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Immunological reconstitution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774202/loss-of-the-cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitor-1-in-the-context-of-brachyury-mediated-phenotypic-plasticity-drives-tumor-resistance-to-immune-attack
#1
Duane H Hamilton, Kristen K McCampbell, Claudia Palena
The acquisition of mesenchymal features by carcinoma cells is now recognized as a driver of metastasis and tumor resistance to a range of anticancer therapeutics, including chemotherapy, radiation, and certain small-molecule targeted therapies. With the recent successful implementation of immunotherapies for the treatment of various types of cancer, there is growing interest in understanding whether an immunological approach could be effective at eradicating carcinoma cells bearing mesenchymal features. Recent studies, however, demonstrated that carcinoma cells that have acquired mesenchymal features may also exhibit decreased susceptibility to lysis mediated by immune effector cells, including antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, innate natural killer (NK), and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760694/dissemination-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-a-causative-agent-of-scrub-typhus-and-immunological-responses-in-the-humanized-draga-mouse
#2
Le Jiang, Erin K Morris, Rodrigo Aguilera-Olvera, Zhiwen Zhang, Teik-Chye Chan, Soumya Shashikumar, Chien-Chung Chao, Sofia A Casares, Wei-Mei Ching
Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi , an obligated intracellular bacterium that affects over one million people per year. Several mouse models have been used to study its pathogenesis, disease immunology, and for testing vaccine candidates. However, due to the intrinsic differences between the immune systems in mouse and human, these mouse models could not faithfully mimic the pathology and immunological responses developed by human patients, limiting their value in both basic and translational studies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752550/aging-alters-the-immunological-response-to-ischemic-stroke
#3
Rodney M Ritzel, Yun-Ju Lai, Joshua D Crapser, Anita R Patel, Anna Schrecengost, Jeremy M Grenier, Nickolas S Mancini, Anthony Patrizz, Evan R Jellison, Diego Morales-Scheihing, Venugopal R Venna, Julia K Kofler, Fudong Liu, Rajkumar Verma, Louise D McCullough
The peripheral immune system plays a critical role in aging and in the response to brain injury. Emerging data suggest inflammatory responses are exacerbated in older animals following ischemic stroke; however, our understanding of these age-related changes is poor. In this work, we demonstrate marked differences in the composition of circulating and infiltrating leukocytes recruited to the ischemic brain of old male mice after stroke compared to young male mice. Blood neutrophilia and neutrophil invasion into the brain were increased in aged animals...
May 11, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715305/prevalence-incidence-and-correlates-of-low-risk-hpv-infection-and-anogenital-warts-in-a-cohort-of-women-living-with-hiv-in-burkina-faso-and-south-africa
#4
Admire Chikandiwa, Helen Kelly, Bernard Sawadogo, Jean Ngou, Pedro T Pisa, Lorna Gibson, Marie-Noelle Didelot, Nicolas Meda, Helen A Weiss, Michel Segondy, Philippe Mayaud, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence and incidence of low-risk human papillomavirus infection (LR-HPV) and anogenital warts (AGW) among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Burkina Faso (BF) and South Africa (SA), and to explore HIV-related factors associated with these outcomes. METHODS: We enrolled 1238 WLHIV (BF = 615; SA = 623) aged 25-50 years and followed them at three time points (6, 12 and 16 months) after enrolment. Presence of AGW was assessed during gynaecological examination...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699790/immunological-and-physical-evaluation-of-the-multistage-tuberculosis-subunit-vaccine-candidate-h56-caf01-formulated-as-a-spray-dried-powder
#5
Aneesh Thakur, Pall Thor Ingvarsson, Signe Tandrup Schmidt, Fabrice Rose, Peter Andersen, Dennis Christensen, Camilla Foged
Liquid vaccine dosage forms have limited stability and require refrigeration during their manufacture, distribution and storage. In contrast, solid vaccine dosage forms, produced by for example spray drying, offer improved storage stability and reduced dependence on cold-chain facilities. This is advantageous for mass immunization campaigns for global public health threats, e.g., tuberculosis (TB), and offers cheaper vaccine distribution. The multistage subunit vaccine antigen H56, which is a fusion protein of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens Ag85B, ESAT-6, and Rv2660, has been shown to confer protective efficacy against active TB before and after Mtb exposure in preclinical models, and it is currently undergoing clinical phase 2a testing...
