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Immunological reconstitution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893617/differential-role-of-b-cells-and-il-17-versus-ifn-%C3%AE-during-early-and-late-rejection-of-pig-islet-xenografts-in-mice
#1
Hee Kap Kang, Shusen Wang, Anil Dangi, Xiaomin Zhang, Amar Singh, Lei Zhang, James M Rosati, Wilma Suarez-Pinzon, Xuelian Deng, Xiaoyan Chen, Edward B Thorp, Bernhard J Hering, Stephen D Miller, Xunrong Luo
BACKGROUND: Xenogeneic islet transplantation is an emerging therapeutic option for diabetic patients. However, immunological tolerance to xenogeneic islets remains a challenge. METHODS: The current study used a pig-to-mouse discordant xenogeneic islet transplant model to examine anti-donor xenogeneic immune responses during early and late rejection, and to determine experimental therapeutic interventions that promote durable pig islet xenograft survival. RESULTS: We found that during early acute rejection of pig islet xenografts, the rejecting hosts exhibited a heavy graft infiltration with B220 B cells and a robust anti-pig antibody production...
November 23, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886201/cryptococcal-meningitis-epidemiology-immunology-diagnosis-and-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Peter R Williamson, Joseph N Jarvis, Anil A Panackal, Matthew C Fisher, Síle F Molloy, Angela Loyse, Thomas S Harrison
HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is by far the most common cause of adult meningitis in many areas of the world that have high HIV seroprevalence. In most areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis is not decreasing despite availability of antiretroviral therapy, because of issues of adherence and retention in HIV care. In addition, cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals is a substantial problem: the risk of cryptococcal infection is increased in transplant recipients and other individuals with defects in cell-mediated immunity, and cryptococcosis is also reported in the apparently immunocompetent...
November 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880933/immunological-effects-of-nilotinib-prophylaxis-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-patients-with-advanced-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-or-philadelphia-chromosome-positive-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#3
Nira Varda-Bloom, Ivetta Danylesko, Roni Shouval, Shiran Eldror, Atar Lev, Jacqueline Davidson, Esther Rosenthal, Yulia Volchek, Noga Shem-Tov, Ronit Yerushalmi, Avichai Shimoni, Raz Somech, Arnon Nagler
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation remains the standard treatment for resistant advanced chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Relapse is the major cause of treatment failure in both diseases. Post-allo-SCT administration of TKIs could potentially reduce relapse rates, but concerns regarding their effect on immune reconstitution have been raised. We aimed to assess immune functions of 12 advanced CML and Ph+ ALL patients who received post-allo-SCT nilotinib...
November 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873281/generation-and-analysis-of-humanized-mouse-model-of-ebv-infection
#4
Ken-Ichi Imadome, Shigeyoshi Fujiwara
The recent development of severely immunodeficient mouse strains enabled the production of new-generation humanized mice, in which major components of the human immune system are reconstituted. These new-generation humanized mice can be infected with human pathogenic viruses that do not infect regular mice and target cells of the hematoimmune system. Here we describe the method for preparing humanized mice, infecting them with EBV, and for their virological and immunological analyses. The results obtained from our own mouse models are briefly described...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847830/early-differentiation-of-human-cd11c-nk-cells-with-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-activation-properties-is-promoted-by-dialyzable-leukocyte-extracts
#5
Dalia Ramírez-Ramírez, Eduardo Vadillo, Lourdes Andrea Arriaga-Pizano, Héctor Mayani, Sergio Estrada-Parra, Marco Antonio Velasco-Velázquez, Sonia Mayra Pérez-Tapia, Rosana Pelayo
Reconstitution of the hematopoietic system during immune responses and immunological and neoplastic diseases or upon transplantation depends on the emergent differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells within the bone marrow. Although in the last decade the use of dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLE) as supportive therapy in both infectious and malignant settings has increased, its activity on the earliest stages of human hematopoietic development remains poorly understood. Here, we have examined the ability of DLE to promote replenishment of functional lymphoid lineages from CD34(+) cells...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835614/depression-at-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-and-clinical-outcomes-among-a-cohort-of-tanzanian-women-living-with-hiv
#6
Christopher R Sudfeld, Sylvia Kaaya, Nilupa S Gunaratna, Fedinand Mugusi, Wafaie W Fawzi, Said Aboud, Mary C Smith Fawzi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the relationship of depression at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation with mortality and clinical outcomes among Tanzanian women living with HIV. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1,487 women who initiated ART in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed using a Tanzanian adapted and validated version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25)...
