture-alters-community-traits-of-methane-cycling-organisms
#6
Kyle M Meyer, Ann M Klein, Jorge L M Rodrigues, Klaus Nüsslein, Susannah G Tringe, Babur S Mirza, James M Tiedje, Brendan J M Bohannan
Land use change is one of the greatest environmental impacts worldwide, especially to tropical forests. The Amazon rainforest has been subject to particularly high rates of land use change, primarily to cattle pasture. A commonly observed response to cattle pasture establishment in the Amazon is the conversion of soil from a methane sink in rainforest, to a methane source in pasture. However, it is not known how the microorganisms that mediate methane flux are altered by land use change. Here we use the deepest metagenomic sequencing of Amazonian soil to date to investigate differences in methane-cycling microorganisms and their traits across rainforest and cattle pasture soils...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076447/lower-methane-emissions-from-yak-compared-with-cattle-in-rusitec-fermenters
#7
Jiandui Mi, Jianwei Zhou, Xiaodan Huang, Ruijun Long
Globally methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock account for 29% of total CH4 emissions. Inherited variation about CH4 emissions of different animal species might provide new opportunity for manipulating CH4 production. Six rumen-simulating fermenters (Rusitec) were set up for this study lasting for 16 d. The diet consisted of forage to concentrate ratio of 50:50 with barley straw as the forage. Treated vessels were supplied with rumen fluid from yak or cattle (3 vessels per animal species). Microbial growth was measured using 15N as a marker...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061817/the-rumen-microbial-metaproteome-as-revealed-by-sds-page
#8
Timothy J Snelling, R John Wallace
BACKGROUND: Ruminal digestion is carried out by large numbers of bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. Understanding the microbiota is important because ruminal fermentation dictates the efficiency of feed utilisation by the animal and is also responsible for major emissions of the greenhouse gas, methane. Recent metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies have helped to elucidate many features of the composition and activity of the microbiota. The metaproteome provides complementary information to these other -omics technologies...
January 7, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046156/feed-intake-growth-and-body-and-carcass-attributes-of-feedlot-steers-supplemented-with-two-levels-of-calcium-nitrate-or-urea
#9
R S Hegarty, J Miller, N Oelbrandt, L Li, J P M Luijben, D L Robinson, J V Nolan, H B Perdok
Nitrate supplementation has been shown to be effective in reducing enteric methane emission from ruminants, but there have been few large-scale studies assessing the effects of level of nitrate supplementation on feed intake, animal growth, or carcass and meat quality attributes of beef cattle. A feedlot study was conducted to assess the effects of supplementing 0.25 or 0.45% NPN in dietary DM as either urea (Ur) or calcium nitrate (CaN) on DMI, ADG, G:F, and carcass attributes of feedlot steers ( = 383). The levels of NPN inclusion were selected as those at which nitrate has previously achieved measurable mitigation of enteric methane...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040892/use-of-onion-extract-as-a-dairy-cattle-feed-supplement-monitoring-propyl-propane-thiosulfonate-as-a-marker-of-its-effect-on-milk-attributes
#10
Paloma Abad, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Lidia Gil, Ana M García-Campaña
Onion extract is used as a feed supplement for the diet of dairy cows, acting as inhibitor of methane production; however, its properties could alter sensory attributes of milk. In this work, we propose a method to evaluate the influence of this extract on milk properties, using propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO) as a marker. PTSO is extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure and monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The method was applied to milk samples obtained from 100 dairy cows fed during 2 months with enriched feed...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030599/climate-smart-livestock-systems-an-assessment-of-carbon-stocks-and-ghg-emissions-in-nicaragua
#11
Lucía Gaitán, Peter Läderach, Sophie Graefe, Idupulapati Rao, Rein van der Hoek
Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018336/synergism-of-cattle-and-bison-inoculum-on-ruminal-fermentation-and-select-bacterial-communities-in-an-artificial-rumen-rusitec-fed-a-barley-straw-based-diet
#12
Daniela B Oss, Gabriel O Ribeiro, Marcos I Marcondes, WenZhu Yang, Karen A Beauchemin, Robert J Forster, Tim A McAllister
This study evaluated the effect of increasing the proportion of bison relative to cattle inoculum on fermentation and microbial populations within an artificial rumen (Rusitec). The experiment was a completely randomized design with a factorial treatment structure (proportion cattle:bison inoculum; 0:100, 33:67, 67:33, and 100:0) replicated in two Rusitec apparatuses (n = 8 fermenters). The experiment was 15 d with 8 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling. Fermenters were fed a diet of 70:30 barley straw:concentrate (DM basis)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993424/remote-sensing-and-in-situ-measurements-of-methane-and-ammonia-emissions-from-a-megacity-dairy-complex-chino-ca
#13
Ira Leifer, Christopher Melton, David M Tratt, Kerry N Buckland, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre Coheur, Jason Frash, Manish Gupta, Patrick D Johnson, J Brian Leen, Martin Van Damme, Simon Whitburn, Leonid Yurganov
Methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) directly and indirectly affect the atmospheric radiative balance with the latter leading to aerosol generation. Both have important spectral features in the Thermal InfraRed (TIR) that can be studied by remote sensing, with NH3 allowing discrimination of husbandry from other CH4 sources. Airborne hyperspectral imagery was collected for the Chino Dairy Complex in the Los Angeles Basin as well as in situ CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2) and NH3 data. TIR data showed good spatial agreement with in situ measurements and showed significant emissions heterogeneity between dairies...