April 23, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690908/adenosine-deaminase-deficiency-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Aisling M Flinn, Andrew R Gennery
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency leads to an accumulation of toxic purine degradation by-products, most potently affecting lymphocytes, leading to adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency. Whilst most notable affects are on lymphocytes, other manifestations include skeletal abnormalities, neurodevelopmental affects and pulmonary manifestations associated with pulmonary-alveolar proteinosis. Affected patients present in early infancy, usually with persistent infection, or with pulmonary insufficiency...
April 24, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670625/immunology-of-cryptococcal-infections-developing-a-rational-approach-to-patient-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Waleed Elsegeiny, Kieren A Marr, Peter R Williamson
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is responsible for upwards of 15% of HIV-related deaths worldwide and is currently the most common cause of non-viral meningitis in the US, affecting both previously healthy and people with immune suppression caused by cancer chemotherapy, transplantation, and biologic therapies. Despite a continued 30-50% attributable mortality, recommended therapeutic strategies have remained largely unchanged since the 1950s. Recent murine models and human studies examining the role of the immune system in both susceptibility to the infection as well as host damage have begun to influence patient care decisions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670622/immune-reconstitution-after-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-crohn-s-disease-current-status-and-future-directions-a-review-on-behalf-of-the-ebmt-autoimmune-diseases-working-party-and-the-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-in-refractory
#8
REVIEW
Alan Graham Pockley, James O Lindsay, Gemma A Foulds, Sergio Rutella, John G Gribben, Tobias Alexander, John A Snowden
Patients with treatment refractory Crohn's disease (CD) suffer debilitating symptoms, poor quality of life, and reduced work productivity. Surgery to resect inflamed and fibrotic intestine may mandate creation of a stoma and is often declined by patients. Such patients continue to be exposed to medical therapy that is ineffective, often expensive and still associated with a burden of adverse effects. Over the last two decades, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) has emerged as a promising treatment option for patients with severe autoimmune diseases (ADs)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593721/vitamin-d-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-influence-on-immunity-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
María Ángeles Jiménez-Sousa, Isidoro Martínez, Luz María Medrano, Amanda Fernández-Rodríguez, Salvador Resino
People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection typically have hypovitaminosis D, which is linked to a large number of pathologies, including immune disorders and infectious diseases. Vitamin D (VitD) is a key regulator of host defense against infections by activating genes and pathways that enhance innate and adaptive immunity. VitD mediates its biological effects by binding to the Vitamin D receptor (VDR), and activating and regulating multiple cellular pathways. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes from those pathways have been associated with protection from HIV-1 infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593711/regenerating-immunotolerance-in-multiple-sclerosis-with-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#10
REVIEW
Jennifer C Massey, Ian J Sutton, David D F Ma, John J Moore
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system where evidence implicates an aberrant adaptive immune response in the accrual of neurological disability. The inflammatory phase of the disease responds to immunomodulation to varying degrees of efficacy; however, no therapy has been proven to arrest progression of disability. Recently, more intensive therapies, including immunoablation with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), have been offered as a treatment option to retard inflammatory disease, prior to patients becoming irreversibly disabled...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549333/bat-mouse-bone-marrow-chimera-a-novel-animal-model-for-dissecting-the-uniqueness-of-the-bat-immune-system
#11
Kylie Su Mei Yong, Justin Han Jia Ng, Zhisheng Her, Ying Ying Hey, Sue Yee Tan, Wilson Wei Sheng Tan, Sergio Erdal Irac, Min Liu, Xue Ying Chan, Merry Gunawan, Randy Jee Hiang Foo, Dolyce Hong Wen Low, Ian Hewitt Mendenhall, Yok Teng Chionh, Charles-Antoine Dutertre, Qingfeng Chen, Lin-Fa Wang