November 9, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779901/identification-and-characterization-of-a-dendritic-cell-precursor-in-parenchymal-lung-tissue
#7
Christophe von Garnier, Fabian Blank, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Joachim R Goethert, Patrick G Holt, Philip A Stumbles, Deborah H Strickland
The pulmonary parenchymal and mucosal microenvironments are constantly exposed to the external environment and thus require continuous surveillance to maintain steady-state immunological homeostasis. This is achieved by a mobile network of pulmonary dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (mø) that constantly sample and process microenvironmental antigens into signals that can initiate or dampen inflammation, either locally or after onward migration to draining lymph nodes. The constant steady-state turnover of pulmonary DC and mø requires replenishment from bone-marrow precursors, however the nature of the pulmonary precursor cell remains unclear, although recent studies suggest that subsets of pulmonary DC may derive from circulating monocytic precursors...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758159/comparison-of-human-hematopoietic-reconstitution-in-different-strains-of-immunodeficient-mice
#8
Ashley I Beyer, Marcus O Muench
Immunodeficient mice play a critical role in hematology research as in vivo models of hematopoiesis and immunology. Multiple strains have been developed, but hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and immune reconstitution have not been methodically compared among them. Four mouse strains were transplanted with human fetal bone marrow or adult peripheral blood CD34+ cells: NSG, NSG-3GS, hSCF-Tg-NSG and hSIRPα-DKO. Hematopoietic engraftment in the bone marrow, blood, spleen and liver was evaluated by flow cytometry 12 weeks after transplant...
October 19, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690694/complications-of-invasive-mycoses-in-organ-transplant-recipients
#9
Palash Samanta, Nina Singh
Opportunistic mycoses remain a significant complication in organ recipients. Areas covered: This review is an evidence-based presentation of current state-of-knowledge and our perspective on recent developments in the field Expert commentary: Invasive fungal infections are associated with reduced allograft and patient survival, increase in healthcare resource utilization, and newly appreciated but largely unrecognized immunologic sequelae, such as immune reconstitution syndrome. Given adverse outcomes associated with established infections, prophylaxis is a widely used strategy for the prevention of these infections...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684040/development-of-an-antigen-driven-colitis-model-to-study-presentation-of-antigens-by-antigen-presenting-cells-to-t-cells
#10
Valerio Rossini, Katarina Radulovic, Christian U Riedel, Jan Hendrik Niess
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation which affects the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). One of the best ways to study the immunological mechanisms involved during the disease is the T cell transfer model of colitis. In this model, immunodeficient mice (RAG(-/-) recipients) are reconstituted with naive CD4(+) T cells from healthy wild type hosts. This model allows examination of the earliest immunological events leading to disease and chronic inflammation, when the gut inflammation perpetuates but does not depend on a defined antigen...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649852/human-papillomavirus-16-hpv16-and-hpv52-e6-specific-immunity-in-hiv-infected-adults-on-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#11
C Y Leng, H C Low, L L Chua, M L Chong, H Sulaiman, I Azwa, J M Roberts, A Kamarulzaman, R Rajasuriar, Y L Woo
OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers disproportionately affect those infected with HIV despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The primary aim of this study was to quantify HPV16 and HPV52 E6-specific interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) T-cell responses, a correlate of protective immunity, in the first year following cART initiation and subsequently in those patients with suboptimal (sIR) and optimal (oIR) immune reconstitution...
September 20, 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646953/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-associated-with-dermatophytoses-in-two-hiv-1-positive-patients-in-rural-tanzania-a-case-report
#12
Herry Mapesi, Adrià Ramírez, Marcel Tanner, Christoph Hatz, Emilio Letang
BACKGROUND: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with dermatophytoses (tinea-IRIS) may cause considerable morbidity. Yet, it has been scarcely reported and is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of HIV associated cutaneous lesions in Africa. If identified, it responds well to antifungals combined with steroids. We present two cases of suspected tinea-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome from a large HIV clinic in rural Tanzania. CASES PRESENTATION: A first case was a 33 years-old female newly diagnosed HIV patient with CD4 count of 4 cells/μL (0 %), normal complete blood count, liver and renal function tests was started on co-formulated tenofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz and prophylactic cotrimoxazole...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630246/hiv-envelope-gp120-alters-t-cell-receptor-mobilization-in-the-immunological-synapse-of-uninfected-cd4-t-cells-and-augments-t-cell-activation
#13
Jing Deng, Yu-Ya Mitsuki, Guomiao Shen, Jocelyn C Ray, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos, Michael L Dustin, Catarina E Hioe
: HIV is transmitted most efficiently from cell to cell, and productive infection occurs mainly in activated CD4 T cells. It is postulated that HIV exploits immunological synapses formed between CD4 T cells and antigen-presenting cells to facilitate the targeting and infection of activated CD4 T cells. This study sought to evaluate how the presence of the HIV envelope (Env) in the CD4 T cell immunological synapse affects synapse formation and intracellular signaling to impact the downstream T cell activation events...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625432/gut-mucosal-barrier-dysfunction-microbial-dysbiosis-and-their-role-in-hiv-1-disease-progression
#14
Joseph C Mudd, Jason M Brenchley