February 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976411/comparative-community-structure-of-archaea-in-rumen-of-buffaloes-and-cattle
#14
Shyam S Paul, Avijit Dey, Daoharu Baro, Balbir S Punia
BACKGROUND: Detailed knowledge of the community structure of methanogens is essential for amelioration of methane emission from livestock species. Several studies have indicated that predominant methanogens of buffalo rumen are different from those in cattle. However, predominant genera of methanogens reported by individual studies varied primarily because of limited scope of sampling, sequencing of limited number of sequences and potential PCR bias in individual studies. In this study, the collective comparative diversity of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of cattle and buffaloes was examined by performing a meta-analysis of all the 16S rRNA (rrn) sequences deposited in GenBank...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974862/effect-of-the-application-of-cattle-urine-with-or-without-the-nitrification-inhibitor-dcd-and-dung-on-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-a-uk-grassland-soil
#15
L M Cardenas, T M Misselbrook, C Hodgson, N Donovan, S Gilhespy, K A Smith, M S Dhanoa, D Chadwick
Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils from grazed grasslands have large uncertainty due to the great spatial variability of excreta deposition, resulting in heterogeneous distribution of nutrients. The contribution of urine to the labile N pool, much larger than that from dung, is likely to be a major source of emissions so efforts to determine N2O emission factors (EFs) from urine and dung deposition are required to improve the inventory of greenhouse gases from agriculture. We investigated the effect of the application of cattle urine and dung at different times of the grazing season on N2O emissions from a grassland clay loam soil...
November 1, 2016: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939541/invited-review-phenotypes-to-genetically-reduce-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-dairying
#16
Y de Haas, M Pszczola, H Soyeurt, E Wall, J Lassen
Phenotypes have been reviewed to select for lower-emitting animals in order to decrease the environmental footprint of dairy cattle products. This includes direct selection for breath measurements, as well as indirect selection via indicator traits such as feed intake, milk spectral data, and rumen microbial communities. Many of these traits are expensive or difficult to record, or both, but with genomic selection, inclusion of methane emission as a breeding goal trait is feasible, even with a limited number of registrations...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924402/age-related-response-of-rumen-microbiota-to-mineral-salt-and-effects-of-their-interactions-on-enteric-methane-emissions-in-cattle
#17
C Liu, X H Li, Y X Chen, Z H Cheng, Q H Duan, Q H Meng, X P Tao, B Shang, H M Dong
Mineral salt bricks are often used in cow raising as compensation for mineral losses to improve milk yield, growth, and metabolic activity. Generally, effects of minerals are partially thought to result from improvement of microbial metabolism, but their influence on the rumen microbiota has rarely been documented to date. In this study, we investigated the response of microbiota to mineral salt in heifer and adult cows and evaluated ruminal fermentation and enteric methane emissions of cows fed mineral salts...
December 6, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923575/scaling-methane-emissions-in-ruminants-and-global-estimates-in-wild-populations
#18
F J Pérez-Barbería
Methane (CH4) emissions by human activities have more than doubled since the 1700s, and they contribute to global warming. One of the sources of CH4 is produced by incomplete oxidation of feed in the ruminant's gut. Domestic ruminants produce most of the emissions from animal sources, but emissions by wild ruminants have been poorly estimated. This study (i) scales CH4 against body mass in 503 experiments in ruminants fed herbage, and assesses the effect of different sources of variation, using published and new data; and (ii) it uses these models to produce global estimates of CH4 emissions from wild ruminants...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906983/tithonia-diversifolia-as-a-supplementary-feed-for-dairy-cows
#19
Rafael Sandin Ribeiro, Stephanie Amelia Terry, João Paulo Sacramento, Sylvia Rocha E Silveira, Cláudia Braga Pereira Bento, Elsa Fernandes da Silva, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Marco Antônio Sundfeld da Gama, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira, Thierry Ribeiro Tomich, Rogério Martins Maurício, Alexandre Vieira Chaves
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Tithonia diversifolia as a supplementary forage on dairy cow performance and methane production. Nine lactating Holstein × Zebu dairy cows (519 ± 53.3 kg of body weight and 66 ± 13.3 d in milk) were paired by milk yield (21.3 ± 2.34 kg/d) and body weight and randomly assigned to three dietary treatments in a Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods (14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for measurements and sample collection). The dietary treatments included the control diet consisting of fresh sugar cane plus concentrate (44:56, % of diet DM), and two treatment diets containing different levels of fresh T...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899919/fermentation-of-ammonia-fiber-expansion-treated-and-untreated-barley-straw-in-a-rumen-simulation-technique-using-rumen-inoculum-from-cattle-with-slow-versus-fast-rate-of-fiber-disappearance
#20
Candace L Griffith, Gabriel O Ribeiro, Masahito Oba, Tim A McAllister, Karen A Beauchemin
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rumen inoculum from heifers with fast vs. slow rate of in situ fiber digestion on the fermentation of complex versus easily digested fiber sources in the forms of untreated and Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) treated barley straw, respectively, using an artificial rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). In situ fiber digestion was measured in a previous study by incubating untreated barley straw in the rumen of 16 heifers fed a diet consisting of 700 g/kg barley straw and 300 g/kg concentrate...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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