Bats are an important animal model with long lifespans, low incidences of tumorigenesis and an ability to asymptomatically harbour pathogens. Currently, in vivo studies of bats are hampered due to their low reproduction rates. To overcome this, we transplanted bat cells from bone marrow (BM) and spleen into an immunodeficient mouse strain NOD-scid IL-2R-/- (NSG), and have successfully established stable, long-term reconstitution of bat immune cells in mice (bat-mice). Immune functionality of our bat-mouse model was demonstrated through generation of antigen-specific antibody response by bat cells following immunization...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545911/impact-on-early-outcomes-and-immune-reconstitution-of-high-dose-post-transplant-cyclophosphamide-vs-anti-thymocyte-globulin-after-reduced-intensity-conditioning-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-allogeneic-transplantation
#12
Christelle Retière, Catherine Willem, Thierry Guillaume, Henri Vié, Laetitia Gautreau-Rolland, Emmanuel Scotet, Xavier Saulquin, Katia Gagne, Marie C Béné, Berthe-Marie Imbert, Beatrice Clemenceau, Pierre Peterlin, Alice Garnier, Patrice Chevallier
We have compared prospectively the outcome and immune reconstitution of patients receiving either post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) ( n = 30) or anti-thymocyte globulin ATG ( n = 15) as Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation (allo-SCT). The outcome and immune reconstitution of patients receiving either of these two regimens were compared prospectively. This study allowed also to investigate the impact of PTCY between haplo-identical vs matched donors and of clofarabine as part of the RIC regimen...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500069/generation-of-alloreactivity-reduced-donor-lymphocyte-products-retaining-memory-function-by-fully-automatic-depletion-of-cd45ra-positive-cells
#13
Nina Müller, Katharina Landwehr, Kirsten Langeveld, Joanna Stenzel, Walter Pouwels, Menno A W G van der Hoorn, Erhard Seifried, Halvard Bonig
BACKGROUND AIMS: For patients needing allogeneic stem cell transplantation but lacking a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched donor, haplo-identical (family) donors may be an alternative. Stringent T-cell depletion required in these cases to avoid lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can delay immune reconstitution, thus impairing defense against virus reactivation and attenuating graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity. Several groups reported that GVHD is caused by cells residing within the naive (CD45RA+ ) T-cell compartment and proposed use of CD45RA-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) to accelerate immune reconstitution...
April 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483915/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-is-upregulated-in-hiv-infected-antiretroviral-therapy-treated-individuals-with-defective-immune-recovery
#14
Alessandra Bandera, Michela Masetti, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Mara Biasin, Antonio Muscatello, Nicola Squillace, Mario Clerici, Andrea Gori, Daria Trabattoni
Background: Inflammasome-mediated activation of caspase-1 regulates inflammatory responses and pyroptosis. We analyzed possible associations between inflammasome-related genes and immune reconstitution in HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated patients. Methods: Cross-sectional, case-control study. HIV-infected patients on ART for ≥24 months with HIV-RNA<50 cp/mL for ≥12 months were enrolled and defined as immunological responders (IR) or non-responders (INR) if CD4 count was ≥500 or ≤350 cells/μL, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466409/il-7-treatment-augments-and-prolongs-sepsis-induced-expansion-of-il-10-producing-b-lymphocytes-and-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#15
Upasana Kulkarni, Christoph Herrmenau, Stephanie J Win, Michael Bauer, Thomas Kamradt
Immunological dysregulation in sepsis is associated with often lethal secondary infections. Loss of effector cells and an expansion of immunoregulatory cell populations both contribute to sepsis-induced immunosuppression. The extent and duration of this immunosuppression are unknown. Interleukin 7 (IL-7) is important for the maintenance of lymphocytes and can accelerate the reconstitution of effector lymphocytes in sepsis. How IL-7 influences immunosuppressive cell populations is unknown. We have used the mouse model of peritoneal contamination and infection (PCI) to investigate the expansion of immunoregulatory cells as long-term sequelae of sepsis with or without IL-7 treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454646/alteration-of-ccr6-cd95-cd4-na%C3%A3-ve-t-cells-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-implication-for-clinical-practice
#16
Hong Sun, Wenqing Geng, Hualu Cui, Guoxin Liang, Yajing Fu, Zining Zhang, Yongjun Jiang, Haibo Ding, Junjie Xu, Hong Shang
The profound deficiency of Th17 cells contributes to HIV disease progression. The mechanisms of their perturbation remain unclear. Recently, CCR6+ CD95+ CD4+ naïve T cells (CCR6+ CD95+ CD4+ TNA ), identified as pre-committed Th17 precursors, were recognized as a subpopulation of CD4+ T cells with stem cell properties. Following phenotypical identification, we evaluated their level in patients during chronic HIV infection and following antiretroviral therapy (ART) using flow cytometry. The levels of CCR6+ CD95+ CD4+ TNA were decreased during chronic HIV infection and correlated with CD4+ T cell counts...