Distinct pathological events occur within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Asian macaques with progressive simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and humans with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection that are critical in shaping disease course. These events include depletion and functional alteration of GI-resident CD4(+) T cells, loss of antigen-presenting cells, loss of innate lymphocytes, and possible alterations to the composition of the gut microbiota. These contribute to structural damage to the GI tract and systemic translocation of GI tract microbial products...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618553/evidence-of-innate-lymphoid-cell-redundancy-in-humans
#15
Frédéric Vély, Vincent Barlogis, Blandine Vallentin, Bénédicte Neven, Christelle Piperoglou, Mikael Ebbo, Thibaut Perchet, Maxime Petit, Nadia Yessaad, Fabien Touzot, Julie Bruneau, Nizar Mahlaoui, Nicolas Zucchini, Catherine Farnarier, Gérard Michel, Despina Moshous, Stéphane Blanche, Arnaud Dujardin, Hergen Spits, Jörg H W Distler, Andreas Ramming, Capucine Picard, Rachel Golub, Alain Fischer, Eric Vivier
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have potent immunological functions in experimental conditions in mice, but their contributions to immunity in natural conditions in humans have remained unclear. We investigated the presence of ILCs in a cohort of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). All ILC subsets were absent in patients with SCID who had mutation of the gene encoding the common γ-chain cytokine receptor subunit IL-2Rγ or the gene encoding the tyrosine kinase JAK3. T cell reconstitution was observed in patients with SCID after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but the patients still had considerably fewer ILCs in the absence of myeloablation than did healthy control subjects, with the exception of rare cases of reconstitution of the ILC1 subset of ILCs...
November 2016: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608727/propagating-humanized-blt-mice-for-the-study-of-human-immunology-and-immunotherapy
#16
Drake J Smith, Levina J Lin, Heesung Moon, Alexander T Pham, Xi Wang, Siyuan Liu, Sunjong Ji, Valerie Rezek, Saki Shimizu, Marlene Ruiz, Jennifer Lam, Deanna M Janzen, Sanaz Memarzadeh, Donald B Kohn, Jerome A Zack, Scott G Kitchen, Dong Sung An, Lili Yang
The humanized bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) mouse model harbors a nearly complete human immune system, therefore providing a powerful tool to study human immunology and immunotherapy. However, its application is greatly limited by the restricted supply of human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells and fetal thymus tissues that are needed to generate these mice. The restriction is especially significant for the study of human immune systems with special genetic traits, such as certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes or monogene deficiencies...
October 18, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607912/repeated-therapeutic-lumbar-punctures-in-cryptococcal-meningitis-necessity-and-or-opportunity
#17
Christina C Chang, John R Perfect
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Overall, 50-70% of patients with cryptococcal meningitis have raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Multiple international treatment guidelines recommend repeated therapeutic lumbar punctures as adjunctive management. Here, we review the recent evidence for the role of repeated lumbar punctures on clinical outcome in cryptococcal meningitis and also review the increasing body of data utilizing these repeated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples as a window into understanding immunopathogenesis of cryptococcal meningitis...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603293/differences-in-virologic-and-immunologic-response-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-1-infected-infants-and-children
#18
Kristjana H Ásbjörnsdóttir, James P Hughes, Dalton Wamalwa, Agnes Langat, Jennifer A Slyker, Hellen M Okinyi, Julie Overbaugh, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Kenneth Tapia, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Virologic and immunologic responses to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in infants may differ from older children due to immunologic, clinical, or epidemiologic characteristics. METHODS: Longitudinal ART responses were modeled and compared in HIV-infected infants and children enrolled in cohorts in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants were enrolled soon after HIV diagnosis, started on ART, and followed for 2 years. Viral load decline was compared between infant and child cohorts using a nonlinear mixed effects model and CD4% reconstitution using a linear mixed effects model...
November 28, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580778/the-hbv-drugs-work-now-what
#19
Timothy L Pruett
Chemotherapeutic agents for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) suppression work, but only when administered to the patient. They do not appear to promote durable, long-term immunological control. After 3 years of effective anti-HBV therapy, a small percentage of patients maintained good control, manifest by controlled serum liver enzymes, low-level HBV-DNA, and controlled HBsAg concentrations. However, this did not occur in the majority of patients. We need a better understanding of the defects in HBV immunity and how to induce effective reconstitution that will maintain viral suppression, albeit either through innate or adaptive immunity...
September 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567491/strategies-and-challenges-for-pharmacological-maintenance-therapies-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#20
Zachariah DeFilipp, Yi-Bin Chen
Disease relapse is a major barrier to successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Maintenance therapy administered after HCT is a promising strategy to attempt to reduce relapse and improve overall survival. However, many questions and challenges remain regarding this approach, including which patients should receive maintenance therapy, which agents should be used, what the ideal duration of therapy is, and what effect specific agents will have on toxicities, immunological reconstitution and graft-versus-host disease...
August 24, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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