May 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399406/deep-sequencing-of-the-t-cell-receptor-visualizes-reconstitution-of-t-cell-immunity-in-mogamulizumab-treated-adult-t-cell-leukemia
#17
Takero Shindo, Kazutaka Kitaura, Hiroshi Ureshino, Kazuharu Kamachi, Masaharu Miyahara, Kazuko Doi, Tatsuro Watanabe, Eisaburo Sueoka, Tadasu Shin-I, Ryuji Suzuki, Shinya Kimura
Although the anti-CCR4 antibody mogamulizumab (moga) shows striking antitumor activity against adult T cell leukemia (ATL), it can also cause fatal immunological pathology such as severe skin rash and graft-versus-host disease, which might be attributed to depletion of CCR4+ regulatory T cells. We previously showed that next generation sequencing enables precise analysis of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, and we here used the technique to reveal the immunological dynamics in moga-treated ATL patients...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381717/brief-report-circulating-markers-of-fibrosis-are-associated-with-immune-reconstitution-status-in-hiv-infected-men
#18
F A Tobolowsky, N Wada, O Martinez-Maza, L Magpantay, S L Koletar, F J Palella, T T Brown, J E Lake
INTRODUCTION: Lymphoid tissue fibrosis may contribute to incomplete immune reconstitution on antiretroviral therapy (ART) via local CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) depletion. Hyaluronic acid (HA) increases with fibrotic burden. CXCL4 concentrations increase in response to pro-fibrotic stimuli, but lower CXCL4 concentrations in HIV-infected individuals may reflect successful immune evasion by HIV. We investigated relationships between circulating HA and CXCL4 concentrations and immune reconstitution on ART in HIV-infected Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371546/monocyte-phenotype-and-ifn-%C3%AE-inducible-cytokine-responses-are-associated-with-cryptococcal-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#19
David B Meya, Samuel Okurut, Godfrey Zziwa, Stephen Cose, Paul R Bohjanen, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Moses Joloba, David R Boulware, Carol Yukari Manabe, Sharon Wahl, Edward N Janoff
A third of adults with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis (CM) develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is thought to result from exaggerated inflammatory antigen-specific T cell responses. The contribution of monocytes to the immunopathogenesis of cryptococcal IRIS remains unclear. We compared monocyte subset frequencies and immune responses in HIV-infected Ugandans at time of CM diagnosis (IRIS-Baseline) for those who later developed CM-IRIS, controls who did not develop CM-IRIS (Control-Baseline) at CM-IRIS (IRIS-Event), and for controls at a time point matched for ART duration (Control-Event) to understand the association of monocyte distribution and immune responses with cryptococcal IRIS...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369157/hiv-reservoir-dynamics-in-haart-treated-poor-immunological-responder-patients-under-il-7-therapy
#20
Sandrine Logerot, Magali Rancez, Bénédicte Charmeteau-de Muylder, Suzanne Figueiredo-Morgado, Sandra Rozlan, Giuseppe Tambussi, Stéphanie Beq, Anne Couëdel-Courteille, Rémi Cheynier
OBJECTIVES: Recombinant Human IL-7 (rhIL-7) therapy allows reconstituting systemic and tissue-associated CD4 T-cell populations in HIV-infected poor immunological responder (PIR) patients. However, in vitro studies suggest that the impact of rhIL-7 treatment on HIV-DNA loads in vivo remains questionable. DESIGN: We assessed the dynamics of circulating HIV-DNA loads in IL-7-treated HIV-infected PIR individuals. METHODS: Forty-one rhIL-7-treated and 16 control participants from the INSPIRE-3 clinical trial were included...
January 23, 2018: AIDS
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